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Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and 
walk, therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls." — Jer. 6 : 1G. 

VOLUME V.— 1855. 





No. 19 St. James Street. 



At the close of the fifth volume of the Presbyterian Magazine, the Editor 
gratefully expresses his obligations to those brethren who have assisted him in 
his labours, and he solicits a continuance of their co-operation. 

With the blessing of God, the Presbyterian Magazine will be continued in 
its present general form, and with such improvements as may be within the 
reach of the Editor. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 1st, 1855. 



JANUARY, 1855." 

fclttw Mlilw. 


Among the Old Testament saints who are honourably mentioned 
by the sacred writers, Abraham alone was distinguished by the ap- 
pellation, " Friend of God." He is called God's friend twice in 
the Old Testament Scriptures. Once by Jehoshaphat, when pray- 
ing for deliverance from the Moabites and Ammonites. "Art not 
thou our God, who didst drive out the inhabitants of this land be- 
fore thy people Israel, and gavest it to the seed of Abraham thy 
friend forever?" (2 Chron. 20: 7.) The other was by God him- 
self, when encouraging his people to trust in him in view of the 
Chaldean invasion. " Thou, Israel, art my servant, Jacob, whom 
I have chosen, the seed of Abraham, my friend." (Isa. 41 : 8.) In 
the New Testament, the Apostle James refers to this appellation, 
and associates it with the name and history of that patriarch, in 
such a manner as to show that God intended to have it transmitted 
to us, not as an empty and valueless title, but as illustrative of the 
excellence of faith and a holy life. " Abraham believed God, and 
it was imputed unto him for righteousness, and he was called the 
friend of God." (James 2 : 23.) 

The term is one of endearment. It denotes affection and confi- 
dence. Some critics translate the original word "my beloved." 
others, "my loving one." It expresses Abraham's fervent, 
unwavering devotion to God, and God's tender and special regard 
for him. There was a reciprocal flowing together of heart to heart, 
the one sending up to heaven its warm, devout, and confiding 
affections, the other sending down in return the gracious and glo- 
rious manifestations of love and mercy. In what follows, our de- 
sign will be to show the ground of this friendship, and what bene- 
fits resulted from it to Abraham, and to others through him. 

VOL. V. — NO. 1. 1 

2 " Friend of God," or, the Excellency of [January. 

Part I. — Why was Abraham called the friend of God ? 

Abraham was called God's friend primarily and chiefly because 
of his faith in Christ. This is clearly deducible from the passage 
already quoted from the Apostle James. " The Scripture was ful- 
filled, which saith, Abraham believed God, and it was imputed unto 
him for righteousness, and [or therefore] he was called the friend 
of God." The particular instance of faith here referred to, in 
which the Scripture is said to have been " fulfilled," was his offer- 
ing up his son Isaac (vv: 21, 22). This was one of its acts, and it 
served to endear him to the Almighty. But the basis of that act 
and of all those other manifestations of its power and excellence 
which rendered his name so illustrious, must be looked for in that 
glorious object of faith, the Lord Jesus Christ, in whom he trusted, 
and through whom alone his friendly intercourse with God com- 
menced. Before noticing, therefore, the particular actings of his 
faith, we must contemplate the origin of its existence in the soul, 
the divine principle from which his life of faith proceeded, the 
moving cause which gave to his faith its heavenly character, and 
enabled him so uniformly to do those things which "pleased God." 
And here, we repeat, our only answer is, that he looked forward to 
the promised Messiah, and with a divinely implanted faith, trusted 
in him as the Lord his righteousness, and by thus accepting the 
terms of reconciliation which God had revealed to sinners, he be- 
came his friend. Without this, there could have been no friendship 
between them. With it, he possessed the elements of a devout and 
holy life, especially of that life of faith, which, in its development 
and growth was characterized by those strong and heroic acts which 
in a pre-eminent degree "gave glory to God." 


That Christ was the object of Abraham's faith, will appear from 
the history of the case. When God called him out of Chaldea, he 
gave him this promise, " In thee shall all the families of the earth 
be blessed" (Gen. 12 : 23). Year after year rolled on, and he re- 
mained childless. On one occasion, God appeared to him and said, 
" Fear not, Abraham, I am thy shield and thy exceeding great re- 
ward." Abraham ventured to remind God of his promise, and to 
inquire concerning its fulfilment. The Lord " brought him forth 
abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars if 
thou be able to number them, and he said unto him, So shall thy 
seed be." It is then added, "And he believed in the Lord and 
he counted it to him for righteousness" (Gen. 15:6). This is 
the record alluded to by the Apostle James, which we have just 
quoted. The immediate object of Abraham's faith was that he 
should have a numerous seed. But as this promise was made to 
confirm a preceding one, we must look to that in order to learn its 
full import. If he should have a numerous seed, then he should 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 3 

have a son from whom they would descend; and especially there 
would descend from him the Messiah, through whom would flow 
the blessing contained in the original promise, " In thee shall all 
families of the earth be blessed." Hence, while he believed all 
that God revealed to him, and set a high value on all the blessings 
which he promised, the central point towards which his faith was 
directed, was the Messiah, whose advent was essential to the fulfil- 
ment of that original promise which related to the redemption of 
a fallen world. This is evident, 1. From the Apostle Paul's expo- 
sition of that promise. This we have already quoted, as found in 
Genesis 12 : 3 ; but as it is repeated in Genesis 22 : 18, with some 
change of phraseology, we advert to it again. In the first instance, 
the words are, "In thee," — in the second, "In thy seed." Paul 
connects the two together, and says (Gal. 3 : 16), "Now to 
Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, 
And to thy seeds, as of many, but as of one, and to thy seed, which 
is Christ." This exposition of Paul was designed to explain the 
very words recorded in Gen. 15th, and referred to by James as the 
reason for Abraham's being called the friend of God. " Even as 
Abraham believed God," says he (v. 6), "and it was counted to 
him for righteousness." Thus we have the authority of an inspired 
expositor for asserting that the object of Abraham's faith was 

2. It is further evident from the fact, that the same Apostle 
describes that promise as the preaching of the gospel to Abraham. 
" The Scripture foreseeing that God would justify the heathen 
through faith, preached before the Gospel unto Abraham, saying, 
In thee shall all nations be blessed." (Gal. 3 : 8.) As there can 
be no Gospel (except a spurious one), in which Christ is not the sum 
and substance, we infer that that promise had reference to him, as 
the author of the blessings contained in it ; and hence that Abra- 
ham's faith had respect to Christ as its essential and main object. 
And further still, — that promise is said to have been made, because 
of God's purpose to "justify the heathen through faith" meaning 
no doubt their faith in the Redeemer : which clearly shows that its 
very essence consisted in its being a revelation of divine mercy to 
sinners through Jesus Christ. 

3. The Apostle Peter applied the promise made to Abraham, 
"In thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed," to the 
advent of Christ, and the descent of the Holy Spirit, on the day 
of Pentecost. (Acts 3 : 25, 26.) As that promise was then ful- 
filled, it follows, that Abraham's faith in the promise looked for- 
ward to Gospel times, and rested on the Messiah, whose mediatorial 
reign would constitute the glory of the latter day. 

4. The history of Abraham's devotions, proves that he exercised 
faith in Christ. They were performed by the erection of altars, 
and the offering of sacrifices. 'Those altars and sacrifices were 
typical of the person and work of our Redeemer ; the altar typi- 

4 " Friend of Grod" or, the Excellency of [January. 

fying his person and the sacrifices his work. We have no reason 
to doubt that Abraham viewed them in this light ; and hence, that 
his daily life, was a life of faith in the Son of God. " He called 
on the name of the Lord;" i. e. on the Messiah. This was the 
interpretation of the early Jewish expositors; and its truth is con- 
firmed, both by Peter and Paul, who apply the same phraseology 
to Christ. (Acts 2 : 21 ; Rom. 10 : 13.) 

5. Our Saviour's declaration (John 8 : 56). "Abraham rejoiced 
to see my clay, and he saw it and was glad," referred no doubt 
to his faith in God's promise of the advent of Christ, and of the 
glory of the Church under the New Testament dispensation. What 
particular period in Abraham's life is here alluded to, we cannot 
certainly determine. Probably he was favoured with these precious 
and joyful views more than once. But the time above all others, 
when Christ was revealed to him, under circumstances most adapted 
to make his joy abound to the utmost, was that alluded to by the 
Apostle James, for illustrating the faith, on account of which he 
was called the friend of God. It was that trying hour, when he 
and his beloved Isaac had ascended Mount Moriah. On his being 
accosted by his son, "Behold the fire and the wood, but where is 
the lamb for a burnt offering?" he responded, " My son, God will 
provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering." His faith at that 
moment was not joyful, but it was genuine. He saw in the painful 
command he was then executing, a type of future blessings, to be 
procured by the sacrifice of Christ. And soon after, when the 
extraordinary transaction was concluded, by the appearance of a 
ram in a thicket which he was to offer up as a burnt offering, 
instead of his son, his faith in the Divine promise, which was now 
turned almost into vision, produced the most joyful and ecstatic 
emotion. As a record of his faith, he named the place "Jehovah 
Jireh," the Lord will provide; i. e., he will provide in due time 
a glorious substitute for sinners, to be offered up in their stead, as 
" an offering and a sacrifice to God." 

6. Paul adduced the faith of Abraham, as an illustration of the 
doctrine of justification by faith, and quotes for this purpose, the 
same passage (Gen. 15 : 6), which we have alluded to in our pre- 
vious remarks. " What saith the Scripture ? Abraham believed 
God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness." (Rom. 4 : 3.) 
There can be no doubt, that when Paul speaks of our justification 
by faith, he means faith in Christ. But what relevancy would 
there be in adducing Abraham's faith, as an example of justifying 
faith under the New Testament dispensation, provided his faith 
rested on a different object from that of believers in Gospel times ? 
The inference is conclusive, viz. : that the faith of Abraham had 
respect to the promised Messiah. 

In closing this part of our subject, we may remark as a logical 
inference from the preceding, that "believing God," and "believ- 
ing in God," as these phrases occur in Scripture, are essentially 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 5 

the same, as believing in Christ. When God the Father is men- 
tioned as the object of saving faith, our faith respects Him, as 
promising to send his Son to redeem sinners, or as having sent him 
already. Thus Paul (Rom. 4 : 23-25), having spoken of Abraham's 
being justified by faith, proceeds to say, "It was not written for 
his sake alone, that it was imputed to him, but for us also to whom 
it shall be imputed, if we believe on Him that raised up Jesus 
Christ our Lord from the dead ; who was delivered for our offences, 
and raised again for our justification." Here, though God the 
Father is mentioned as the object of our faith, the connection shows 
that this faith is identical with faith in Christ. It is " God 
„ in Christ," who is "reconciling the world unto himself." (2 Cor. 
5 : 19.) Accordingly, when the Bible speaks of God and of Christ, as 
the object of our justifying faith, it is the same faith receiving 
and resting upon God in Christ, and Christ in God. "Ye believe 
in God," says our Saviour, "believe also in me :" i. e., if ye be- 
lieve in him intelligently and scripturally, ye will believe in me, for he 
sent me, and has testified of me — yea, he is essentially one with me: 
"and no man knoweth the Father save the Son, and he to whom- 
soever the Son will reveal him; but whosoever hath heard and 
learned of the Father, cometh unto me." 

Reader ! do not deceive yourself by supposing that you can be- 
lieve in God with any such belief as will be especially valuable to 
you as a sinner, and yet deny Christ. We rejoice that you are 
not an atheist. Who would not be glad to escape the charge of 
being a " fool?" (Ps. 14 : 1.) But though a belief in God's exis- 
tence and attributes is important to you in this life, by throwing 
around you some moral restraints, and thus contributing to make 
you a good citizen, it is insufficient to meet your spiritual necessi- 
ties as a fallen being. It provides no way of deliverance from the 
curse of God's holy law, under which you lie in consequence of 
sin. Abraham "believed God" — he "believed in God;" but he 
was not a Deist, nor a Pantheist. His religion possessed another 
and different element. He believed in God as the " Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ;" i. e., he had faith in the Messiah. And so 
must you have in order to be saved. Faith in Christ is essentially 
the same now, as it was then. The chief difference is, that we 
view him from a different stand-point. Abraham believed in a 
Redeemer who was yet to come, we in the same Redeemer as 
already come. He contemplated him in prophecy ; we, in the 
gospel history. He looked forward to the vicarious sacrifice of 
"the Lamb of God;" we look back and behold him as having 
performed the wonderful act; as having "finished the work which 
the Father gave him to do." And as his faith in Christ made him 
a friend of God and an heir of heaven, so it will be with you. 

Abraham's religious experience. 
The question by what process Abraham became a believer in 

6 " Friend of God" or, the Excellency of [January. 

Christ and so a friend of God, is one of vital importance. He was 
born a sinner — with a heart alienated from God ; and he continued 
many years in that state. He was moreover a heathen — an 
idolater. Joshua informs us (Josh. 24 : 2), that he " served other 
gods." But the "God of glory appeared unto him" (Acts 7 : 2). 
He manifested himself to him as the true and living God, — as 
infinitely excellent and glorious — as a God who " pardons iniquity, 
transgressions, and sins," through the mediation and atoning 
sacrifice of him who is " the brightness of the Father's glory, and 
the express image of his person ;" and by the gift of whom to our 
world he would glorify himself in a transcendent manner — far sur- 
passing all his other glorious manifestations of himself in the works 
of nature. 

All this is implied in those rich and comprehensive words of 
Stephen — yes, and more still ; for this revelation of God as a God 
of glory, was not made to his intellectual perceptions only, by 
which his understanding was convinced ; but also to his heart, — his 
moral judgment, his conscience, and affections. He was convinced 
of the sinfulness of his nature, and the wickedness of his former 
life — of the insufficiency and folly of idol worship, with its bloody 
and cruel rites, to procure remission of sin ; and the necessity and 
value of that propitiation which was typified in the Divine institu- 
tion of sacrifices ; the antitype of which would, in the fulness of 
time, be made manifest in the person of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
What God told him he believed. His inward soul was moved, 
humbled, melted, subdued ; and in that Saviour who was offered 
to his acceptance, he cordially trusted. In short, " God shined in 
his heart, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God, 
in the face of Jesus Christ." The Scripture account of his cha- 
racter, fully justifies us in this statement of his views, and of the 
manner in which his mind was thus illuminated. A thorough 
and radical change was divinely wrought upon him. He repented 
of his sins, forsook his idols, and became ever after a worshipper 
and follower of God. And this is virtually the experience of every 
genuine believer in Christ. Reader! "Dost thou believe on the 
Son of God ?" This inquiry is personal ; and upon your ability to 
give an affirmative answer, hang all your future hopes. Remember, 
that the faith you need is experimental. "With the heart man be- 
lieveth unto righteousness;" and in order to this, your heart must ■ 
be renewed by the Holy Spirit. Seek, therefore, that Spirit, 
whose gracious inlluences will be freely granted, if you pray for 
them in a sincere and humble manner. While it is an " accepted 
time, and a day of salvation," approach the mercy-seat and make 
your peace with God. Christ, the Divine Peace-maker, invites 
your approach and proffers his mediation. And God the Father, 
who is no less gracious than the. Son and Holy Spirit, is ready to 
receive you and make you his friend. 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 


Is it asked, how Abraham's faith in Christ made him a friend of 
God ? "We are told in Scripture, that his faith was " imputed unto 
him for righteousness." The meaning of this is, that his accept- 
ance of the Messiah as the "Lord our righteousness," so united 
him to Christ, that according to the economy of Divine grace, he 
was accounted righteous in God's sight. This, the Scripture de- 
nominates his being "justified by faith ;" faith being the instrument 
by which he received Christ ; whose vicarious obedience and sacri- 
fice, called " Christ's righteousness," the " righteousness of God," 
and the "righteousness of faith," were set over in law to his ac- 
count. God became reconciled to him, " freely forgave all his 
sins," and established between himself and Abraham, those friendly 
relations which no lapse of time, nor any of its vicissitudes, could 
disturb or weaken. 

That Abraham was justified by faith is expressly asserted ; and 
hence there is no room for any difference of sentiment. But when 
it is asked, how did faith justify him ? some affirm that his act of 
believing was imputed to him for righteousness ; and consequently 
deny the imputation of Christ's righteousness. But if the act of 
believing is imputed for righteousness, its justifying efficacy must 
arise from its inherent excellence, and then no valid reason can be 
assigned why faith justifies rather than love ; which is in some re- 
spects its superior. " Now abideth faith, hope, charity ; these 
three, but the greatest of these is charity." Yet the Scriptures 
never speak of our being justified by love. And further, our jus- 
tification would be incomplete, because no believer exercises a per- 
fect faith. But an imperfect justification, is like a man's being 
almost acquitted, and yet condemned. It was this view of justifi- 
cation, which led the papal hierarchy to invent the sacrament of 
penance, and to impose upon the "faithful" other austerities, in 
order to supply the deficiencies of an imperfect justification. This 
was the great subject of controversy between the Roman priests 
and the reformers, — the papists maintaining that we are justified 
by a righteousness infused ; and Luther and his coadjutors, by a 
righteousness imputed; i. e., the righteousness of Christ. The 
one is a system of merit; the other of free grace. The one is 
wholly inadequate to deliver us from condemnation ; the other 
connects us with a righteousness that is perfect, and which we can 
always present to God in bar of judgment without the smallest 
apprehension that this plea will not avail us. " He who knew no 
sin, was made sin for us, that we might be made the righteousness 
of God in him." 

" How glorious is that righteousness, 
That hides and cancels all our sins !" 

And how sweet and precious is that friendship which is thus con- 
summated between God and the believing sinner ! Its basis is the 

8 Begging and yet Rich. [January. 

precious blood of Christ, whose dying love procured for us recon- 
ciliation. Its elements are divine. There can be no real friend- 
ship without an assimilation of feeling ; and this assimilation is 
the result of those benign and precious influences from above, 
which renovate our depraved natures and bring our dispositions, 
principles, motives, and sympathies, into harmony with those which 
exist in the Divine mind. God calls us his friends, because he has 
made us such, by the exercise of that marvellous grace, which we 
shall never cease to admire and adore through eternity. A sweeter 
appellation cannot easily be found in the vocabulary of human 
language. And it is not employed by him merely as a form of 
words ; but as expressing towards us the most endearing and 
tender affection. Let us reciprocate his love, and in a spirit of 
genuine devotion consecrate all our powers to his service. 

J. W. 

(To be continued.) 


John Newton said, " I feel like a man who has no money in 
his pocket, but is allowed to draw for all his wants upon one infi- 
nitely rich ; I am therefore at once a beggar and a rich man." 

1. The Christian is a beggar in the spiritual world. Without 
food, or clothing, or home, he is a suppliant for the bread that 
never perishes, for the garment of righteousness that covers every 
sin, and for the resting-place where sorrow never enters. The 
spirit of begging is the true spirit of Christian devotion. It is 
the form in which the child of God draws near to his heavenly 
Father. Feeling his wants, he humbly confesses them ; he pleads 
with God earnestly for their supply ; and relies upon divine favour 
and mercy alone. To be a beggar is humbling to a proud heart, 
and we are all proud by nature ; but he that humbleth himself 
shall be exalted, and the beggar shall be made rich. " Ask, and 
ye shall receive." 

2. The Christian is a rich man in God's kingdom. His riches 
are of the right hind, — soul riches. Temporal wealth brings cares. 
Look at the rich worldling. Who more unsatisfied, more depen- 
dent upon false reliances, more subject to the snares and vexations 
of Satan ? I would not give the substantial joys of a suppliant 
believer for all the possessions of self-complacent and troubled 
wealth. There is more riches in loving God, in trusting Christ, 
in bearing the fruits of the Spirit, than in the treasures of worlds. 
The riches of the Christian are enduring. They outlast change, 
death, the grave, time. Immortal like the soul, they accumulate 
through eternity. They are the riches of infinite grace crowning 
with everlasting joy the poverty of a beggar's brow. 

0, beggar-pilgrim, thou art rich even here on earth, but thou 
wilt be richer far in heaven ! C. V. R. 

1855.] The Preface to the Crospel by Luke. 9 


Luke 1 : 1-4. 

" 1. Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration 
of those things which are most surely believed among us, 

" 2. Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eye- 
witnesses, and ministers of the word ; 

"3. It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all 
thing's from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus, 

" 4. That thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast 
been instructed." 

Verse 1. The existence, in early times, of many narratives, or 
histories of our Saviour, is distinctly affirmed by Luke. "Many" 
cannot refer to Matthew and Mark alone, but to a number of 
others, who undertook to write some account of the life of Christ. 
Moreover Matthew was himself an " eye-witness," one of those 
who wrote from personal knowledge, and whose statements no 
doubt assisted other writers in making their compilations. It is 
not surprising that the character, doctrines, miracles, and life of 
Christ should engage many to draw up short historical narratives, 
or memoirs. 

These narratives were doubtless imperfect and fragmentary. 
Indeed, Luke assigns the number and character of the different 
histories as the reason why he himself, who had closely attended 
to the whole matter, determined to write a full, reliable, and 
accurate account. Eusebius says, " Luke also in the commence- 
ment of his narrative, premises the cause which led him to write ; 
showing that many others having rashly undertaken to compose a 
narration of matters that he had already completely ascertained, 
in order to free us from the uncertain suppositions of others, he 
delivered in his own gospel the certain account of those things, 
that he himself had fully received from his intimacy and stay with 
Paul, and also his intercourse with the other Apostles." Lib. III., 
24. It is impossible at this day to determine anything further in 
regard to the independent histories referred to. No contemporary 
writer alludes to them. The apocryphal gospels, now extant, have 
no claim to an antiquity approaching to that of the inspired 

E-zyelp-qaav avara^aadat is put for avsrdffffavro. The latter verb 

occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. It means to reduce 
to order, to arrange, and is a military term. A^yrjffiv, a narrative, 
history, relation. IIe7zX7]po<pop7][j.ivwv, from nirjpys cpopa, full mea- 
sure ; hence the verb, to bring full measure ; metaphorically, to 
persuade by abundance of argument; passive, to be persuaded. 
The allusion in this place is to things, and not to persons, which is 
unusual. It means things fully established, or accredited, iv fyuv } 

10 The Preface to the Gospel by Luke. [January. 

among us Christians. In the next verse Luke refers to himself 

Verse 2. " Delivered to us," not written, but spoken, declared. 
" Eye-ivitnesses" who beheld the things they related to others. 
"Ministers of the word.'" The "word," the transactions and doc- 
trines contained in the narrative, or the gospel. Others refer 
"the word" to Christ, as in the beginning of John's Gospel, on 
the ground that " eye-witnesses and ministers of the word" are 
connected together, and that a person cannot be an eye-witness of 
a word, a thing not visible. The first sense is the most natural. 
Eye-witnesses of the things done, and ministers of the word ; or 
spectators and ministers. They were not simply private eye-wit- 
nesses, but they were divinely commissioned men, called of God 
into the ministry. — Luke rather implies that he himself was not 
an eye-witness or a minister of the word, and hence could not have 
been one of the seventy. This point is much disputed both 
among ancient and modern writers. Origen, Epiphanius, and 
Theophylact place Luke among the seventy ; whilst Chrysostom 
and Augustine deny his claim to that rank. Whitby, among 
modern commentators, strongly contends that both Mark and 
Luke were among the seventy. Paul calls Luke simply the 
"beloved physician," in writing to the Colossians, A. D. 62. Col. 

Verse 3. "It seemed good to me also." This shows that Luke 
wrote, not under the direction of Paul, but of his own accord, the 
Spirit of course prompting him in this great undertaking. Luke 
is first mentioned in Scripture, Acts 16 : 10, 11, in company with 
Paul at Troas ; thence he went with him to Jerusalem ; continued 
with him in his troubles through Judea ; and sailed in the same 
ship with Paul, when he was sent a prisoner from Csesarea to 
Rome, where Luke staid with him during his two years' confine- 
ment. The following year, it is supposed that Luke wrote his 
gospel, while in Greece, A. D. 63, or 64. " It seemed good to 
him" to write a narrative of his Saviour's life, "having had a 
perfect understanding of all things." This latter verb with the 
adjective signifies both the result gained, which was a thorough 
acquaintance of the subject, and the diligence or laborious means 
by which it was reached. Calvin says, " The verb is taken meta- 
phorically from those who tread in the footsteps of others, that 
nothing may escape them. So that Luke intended to express his 
close and laborious investigation ; just as Demosthenes employs 
the same word, when, in examining an embassy against which he 
brings an accusation, he boasts of his diligence to have been such, 
that he perceived everything that had been done as well as if he 
had been a spectator." Luke, it may be added, was a man of 
education. Ilis style, although not free from Hebrew idioms, 
approaches that of the classical Greek. 

"From the very first." The word, tbwtiev is the same as that 

1855.] The Preface to the Gospel by Luke. 11 

translated sometimes "from above," from heaven. But the 
common rendering is the most suitable ; from the first rise, from 
the earliest time. Luke dates his narrative back beyond Matthew 
and Mark, — to the conception of John the Baptist. 

All these expressions of Luke contradict the idea, entertained 
by some, that the evangelists copied from each other, or from 
some original source, common to all. Luke evidently sets out to 
compose an original narrative. Luke had no doubt seen the 
Gospels by Matthew and Mark ; but he supplies many important 
transactions omitted by these writers. It has been conjectured by 
some, and it is mere conjecture, that he derived the interesting 
details of the Saviour's birth from the Virgin Mary herself. 
Among the subjects narrated by Luke alone are the birth of John 
the Baptist, the Annunciation, the circumstances attending Christ's 
birth at Bethlehem, the vision granted to the shepherds, the early 
testimony of Simeon and Anna, Christ's conversation with the 
Doctors in the temple when he was twelve years old, his first visit 
and rejection at Nazareth, where he had been brought up, &c. 

u In order." A connected narrative; in a continued series. 
Some harmonists, as Beza and Leclerc, have unduly pressed these 
words, so as to make them an argument for following the arrange- 
ment of Luke, in preference to that of Matthew and Mark. This 
is not warranted. The other two evangelists had the same general 
object in view ; and there is internal evidence to satisfy most com- 
mentators that the order of Matthew is, on the whole, to be pre- 

" most excellent Theophilus.'" Nothing is known of Theophi- 
lus, beyond what is implied in this brief notice by Luke, and also 
in the first verse of the Acts of the Apostles. He must have been 
a man of some eminence, probably a public officer ; the same word, 
■/.pdnaroq, is applied to Felix and Festus, Acts 23 : 25, and 26 : 25. 
It may be inferred that he resided beyond Palestine, as some things 
are minutely mentioned of which only a stranger need to be in- 
formed. The name is Grecian ; and Theophilus was probably a 
magistrate in some city of Greece or Asia Minor. He must have 
been a Christian, according to the declaration in this and the fol- 
lowing verse. Some have supposed that " Theophilus" is an appel- 
lative, or a general title applicable to every lover of Grod, as the 
word means ; but there is no ground for this opinion. Indeed the 
adjective "most excellent" designates a person. Lightfoot quotes 
from Josephus the following passage: "King Agrippa, removing 
Jesus, the son of Gamaliel, from the high priesthood, gave it to 
Matthias, the son of Theophilus." Antiq. lib. xx. cap. 8. This 
passage shows that a man of high rank among the Jews, by the 
name of Theophilus, was contemporary with Luke. It by no means 
follows, however, that this was the Theophilus for whom Luke wrote 
his Gospel. As it is generally supposed that Luke wrote for the 
Gentiles, so the opinion that Theophilus was a Greek is the most 

12 The Preface to the Q-ospel by Luke. [January. 

Verse 4. " The certainty." The object of the inspired narrative is 
to bring complete conviction, to establish beyond all doubt the truth 
of the evangelical history. 

"Instructed." The word xarrj^-qOr l q means literally catechised, 
or instructed orally by a teacher. Hence the early disciples were 
called catechumens, persons instructed in the initiatory principles 
of Christianity. The word is now commonly restricted to children. 
Would that all children were well catechised ; and that men knew 
so much of Christian doctrine as to supersede the necessity of being 
longer included among catechumens. Every lover of God should 
earnestly desire to know more and more of his will. 

This preface "of Luke is very candid, direct, and simple. Its 
honesty of purpose is in strong contrast with the fulsome dedica- 
tions of modern times. His object in writing the evangelical history 
was to do good to the souls of men ; to confirm the faith of Chris- 
tian disciples; to establish the truth in opposition to many con- 
flicting and spurious narratives ; and to set forth "in order" the 
leading events and instructions of the ministry of our Lord. Chris- 
tianity appealed to the senses and to the reason of its first witnesses 
and converts. It is founded upon facts. The birth of the Re- 
deemer is a stupendous miracle. Luke enlarges upon this part of 
the history, narrates the antecedents of our Saviour's incarnation, 
and supplies important, and interesting particulars of Elizabeth 
and of Mary. Many of the narratives in circulation were no doubt 
corrupted by human additions, inventions, errors, and confused 
statements and reasonings. The words of Luke, dvwffev, axptfwq, 
y.aOe^q, aaifaXeiav, indicate his conviction of the necessity of a full 
and accurate history. It pleased God to put it into the mind and 
heart of his servant, to undertake the narrative, which has been the 
means of instructing many lovers of God, besides Theophilus, in 
the things which, from the beginning, were delivered by eye- 
witnesses and ministers of the word. 

The following are some of the lessons of instruction derived 
from the preface to the Gospel by Luke. 

1. God takes care of his Word. Whilst many uninspired 
writings have perished, the Gospel of Luke has come down to us 
in its uncorrupted integrity, v. 1. 

2. The truth of the transactions of the New Testament was 
amply tested in the early ages, during the awakened attention of 
the public mind to the subject, as seen in the existence of a multi- 
tude of accounts and narratives, v. 1. 

3. The early disciples were thoroughly persuaded of the reality 
of the events in the life of Christ, v. 1. 

4. Eye-witnesses and ministers of the word were concerned for 
the welfare of those who were to come after them. v. 2. 

5. The Holy Spirit, in inditing the Scriptures, employed the 
faculties of men. v. 3. 

1855.] The Humanity and the Divinity of Christ. 13 

6. The tradition of things, received even from inspired Apostles, 
does not supersede the necessity of laborious investigation, v. 3. 

7. Our gratitude is due to God for giving us a written revelation 
of his will, instead of its communication by tradition, v. 3. 

8. Excellent men in the Church, like Theophilus, deserve the re- 
gard of the servants of Jesus Christ, v. 3. 

9. The certainty of the things of Scripture is the basis of all 
Christian acquisition, v. 4. 

10. However well a man may have been catechised or instructed, 
he needs to keep up through life an intimate acquaintance with 
Gospel history, v. 4. 

11. The aim of doing good to others felt by Luke towards Theo- 
philus, exemplifies the spirit of Christ, v. 4. 

C. V. R. 


The events in the life of Christ furnish equally clear evidence of 
his humanity and his divinity. 

He was born of a woman. Mary brought forth her firstborn 
son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a 
manger. This proves he was human. 

And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the 
field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And the Angel of 
the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round 
about them, and they were sore afraid. And the Angel said unto 
them, Fear not, for behold I bring you good tidings of great joy 
which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day, in the 
city of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. And suddenly 
there was with the Angel a multitude of the heavenly host, praising 
God and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, 
good will towards men. There came wise men from the east to 
Jerusalem, saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews, for 
we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. 
They departed thence to Bethlehem, and the star which they saw 
in the east went before them till it came and stood over where the 
young child was. When they saw the star they rejoiced with ex- 
ceeding great joy. And when they were come into the house, they 
saw the young child with Mary, his mother, and fell down and wor- 
shipped him ; and when they had opened their treasures, they pre- 
sented unto him gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh. This 
proves he was divine. 

* These remarks on the Humanity and Divinity of Christ are extracted from " Jl 
Letter on the Divinity of Christ, from a Father to his Son" an exceedingly interesting 
and convincing pamphlet, written by one of our distinguished ruling elders, who has 
frequently represented Ogdensburgh Presbytery in the General Assembly. 

14 The Humanity and the Divinity of Christ. [January. 

Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John 
in Jordan. This proves he was human. 

Being baptized and praying, the heaven was opened, and the 
Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a 
voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved son ; in 
thee I am well pleased. This proves he was divine. 

Jesus attended a marriage in Cana of Galilee. This proves 
he was human. 

When they wanted wine, he said to them, Fill the water-pots 
with water. There were set there six water-pots of stone, con- 
taining two or three firkins apiece. And they filled them up to 
the brim. When they drew out, the water was made wine. This 
proves he was divine. 

He went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and 
preaching the gospel of the kingdom. This proves he was human. 

He healed all manner of sickness and all manner of disease 
among the people. They brought to him those who were possessed 
with devils, and those who were lunatic, and those that had the 
palsy, and he healed them. And there came a leper, and worshipped 
him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean. And 
Jesus put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will, be thou 
clean, and immediately his leprosy was cleansed. 

When he was come into Capernaum, there came unto him a cen- 
turion, worshipping him, and saying, Lord, my servant lieth at 
home sick of the palsy, grievously tormented. I am not worthy 
that thou shouldst come under my roof, but speak the word only, 
and my servant shall be healed. And Jesus said, Go thy way, and 
as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee. And his servant 
was healed in the self-same hour. This proves he was divine. 

He was thirsty, and came to Jacob's well to drink. This proves 
He was human. 

There came a woman of Samaria to draw water. Jesus re- 
hearsed to her the secret history of her life. She left her water- 
pot and went her way into the city, and said to the men, Come see 
a man who told me all things that ever I did. Is not this the 
Christ ? This proves he was divine. 

He was hungry. This proves he was human. 

And seeing a fig-tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply 
he might find anything thereon. And when he came to it, he 
found nothing but leaves. And Jesus said to it, No man eat fruit 
of thee hereafter forever. And in the morning as they passed by, 
they saw the fig-tree dried up from the roots. This proves he was 

He was asleep in the ship. This proves he was human. 

There arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship 
was covered with the waves. His disciples came to him, and awoke 
him, saying, Lord, save us, we perish. Then he arose and rebuked 

1855.] The Humanity and the Divinity of Christ. 15 

the winds and the sea, and there was a great calm. And the men 
marvelled saying, What manner of man is this, that even the winds 
and the sea obey him. This proves he was divine. 

He prayed in public and in private. He often retired for secret 
prayer. This proves he was human. 

He forgave sins. Who can forgive sins but God only ? They 
brought to him one sick of the palsy, borne of four, and because 
of the press they uncovered the roof of the house, and let down 
the bed. When Jesus saw their faith he said to the sick of the 
palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee. This proves he was divine. 

He possessed tenderness and sympathy. There was a dead man 
carried out of the city of Nain, the only son of his mother, and 
she was a widow, and when Jesus saw her he had compassion on 
her. This proves he was human. 

He said unto her, Weep not, and came and touched the bier, 
and said, Young man, I say unto thee, arise. And he that was 
dead sat up and began to speak ; and he delivered him to his 
mother. And there came a fear on all, and they glorified God, 
saying that a great prophet is risen up among us, and that God 
hath visited his people. This proves he was divine. 

He possessed friendship and love. He wept at the grave of his 
friend Lazarus. The Jews said, Behold how he loved him. This 
proves he was human. 

Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. They took away the stone, 
and he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. And he that 
was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with grave-clothes, and 
his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus said, Loose him 
and let him go. This proves he was divine. 

He died. This proves he was human. 

The vail of the Temple was rent in twain from the top to the 
bottom, and the earth did quake and the rocks rent ; and the 
graves were opened, and many bodies of the saints which slept 
arose and came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went 
into the city and appeared unto many. When the centurion and 
they who were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake and 
those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly, 
this was the Son of God. This proves he was divine. 

He was buried. This proves he was human. 

He raised himself from the grave. He said, I lay clown my life 
that I might take it again. I have power to lay it down, and I 
have power to take it again. When the Jews required of him a 
sign or evidence that he was divine, he referred them to the future 
fact of the resurrection of his body from the grave by his own 
power, as conclusive proof of his divinity. He answered, Destroy 
this body and in three days I will raise it up again. When he was 
risen from the dead, his disciples remembered this, and they be- 
lieved the Scriptures, and that Jesus was the Son of God. This 
proves he was divine. 

16 The First Snow-Fall. [January. 



The snow had begun in the gloaming, 

And busily all the night 
Had been heaping field and highway 

With a silence dead and white. 

Every pine and fir and hemlock, 
Wore ermine too dear for an earl ; 

And the poorest twig on the elm tree 
Was ridged inch-deep with pearl. 

From sheds, new-roofed with Carrara, 
Came Chanticleer's muffled crow; 

The stiff rails were softened to swan's-down, 
And still fluttered down the snow. 

I stood and watched by the window 
The noiseless work of the sky ; : 

And the sudden flurries of snowbirds 
Like brown leaves whirling by. 

I thought of a mound in sweet Auburn, 
Where a little headstone stood, 

How the flakes were folding it gently, 
As did robins the babes in the wood. 

Up spoke our own little Mabel, 

Saying, " Father, who makes it snow ?" 

And I told of the good Allfather 
Who cares for us all below. 

Again, I looked at the snow-fall, 
And thought of the leaden sky, 

That arched o'er our first great sorrow, 
When that mound was heaped so high. 

I remember the gradual patience, 
That fell from that cloud-like snow; 

Flake by flake, healing and hiding 
The scar of that deep-stabbed woe. 

And again to the child I whispered, 

" The snow that husheth all, 
Darling, the merciful Father 

Alone can make it fall !" 

Then, with eyes that saw not, I kissed her, 
And she, kissing back, could not know 

That my kiss was given to her sister, 
Folded close under deepening snow. 

1855.] Western Theological Seminary. 17 



The importance of a Theological Seminary for the Western 
Churches was early felt. The Synod of Pittsburgh, at their Ses- 
sions in 1820, passed the following resolutions : — 

" 1st. Resolved, That it is expedient for this Synod to take 
measures to establish a Theological Seminary within their bounds. 

" 2d. Resolved, That the said Seminary shall be located in the 
borough of Washington, Pennsylvania, upon the following con- 
ditions, viz., 1st. That the Board of Trustees of the Colleges of 
Washington and Jefferson shall enter into an agreement to unite 
the said colleges, with a stipulation that the united literary insti- 
tution shall be established at Canonsburgh. 2d. That the united 
college shall agree to appropriate the college premises and building 
thereon erected in Washington, and also the funds, or a proportion 
thereof, for the use of a Theological Seminary, or professorship or 
professorships to be therein established, with the concurrence of 
the Synod."* 

A committee was appointed to confer with the Boards of Trus- 
tees of the two colleges, which committee reported to the Synod, in 
1821, that a union between the two institutions could not now be 
effected. Whereupon the Synod resolved that measures be taken 
for the formation of a Theological Library, " to be located at pre- 
sent in the edifice of Jefferson College, Canonsburgh, and placed 
under the care of the Rev. John M'Millan, D.D., Professor of 
Theology in that seminary." 

In 1822, the Synod of Pittsburgh again took action on the sub- 
ject. " The Rev. Messrs. William Speer, Obadiah Jennings, 
Francis Herron, Samuel Ralston, and Robert Johnston, were ap- 
pointed a committee to inquire into the expediency of establishing 
a Theological Seminary, at some convenient place in the western 
country, in conjunction with the Synods of Ohio and Kentucky, 
and to report as early as practicable. "f 

This committee presented an interesting report, urging immediate 
action; but the Synod appointed another committee, consisting of 
Drs. Herron, Jennings, and Swift, to confer on the subject with 
the Synod of Ohio. Nothing was done, however, except to appoint 
the same committee, in 1823, to correspond with the Synod of Ohio, 
and to take advantage of the meeting of the next Assembly to see 
the commissioners. Dr. Smith, in his Inaugural Discourse at the 
installation of Dr. Plumer, states what occurred at the meeting of 

* Minutes, p. 167. \ Minutes, p. 188. 

VOL. V. — NO. 1. 2 

18 Western Theological Seminary. [January. 

the Assembly in 1825. " Thirty years ago next May, the speaker, 
seeking, as we stood in the church on Washington Square, and on 
the first day of the sessions of the General Assembly, the co-ope- 
ration of an excellent and eminent brother* of the Synod of Pitts- 
burgh, long since deceased, we successfully applied to Doctors 
Green and Miller, then in the Assembly, to favour the establish- 
ment of a Western Theological Seminary. On their recommenda- 
tion, a meeting for consultation was held at Dr. Green's, and he 
consented to bring forward the overture, and Dr. Miller to support 
it. The proposal was adopted, and a Board was chosen, scattered 
from Alabama and the Mississippi to the shores of Lake Erie (Dr. 
Campbell, then of Tennessee, being one)." 

Dr. Green was Chairman of the Committee appointed by the 
Assembly, to draw up a plan for the Seminary, and the plan was 
adopted on the 27th of May, 1824. The following persons were 
appointed commissioners to recommend a suitable site for the Semi- 
nary, viz.: Andrew Jackson, Tenn. ; Benjamin Mills, Ky.; 
John Thompson, Ohio; Obadiah Jennings, and Andrew Wylie, 
of Pa. These Commissioners were required to make their report 
to the Board of Directors of the Seminary, composed of twenty-one 
ministers and nine laymen ; and the Board were required to re- 
commend a location to the next Assembly. Accordingly, the 
Directors reported to the Assembly of 1826, that by a vote of eight 
to five, they considered Allegheny Town the proper site. The 
question of location was, after much debate, referred to the decision 
of the next Assembly. In 1827, the discussion was renewed; and 
finally the roll was called, and " each member was allowed to 
vote either for Allegheny Town or Walnut Hills." The decision 
resulted in favour of Allegheny Town,f and according to tradition 
by a majority of one vote. Dr. J. J. Janeway was elected Pro- 
fessor of Theology ; and Dr. John M'Dowell, Professor of Ecclesi- 
astical History and Church Government. The latter did not accept ; 
and Dr. Janeway resigned shortly after. 

The Western Seminary, like most of our theological and literary 
institutions, has had to struggle with many difficulties. But 
brighter days are at hand. Its endowment is now nearly com- 
pleted, and the number of its students has been, of late years, more 
steady than at most of our other Seminaries. A career of increas- 
ing usefulness, it is hoped and believed, is now before the institu- 
tion, notwithstanding the increase in the number of Theological 

The recent inauguration of Dr. Plumer, as Professor of Didactic 
and Pastoral Theology, was an occasion of unusual interest. Our 
readers will be glad to read portions of the addresses delivered 
before the Board of Directors. Dr. E. P. Swift delivered the 
charge to the Professor, and selected as the foundation of his very 
able address, " The requisites to the successful cultivation of Chris- 

*. Dr. Obadiah Jennings. f Assembly Minutes, p. 122. 

1855.] Western Theological Seminary. 19 

tian Theology." His train of thought will be seen in the quota- 
tions, which we now make. 

The occasion is an affecting and eventful one, not only to yourself, but to 
this Board, and this large assembly — and, indeed, to all who love the church of 
the living God, and would cherish a holy interest in those educated, devoted 
young men who, from year to year, and from class to class, are here to come up 
to qualify themselves for active ministerial service in the vineyard of the Lord. 
The particular department of instruction to which you have been appointed is 
Didactic and Pastoral Theology. This is the science of God — and of man, as a 
rational and moral being — and of true religion, as it is made known to us by a 
divine revelation, and as it is perceived and understood by a divine faith. It 
differs from all other sciences in the loftiness and utility of its objects, the vast- 
ness and eternity of its principles, the source of its elements in the inspired 
record, and the supernatural illumination of the human soul which it implies. No 
employment, therefore, draws a created mind into higher communion with God, 
and the objects of the invisible world, and into loftier and holier contemplations, 
or is in itself more honorable and blessed. The Bible is the source of all our 
theological knowledge ; and its doctrines, and facts, and moral laws we receive 
as divine, on the naked authority of God. Reason, as an instrument of know- 
ledge, is legitimately employed in discovering and weighing the proofs and 
vouchers of its being indeed a divinely inspired and unerring revelation, and then 
interpreting its contents according to the rules of language, and stating, pi-oving, 
and defending it against all the world, and all that is sceptical in our own 

That form of theological truth which you are expected to impart, and no other, 
is comprehended in the Confession of Faith. The church believes, indeed, that 
"the Bible" without tradition, the authority of councils, or the sanction of men 
or angels, " is the religion of Protestants ;" and it is because she believes that 
this Confession embodies the very mind and meaning of the Holy Spirit in the 
Bible, she will have no other teaching, since she will have no other Bible. 

She expects you, then, out of the depths of your own conviction, ably, faith- 
fully, and thoroughly to state, illustrate, and defend this system j and by research, 
meditation, prayer, and the help of the Holy Ghost, to bring "out of the law" 
and the doctrine of the cross, those wonderful things in truth and righteousness, 
by which your pupils may be thoroughly furnished as able ministers of the New 
Testament. What form of doctrine this is in detail, the occasion will probably 
lead you more appropriately and ably to express, than I can do ; and I shall there- 
fore, confine my observations to a notice of some of those things which seem to 
be required in the successful cultivation of sound theology, and the professional 
training of the ministry. 

In the Apostolic age the doctrine and discipline of Christianity was pure and 
true in its simple unclassified elements ; but, like our sinless mother in the 
primeval garden, its innocence and purity stood unprotected from those encroach- 
ments which the sin and folly, the pride and weakness of Christian men, might 
intentionally and unintentionally make upon it. If Jewish dogmatists had so 
marred, before the time of Christ, the ancient laws and theology, that Moses, if 
he could have re-lived, would scarcely have known his own system, it is no matter 
of surprise that before the close of the first, and during the second, third, and 
fourth centuries, men's views of the doctrines of Revelation had become false and 
corrupt. The first departures from primitive simplicity were not, indeed, mainly 
doctrinal j but in that and the succeeding periods, down to the present time, 
almost every conceivable form of divergence has occurred; so that Didactic 
Divinity itself travels through the circles of almost every science — and the 
question which I propose is, how she can best attain the objects of this journey? 

First — If Theology is a revelation of the glory and righteousness of God, and 
a convincing knowledge from him of man's necessities and ruin, and heaven's 
unspeakable gift, need I say that it cannot be expected to unlock its treasures, and 
reveal its mysteries to an unrenewed and unhumbled mind. * * * 

20 Western Theological Seminary. [January. 

Secondly — The auspicious cultivation of sound theology demands varied and 
profound acquisitions in scriptural knowledge, earnest study, and unwearied in- 
vestigations, not only in Biblical and Oriental attainments, but in all the depart- 
ments of science. 

Thirdly — The auspicious pursuit of systematic Theology must have a constant 
reference to it as one complete andindivisible revelation; one edifice with many de- 
pendent parts ; and its aim must be to give each its just proportions and appro- 
priate place. 

Fourthly — The successful cultivation of theology demands accuracy of thought 
and judgment, and the power of separating on every subject, its intrinsic from its 
extrinsic elements, blended with inflexible rectitude of heart. 

Fifthly — Allow me to mention, as a still higher requisite to the successful culti- 
vation of Theological Science, the constant spirit of dependence upon the Great 
Teacher. I have already referred to the necessity of personal piety ; but alas ! 
many pious, able, and learned men have seemed to forget that theology is a thrice 
holy and heavenly science, and have been tempted to rely more upon their genius 
and mental powers, and scholarship, than the aids of the Holy Spirit. What is 
man ! as he stands as the expositor of the high and awful mysteries of his God 
aud Saviour? It is remarkable, that in the Theology of Witsius and Watson, and 
in the university lectures of Leighton, while there is no great learning or origi- 
nality, there is a scripturalness and a practical pathos which elevates and invigo- 
rates the reader's mind. Sometimes (as I now recollect), when Dr. Alexander 
had heard his class, and had ably explained some topic of divinity, he would seem 
to pause, and painful anxiety to be stamped upon his countenance, as though he 
were ready to say, I fear the Heavenly Teacher is not here ! let us lay aside our 
helps, and repair to him. Alas ! how does the history of Protestantism, its 
Biblical studies and expositions, theories and speculations, express in mournful 
utterance the frequent absence in its full power of this most vital conviction of 
human imbecility. 

Sixthly — I shall add but one further requisite to the healthful growth of theo- 
logical science, and it consists in the union of disinterestedness with benevolence. 
In nothing, perhaps, was the apostle Paul, and, in an humbler sense, I may add 
Edwards, more remarkable than for this trait of character. The Epistle to the 
Romans, composed, perhaps, in a heathen jail — and the treatise on the will, written 
in the woods of Stockbridge, among the Indians — how does the simple hope and 
desire to be useful to man in all generations, and glorify the truth of God, shine 
out in these powerful productions ! By disinterestedness, I mean a freedom from 
all desire to be accounted great, wise, and learned by men, or to build up the 
fame of a particular denomination — but the profession of one ruling aim to honour 
Christ, and to bless the Church and the world with purer, holier, and mightier 
conceptions of Christian doctrine. 

While our Church anticipates from her theological seminaries the able and rich 
productions of high biblical, and historical, and theological learning, and research 
and spiritual excellence, it is to be especially remembered that our future ministry 
are here to be trained up for the service of Christ, and that in this land, and in 
these stirring times, she demands rather a practical, well-disciplined, and devoted, 
than a learned ministry. She would, indeed, have good and thorough scholars in 
all the branches of philosophy, chemistry, geology, mathematics, and natural and 
civil history, and the ancient languages, and able expositors of God's word, and 
men mighty in the Scriptures; but above this she wants judicious, prudent, and 
faithful pastors, deeply humble, experimental, and ardent men, whose lips have been 
"touched with alive coal from off the heavenly altar," thoroughly acquainted with 
the inward struggles and searching anxieties of a renewed heart and a holy life, 
and embodying the gospel and its experience in their own personal history, turning 
its precepts into moral laws, and its glorious doctrines into living principles of 
precious truth. It will be unnecessary for me to dwell upon these important and, 
perhaps, sometimes painful duties which you and your associates will be called 
to fulfil. 

It still remains for me to refer to by far the most difficult and solemn part of 

1855.] Western Theological Seminary. 21 

the trust which is committed to your hands by our church, in connection -with your 
official associates : I refer to the spiritual qualifications of your pupils for the work 
of the holy ministry. Often as you refer to the plan on. which our General As- 
sembly began the policy of her theological seminaries, your mind will be struck 
with her language : " Convinced that the filling of the Church with a learned and 
able ministry without a corresponding portion of real piety, would be a curse to 
the world, and an offence to God and his people, the Assembly do hereby solemnly 
pledge themselves to the churches under their care, that in carrying into existence, 
etc., it shall be their endeavour to make this a nursery of vital piety, as well as of 
sound theological learning ; that an inward sense of the power of godliness may 
grow continually in a spirit of enlightened devotion and fervent piety." 

This is a very holy covenant between the churches, and through the Assembly, 
with her official teachers ; and when we consider how liable young men, as well 
as others, are to be deceived, and how deceitful the human heart is, we may well 

Never did the ministerial work and office in our towns and cities, and on the 
far distant widening fields of the great Christian harvest, in these wonderful times 
of advancing civilization, opulence, reading, and luxury, demand on all sides a 
mightier revival of Apostolic holiness. The world stands ready to be taken by 
the army of the living God ; and by one effective onset of the sword of the Lord, 
to strike its colours, and run up the banner of Jesus Christ. At the same time, how 
formidable, insidious, and skilful is the spirit of formalism, through all the masses 
of society! To say nothing of the unexplored fields of Central Africa, the 
primeval forests and hamlets of the Andes and Rocky Mountains, the boundless 
plains and prairies of the Missouri, Columbia, Colorado — China and India, and 
the Oceanic Isles begin to lift up their voice to our Church and country, to send 
them that Gospel which Christ has promised them ; and for the gift of which the 
time-piece of prophecy seems to strike the hour. And then the sunny plains of papal 
nations, once trod and discipled by holy martyrs, seem to ask for the harbingers 
of the morning, and demand an army of bold and faithful pioneers of redemption 
to bring back the Royal David to his usurped metropolis. And amidst all this 
deafening importunity, our country and our churches cry to you — Send us minis- 
ters of a holier unction, a keener edge of zeal and fervour, whose faith and traiu- 
ing have been cradled amidst mightier searchings and communings of the Holy 
Spirit ! 0, my brother, my brother, who but God can sustain your troubled spirit 
as your daily thoughts and nightly meditations struggle and groan beneath the 
pressure of these responsibilities ? Do all you can ; watch and pray, and study, 
and leave the rest to Him. 

To the esteemed Brethren of the two Synods here present, all alike sup- 
porters of this Seminary, may I be allowed, on this, doubtless, the last and final 
opportunity I shall have on such an occasion, with the expression of fraternal 
love, to say a word commending it to their fostering care. We have now, 
brethren, separate synodical relations, and shall no more stand side by side in 
these annual assemblies ; but it matters little, for " the time is short," and soon 
no geographical lines, we trust, will ever separate us from each other. In respect 
to this and the other Institutions, common to us all, I seem to hear from behind 
the curtain the voices of our still much-loved M'Millan, Patterson, M'Curdy, Jen- 
nings, and Brown, saying, Onward! Brethren, onward! with the work of the 
Lord ! We have now for our Seminary mainly its endowments, and its chosen 
Professors ; but what shall become of its usefulness if it has no students, and 
they are not to be found in the Church ? If we compare the present with earlier 
periods, our progress, in this respect, has not realized our hopes ; and in the 
dearth of candidates there may spring up a hurtful competition in our Theological 
Seminaries. Our hope must be in the Angel of the Covenant, and the returning 
power of his Holy Spirit to all our churches. Then with the parents will come 
the sons, and with the sisters will come the brothers, and the God of our Fathers 
" shall establish the work of our hands upon us," and raise up for' us heralds to 
preach his Gospel unto the ends of the earth. 

Dr. Plumer, Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology, next 

22 Western Theological Seminary. [January. 

delivered the Inaugural Discourse. The theme, selected by the 
Professor, was Jesus Christ ; and the mode of treatment was sim- 
ple, fervent, evangelical, practical. We think Dr. Plumer was 
eminently judicious in the selection of his topic — the great truth 
of revelation. All didactic and pastoral theology centres around 
Jesus Christ; and the best mode of exhibiting divine truth is, not 
merely as abstract truth, but as momentous, practical truth, adapted 
both to the head and the heart, to the intellect and the life. The 
following extracts will serve as specimens of the Inaugural: — 

Jesus Christ is a wonderful, a glorious person. To look- away from self and 
man to Christ, is to lay hold on everlasting life. If men would be safe, let them 
flee to him. When he is in the ascendant, the night flies away, and the morning 
comes — a morning without clouds. His names and titles are as important as 
they are significant. Every one of them is as ointment poured forth. His lips 
drop as the honeycomb — honey and milk are under his tongue, and the smell of 
his garments is like the smell of Lebanon. His peopls sit under his shadow with 
great delight, and his fruit is sweet to their taste. To them he is altogether 
lovely. He is their Advocate, the angel of the covenant, the author and finisher 
of faith. He is as the apple-tree among the trees of the wood, the alpha and the 
omega, the Beloved, the shepherd and bishop of souls, the bread of life, the bundle 
of myrrh, the bridegroom, the bright and morning star, the brightness of the 
Father's glory, and the express image of his person. 

He is their Creator, captain, counsellor, covenant, corner-stone, covert from the 
tempest, a cluster of camphor, and chiefest among ten thousand. He is to them 
as the Dew, the door into the fold, a diadem, a daysman, a day-star, a deliverer, 
and the desire of all nations, ranks, and generations of pious men. 

In their eyes he is the Elect, Emanuel, the everlasting Father, and eternal life. 
He is a Fountain of living waters to thirsty souls, of joy to troubled ones, of life 
to dying ones. He is the foundation on which his people, with safety, build their 
hopes of heaven. He is the father of eternity, the fir-tree under whose shadow 
the saints rejoice, the first and the last, the first fruits, the first-born among many 
brethren, and the first begotten from the dead. 

To his chosen he is as the most fine Gold, a guide, a governor, a glorious 
Lord God, the true God, over all God blessed forever. He is Head of the Church, 
the help, the hope, the husband, the heritage, the habitation of his people. He 
is the horn of their salvation. He rides upon the heavens by his name, JAH. 
He is the Jehovah of armies, the Inheritance, Judge, and King of his people. He 
is their Light, their life, their leader, their law-giver, their atoning lamb, the lily 
of the valley, the lion of the tribe of Judah. 

He is the Man Christ Jesus, the master, the mediator, the minister of the 
true sanctuary which the Lord pitched, and not man. He is the mighty God of 
Isaiah, the morning star of John, the Michael of Daniel, the Melchisedek of David 
and Paul, and the Messiah of all the prophets. He is the Only-begotten of the 
Father — full of grace and truth. He is both the root and the offspring of David. 
He is the Peace, the prince, the priest, the prophet, the purifier, the potentate, the 
propitiation, the physician, the plant of renown, the power of God, the passover 
of all saints. He is a polished shaft in the quiver of God. 

He is the Rock, the refuge, the ruler, the ransom, the refiner, the redeemer, the 
righteousness, and the resurrection of all humble souls. He is the rose of Sharon. 
He is the Seed of the woman, the seed of Abraham, the seed of David, the Sou 
of God, the son of man, the strength, the shield, the surety, the shepherd, the 
shiloh, the sacrifice, the sanctuary, the salvation, the sanctification, and the sun 
of righteousness of all believers. 

He is that holy thing that was born of Mary. lie is the Truth, the treasure, 
the teacher, the temple, the bee of lite, the great testator of his church. He is 
the Way, the well of salvation, the word of God, the wisdom of God, the faithful 
witness, the wonderful. 

1855.] Western Theological Seminary. 23 

His person is one ; but his natures are two. He is both human and divine, 
finite and infinite, created and uncreated. He was before Abraham, though not 
born till for ages the patriarch had slept with his fathers. He was dead, and is 
alive forevermore. On earth he had not where to lay his head, yet he disposes of 
all diadems. He has the arm of a God, and the heart of a brother. To him all 
tongues shall confess and all knees bow ; yet learned he obedience by the things 
which he suffered. None loves like him, none pities like him, none saves like 
him. It is not surprising that such a person lives and reigns in the hearts of his 
people. No marvel that the virgins love him, and the saints praise him, and the 
martyrs die for him, and the sorrowing long for him, and the penitent pour out 
their tears before him, and the humble trust in him, and the believing lay fast 
hold of him. His frown shakes the heavens, his smile gives life, his presence 
converts dungeons into palaces, his blood cleanses from all sin, his righteousness 
is the white robe of the redeemed. 

If men would be safe, or wise, or holy, or happy, or useful, or victorious — let 
them look to Jesus, let them look to none else, let them walk in him, abide in 
him, glory in him, and count as loss all things beside. You may look at the law 
till the spirit of bondage overwhelms you with terrors and torments. You may 
go about to establish your own righteousness till you can boast and perish like a 
Pharisee. You may weep till the fountain of your tears has gone dry, you may 
have all gifts, understand all mysteries, bestow all your goods to feed the poor, 
yield your body to be burned ; but all these things will not atone for sin, will do 
nothing towards regaining the lost favour of God, will not make you meet for the 
inheritance of the saints in light. None but Christ, none but Christ, none but 
Christ, has been the cry of the faithful witnesses of all ages, when truth has 
triumphed, when oracles were struck dumb, when sinners were converted, when 
saints rejoiced, when the word of God mightily grew and prevailed. 

True piety begins, continues, and is perfected by our union with Christ. We 
are cleansed through his blood, we are clothed in his righteousness, we are puri- 
fied by his Spirit — we meet the demands of the law of this day of grace, when we 
walk as he walked, and have the same mind that was in him. 

The excellent Professor closed his address with the following 
impressive words: — 

And now, honoured fathers and brethren, you learn for yourselves what is to 
be the polar star, pointed out to the young men of your Seminary, to guide them 
in their quest after truth, usefulness, and life everlasting. Surely no apology is 
necessary for giving such prominence to that dear One, on whom all good hopes 
depend. To question your approval of exalting Christ to the highest place 
would doubtless be doing you great injustice. While some put their schools 
under the patronage of dead men or dead women, your Institution is dedicated 
to Him who was dead, and is alive forevermore, and hath the keys of death and 
of hell. Pray that it may ever remain a bulwark of Apostolic, Reformation doc- 
trine. Pray for its pupils, who are so soon to fill your places. Pray for its pro- 
fessors, who must so soon stand at the tribunal of God, and undergo the exami- 
nation of omniscient purity for all the impressions they make on the rising 

In the series of events which have resulted in the solemn services of this 
evening, there has been a strange union of mercy from the Lord, and of kindness 
from his people. These have rendered tolerable, trials which, otherwise, would 
have been insupportable. They have made darkness light, and rough places 
smooth. They have taken away stumbling-blocks, and held out most pleasing 
promises of usefulness. They have driven away perplexity, and given pledges of 
help from above, and of brotherly encouragement from you all. I came among 
you a stranger, and was received as an old friend. In these circumstances, I 
bow the knee and give praise to the Father of all mercies ; and I beg you to 
accept assurances of heartfelt thanks for all the love and generosity you have so 
liberally heaped upon me. 

24 " WJiere's Jamie ?" [January. 

Dr. Plumer commences his instructions with the highest hopes 
of his friends, and of the patrons of the Institution. That he 
may enjoy the enlightening and quickening influences of the Holy 
Spirit, and in co-operation with the honoured Professors associated 
with him, may be the instrument of great good in the education of 
the rising ministry, is the prayer of all who love our Saviour, our 
Church, and our Western Theological Seminary. 

$Scii0*[rol& Gjjoftjljhu 


"Where's Jamie?" I heard an old lady ask, as I entered a 

"He is safe," I answered, for I had just seen the lad in the 

Jamie's grandmother went to the window, and looked out. My 
answer did not seem to satisfy her, and on a second thought it did 
not satisfy me. 

I asked myself, " Is he safe ?" He was not playing on the 
river-bank (where some children have been drowned), nor among 
the carriages at the steamboat wharf. He was not running about 
the railroad station ; but was he safe ? His active limbs seemed in 
no danger of being broken or injured. 

But had Jamie anything besides his body, that might meet with 
harm ? 

Yes ! He has a soul — a heart, — and if that should be injured, 
it would be of more consequence, than if his body should suffer. 

Can you tell why? Do you think Jamie was in any danger? 

Yes ! He was in great danger ! There were bad boys in the 
street, who might injure his soul. There were those who showed 
bad passions, anger and hatred. 

There were some who said evil words, and took God's name in 

And there were those who did cruel and wicked things. Was 
not Jamie in danger of learning much evil ? 

When his aged grandmother asked again, soon, " Where's 
Jamie?" I did not say, "He is safe." 

M. M. W. 

1855.] A G-ood Wife from the Lord. 25 


u Good night, dear mamma !" a little girl said, 
M I'm going to sleep in my nice trundle bed ; 
Good night, dear papa ! little brother and sis !" 
And to each one the innocent gave a sweet kiss. 
" Good night, little darling !" her fond mother said — 
" But remember, before you lie down in your bed, 
With a heart full of love, and a tone soft and mild, 
To breathe a short prayer to Heaven, dear child." 
" Oh I yes, dear mother !" said the child, with a nod, 
" I love, oh! I love to say ' Good night' to God 1" 

Kneeling down, " My dear Father in heaven," she said, 
" I thank Thee for giving me this nice little bed ; 
For though mamma told me she bought it for me, 
She tells that everything good comes from Thee ; 
I thank Thee for keeping me safe through the day ; 
I thank Thee for teaching me, too, how to pray ;" 
Then bending her sweet little head with a nod, 
" Good night! my dear Father, my Maker, and God ; 
Should I never again on the earth open mine eyes, 
I pray Thee to give me a home in the skies !" 

'Twas an exquisite sight as she meekly knelt there, 

With her eyes raised to Heaven, her hands clasped in prayer ; 

And I thought of the time when the Saviour, in love, 

Said, " Of such is the kingdom of Heaven above ;" 

And I inwardly prayed that my own heart the while, 

Might be cleansed of its bitterness, freed from its guile. 

Then she crept into bed, that beautiful child, 

And was soon lost in slumber so calm and so mild, 

That we listened in vain for the sound of her breath, 

As she lay in the arms of the emblem of death. 



Solomon says, a prudent or good wife is from the Lord, and not 
a few have experienced the truth of his assertion. One reason why 
so many fail to get good wives is, that they do not ask the Lord 
for them. They follow their own impulses, or the suggestions of 
interest, and do not ask counsel of God and commit their way unto 
Him. In the most important of all earthly matters they take 
counsel of their feelings, and lean to their own understandings. 

Thomas Shepherd, the first pastor of Cambridge, and one of the 
most godly and useful of the New England Fathers, acted in 
accordance with Solomon's doctrine. " Now, about this time, I 
had a great desire to change my estate by marriage ; and I had 
been praying three years before, that the Lord would carry me to 
such a place where I might have a meet yokefellow." 

He was at length invited to' take up his abode with Sir Richard 

26 Act and Testimony. [January. 

Daily, where his labours were blessed to the conversion of most of 
the members of the family, one of whom in due time, became his 
yokefellow. "And when he had fitted a wife for me," says Mr. 
S., " he then gave me her, who was a most sweet, humble woman, 
full of Christ, and a very discerning Christian, a wife who was 
most incomparably loving to me, and every way amiable and holy, 
and endued with a very sweet spirit of prayer. And thus the Lord 
answered my desires." 

Men may smile at the guileless simplicity with which he tells 
his story, but they would do well to imitate his example. — iV. Y. 

JRrfortroI nnh SiograpfntaL 


Toe " Act and Testimony" is a famous document in our Church history. It 
originated in a series of measures adopted by the New School party, in the 
General Assembly, which seemed to threaten the purity and integrity of the 
Presbyterian Church. A large minority of the Assembly of 1834, being con- 
vinced that the time for decisive action had arrived, held a meeting in Philadel- 
phia, at which all those ministers and elders who sympathized with their feelings 
and opinions, were invited to be present. The result of their deliberations was 
the issuing of an " Act and Testimony,''' which from its great importance and in- 
fluence, we republish for the perusal of many who have probably never seen the 
document. The Rev. I. V. Brown, who was one of the prominent actors of the 
scenes which " tried men's souls," gives, in his Vindication, the following items of 
information about this paper : — 

1. A committee of five were appointed by the minority to draw the document. 
Dr. Wm. Engles, Chairman. 

2. By request, llobt. J. Breckinridge drew the paper, and reported it to the 
committee, without a name prefixed, and without the specifications of errors an- 

Dr. Engles, the Chairman, prefixed the name, Act and Testimony. 
By request, we understand, Dr. Hodge added the specifications of error or false 

3. Dr. Engles suggested the signing of the Act and Testimony through the 
churches, and sending the signatures weekly to his office in Philadelphia, merely 
to give interest and diffusiveness to the circulation of the Act and Testimony. 
With this the committee had nothing to do. 

The paper received a large number of signatures, both from ministers and 


" To the Ministers, Elders, and Private Members of the Presbyterian 
Church iu the United States : — 

" Brethren, beloved in the Lord : — In the solemn crisis to which 

1855.] Act and Testimony. 27 

our church has arrived, we are constrained to appeal to you in relation to 
the alarming errors which have hitherto been connived at, and now, at 
length, have been countenanced and sustained, by the acts of the supreme 
judicatory of our church. Constituting, as we all do, a portion of your- 
selves, and deeply concerned as every portion of the system must be in 
all that affects the body itself, we earnestly address ourselves to you, in 
the full belief that the dissolution of our church, or what is worse, its 
corruption in all that once distinguished its peculiar testimony, can, under 
God, be prevented only by you. 

" From the highest judicatory of our church we have, for several years 
in succession, sought the redress of our grievances, and have not only 
sought it in vain, but with an aggravation of the evils of which we have 
complained. Whither, then, can we look for relief, but first to Him 
who is made head over all things, to the church, which is his body, and 
then to you, as constituting a part of that body, and as instruments in 
his hand to deliver the church from the oppression which she sorely feels? 

"We love the Presbyterian Church, and look back with sacred joy to 
her instrumentality in promoting every good, and every noble cause 
among men ; to her unwavering love of human rights; to her glorious 
efforts for the advancement of human happiness ; to her clear testimonies 
for the truth of God, and her great and blessed efforts to enlarge and es- 
tablish the kingdom of Christ our Lord. We delight to dwell on the 
things which our God has wrought by our beloved church, and by his 
grace enabling us, we are resolved that our children shall not have occa- 
sion to weep over an unfaithfulness which permitted us to stand idly by, 
and behold the ruin of this glorious structure. 

" ' Brethren,' says the Apostle, ' I beseech you by the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be 
no divisions among you, but that ye be perfectly joined together, in the 
same mind and in the same judgment.' In the presence of that Re- 
deemer by whom Paul adjures us, we avow our fixed adherence to those 
standards of doctrine and order, in their obvious and intended sense, 
which we have heretofore subscribed under circumstances the most im- 
pressive. In the same spirit, we do therefore solemnly acquit ourselves 
in the sight of God, of all responsibility arising from the existence of 
those divisions and disorders in our church, which spring from a disregai'd 
of assumed obligations, a departure from doctrines deliberately professed, 
and a subversion of forms publicly and repeatedly approved. By the 
same high authority, and under the same weighty sanctions, we do avow 
our fixed purpose to strive for the restoration of purity, peace, and scrip- 
tural order to our church, and to endeavour to exclude from her commu- 
nion those who disturb her peace, corrupt her testimony, and subvert her 
established forms. And to the end that the doctrinal errors of which we 
complain may be fully known, and the practical evils under which the 
body suffers be clearly set forth, and our purposes in regard to both be 
distinctly understood, we adopt this Act and Testimony. 


"1. We do bear our solemn testimony against the right claimed by 
many, of interpreting the doctrines of our standards in a sense different 

* To sustain the accuracy of the following specifications, we are happy in being 
able to quote the authority of Dr. Hodge, who kindly consented to become the drawer 

28 Act and Testimony. [January. 

from the general sense of the church for year3 past, whilst they still con- 
tinue in our communion. On the contrary, we aver that they who adopt 
our standards, are bound by candour and the simplest integrity, to hold 
them in their obvious accepted sense. 

"2. We testify against the unchristian subterfuge to which some have 
recourse, when they avow a general adherence to our standards as a system, 
while they deny doctrines essential to the system, or hold doctrines at 
complete variance with the system. 

"3. We testify against the reprehensible conduct of those in our com- 
munion, who hold, and preach, and publish Arminian and Pelagian here- 
sies, professing, at the same time, to embrace our creed, and pretending 
that these errors do consist therewith. 

" 4. We testify against the conduct of those who, while they profess 
to approve and adopt our doctrine and order, do nevertheless speak and 
publish, in terms or by necessary implication, that which is derogatory to 
both, and which tends to bring both into disrepute. 

" 5. We testify against the following, as part of the errors which are 
held and taught by many persons in our church : — 

"1. Our relation to Adam. That we have no more to do with the 
first sin of Adam, than with the sins of any other parent. 

"2. Native depravity. That there is no such thing as original sin; 
that infants come into the world as perfectly free from corruption as Adam 
was when he was created; that by original sin, nothing more is meant 
than the fact, that all the posterity of Adam, though born entirely free 
from moral defilement, will always begin to sin when they begin to ex- 
ercise moral agency, and that this fact is somehow connected with the 
fall of Adam. 

"3. Imputation. That the doctrine of imputed sin and imputed 
righteousness is a novelty, and is nonsense. 

"4. Ability. That the impenitent sinner is by nature, and indepen- 
dently of the aid of the Holy Spirit, in full possession of all the powers 
necessary to a compliance with the commands of God ; and that, if he 
laboured under any kind of inability, natural or moral, which he could 
not remove himself, he would be excusable for not complying with God's 

" 5. Regeneration. That man's regeneration is his own act ; that it 
consists merely in the change of our governing purpose, which change we 
must ourselves produce. 

" 6. Divine Influence. That God cannot exert such an influence on 
the minds of men as shall make it certain that they will choose and act 
in a particular manner, without destroying their moral agency; and that, 
in a moral system, God could not prevent the existence of sin, or the 
present amount of sin, however much he might desire it. 

" 7. Atonement. That Christ's sufferings were not truly and properly 

" Which doctrines and statements are dangerous and heretical, contrary 
to the gospel of God, and inconsistent with our Confession of Faith. We 
are painfully alive, also, to the conviction, that unless a speedy remedy 

of this most important feature of the Act and Testimony, on the request of the com- 
mittee appointed to prepare the document. But in all the memorials and testimonies 
on this subject, presented to the General Assembly at different times and from various 
parts of the church, there is a substantial agreement in regard to the nature, as well 
as extent, of the alleged heresies, pervading the whole. 

1855.] Act and Testimony. 29 

be applied to the abuses which have called forth this Act and Testimony, 
our theological seminaries will soon be converted into nurseries to foster 
the noxious errors which are already so widely prevalent, and our church 
funds will be perverted from the design for which they were originally 


" The necessary consequence of the propagation of these and similar 
errors amongst us, has been the agitation and division of our churches 
and ecclesiastical bodies ; the separation of ministers, elders, and people, 
into distinct parties, and the great increase of causes of alienation. 

" Our people are no longer as one body of Christians ; many of our 
church sessions are agitated by the tumultuous spirit of party ; our Pres- 
byteries are convulsed by collisions growing out of the heresies detailed 
above, and our Synods and our Assembly are made theatres for the open 
display of humiliating scenes of human passion and weakness. Mutual 
confidence is weakened; respect for the supreme judicatory of the Church 
is impaired ; our hope that the dignified and impartial course of justice 
would flow, steadily onward, has expired ; and a large portion of the reli- 
gious press is made subservient to error. The ordinary course of disci- 
pline, arrested by compromises in which the truth is always loser, and 
perverted by organized combinations to personal, selfish, and party ends, 
ceases altogether, and leaves every one to do what seems good in his own 
eyes. The discipline of the church, rendered more needful than ever 
before, by the existence of numberless cases, in which Christian love to 
erring brethren, as well as a just regard to the interests of Zion, imperi- 
ously call for its prompt, firm, and temperate exercise, is absolutely 
prevented by the very causes which demand its employment. At the 
last meeting of the General Assembly, a respectful memorial, presented 
in behalf of eleven Presbyteries, and many sessions and individual mem- 
bers of our church, was treated without one indication of kindness, or the 
manifestation of any disposition to concede a single request that was 
made. It was sternly frowned upon, and the memorialists were left to 
mourn under their grievances, with no hope of alleviation from those who 
ought to have at least shown tenderness and sympathy, as the nursing 
fathers of the church, even when that which was asked was refused to 
the petitioners. At the same time, they who first corrupted our doc- 
trines, and then deprived us of the means of correcting the evils they 
have produced, seek to give permanent security to their errors, and to 
themselves, by raising an outcry in the churches against all who love the 
truth well enough to contend for it. 

" Against this unusual, unhappy, and ruinous condition, we do bear 
our clear and decided testimony, in the presence of the God of all living; 
we do declare our firm belief that it springs primarily from the fatal 
heresies countenanced in our body ; and we do avow our deliberate pur- 
pose, with the help of God, to give our best endeavours to correct it. 


" "We believe that the form of government of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States, is in all essential features in full accordance with 
the revealed will of God ; and therefore, whatever impairs its purity, or 

30 Act and Testimony. [January. 

changes its essential character, is repugnant to the will of our Master. 
In what light, then, shall we he considered, if, professing to revere this 
system, we calmly hehold its destruction, or connive at the conduct of 
those engaged in tearing up its deep foundations ? Some of us have long 
dreaded the spirit of indifference to the peculiarities of our church order, 
which we supposed was gradually spreading amongst us, and the develop- 
ments of later years have rendered it most certain that as the perversion 
of our doctrinal formularies, and the engrafting of new principles and 
practices upon our church constitution, have gone hand in hand, so the 
original purity of the one cannot be restored without a strict and faithful 
adherence to the other. Not only then for its own sake do we love the 
constitution of our church, as a model of all free institutions, but. as a 
clear and noble exhibition of the soundest principles of civil and religious 
liberty ; not only do we venerate its peculiarities, because they exhibit the 
rules by which God intends the affairs of his church on earth to be con- 
ducted, but we cling to its venerable ramparts, because they afford a 
sure defence for those precious, though despised doctrines of grace, the 
pure transmission of which has been intrusted as a sacred duty to the 

" It is, therefore, with the deepest sorrow, that we behold our church 
tribunals, in various instances, imbued with a different spirit, and fleeing, 
on every emergency, to expedients, unknown to the Christian simplicity 
and uprightness of our forms, and repugnant to all our previous habits. 
It is with pain and distrust, that we see sometimes the helpless inefficiency 
of mere advisory bodies contended for and practised, when the occasion 
called for the free action of our laws ; and sometimes the full and peremp- 
tory exercise of power almost despotic practised in cases where no 
authority existed to act at all. It is with increasing alarm, that we be- 
hold a fixed design to organize new tribunals, upon principles repugnant 
to our system, and directly subversive of it, for the obvious purpose of 
establishing and propagating the heresies already recounted; of shielding 
from just process the individuals who hold them, and of arresting the 
wholesome discipline of the church. We do therefore testify against all 
these departures from the true principles of our constitution ; against the 
formation of new Presbyteries and Synods, otherwise than upon the 
established rules of our church, or for other purposes than the ediBcation 
and enlargement of the Church of Christ; and we most particularly 
testify against the formation of any tribunal in our church upon what 
some call principles of elective affinity; against the exercise by the 
General Assembly, of any power not clearly delegated to it; and the 
exercise even of its delegated powers for purposes inconsistent with the 
design of its creation. 

"RECOMMENDATIONS to tiie churches. 

"Dear Christian Brethren — you who love Jesus Christ in sincerity and 
truth, and adhere to the plain doctrines of the cross, as taught in the 
standards prepared by the Westminster Assembly, and constantly held by 
the true Presbyterian Church ; to all of you who love your ancient and 
pure constitution, and desire to restore our abused and corrupted church 
to her simplicity, purity, and truth, we, a portion of yourselves, ministers 
and elders of your churches, and servants of one common Lord, would 
propose most respectfully and kindly, and yet most earnestly : — 

1855.] Act and Testimony. 31 

" 1. That we refuse to give countenance to ministers, elders, agents, 
editors, teachers, or to those who are in any other capacity, engaged in 
religious instruction or effort, who hold the preceding or similar heresies. 

" 2. That we make every lawful effort to subject all such persons, espe- 
cially if they be ministers, to the just exercise of discipline, by the proper 

"3. That we use all proper means to restore the discipline of the 
church, in all its courts, to a sound, just, Christian state. 

"4. That we use our endeavours to prevent the introduction of new 
principles into our system, and to restore our tribunals to their ancient 

" 5. That we consider the Presbyterial existence, or acts of any 
Presbytery or Synod formed upon the principles of elective affinity, as 
unconstitutional, and all ministers and churches voluntarily included in 
such bodies, as having virtually departed from the standards of our 

" 6. We recommend that all ministers, elders, church sessions, Presby- 
teries, and Synods, who approve of this Act and Testimony, give their 
public adherence thereto, in such manner as they shall prefer, and com- 
municate their names, and, when a church court, a copy of their adhering 

" 7. That inasmuch as our only hope of improvement and reformation 
in the affairs of our church depends on the interposition of Him who is 
King in Zion, that we will unceasingly and importunately supplicate the 
Throne of Grace for the return of that purity and peace, the absence of 
which we now sorrowfully deplore. 

" 8. We do earnestly recommend that on the second Thursday of May, 
1835, a convention be held in the City of Pittsburgh, to be composed of 
two delegates, a minister and ruling elder, from each Presbytery, or from 
the minority of any Presbytery, who may concur in the sentiments of 
this Act and Testimony, to deliberate and consult on the present state of 
our church, and to adopt such measures as may be best suited to restore 
her prostrated standards. 

" And now, brethren, our whole heart is laid open to you and to the 
world. If the majority of our church are against us, they will, we sup- 
pose, in the end either see the infatuation of their course, and retrace 
their steps, or they will at last attempt to cut us off. If the former, we 
shall bless the God of Jacob ; if the latter, we are ready, for the sake of 
Christ, and in support of the testimony now made, not only to be cut 
off, but, if need be, to die also. If, on the other hand, the body be yet 
in the main sound, as we would fondly hope, we have here frankly, openly, 
and candidly, laid before our erring brethren, the course we are, by the 
grace of God, irrevocably determined to pursue. It is our steadfast aim to 
reform the church, or to testify. against its errors and defections until 
testimony will be no longer heard. And we commit the issue into the 
hands of him who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen. 

" Ministers. 

James Magraw, David R. Preston, 

Robert J. Breckinridge, William Wylie, 

James Latta, William M. Engles, 


Review and Criticism. 


Ashbel Green, 
Samuel D. Blythe, 
S. H. Crane, 
J. W. Scott, 
William Latta, 
Robert Steele, 
Alexander A. Campbell, 
John Gray, 
James Scott, 
Joshua L. Wilson, 
Alexander M'Farlane, 
Jacob Coon, 
Isaac N. Candee, 
Robert Love, 
James W. M'Kennon, 

Cornelius H. Mustard, 
James C. Watson, 
William L. Breckinridge, 
John H. Symmes, 
David M' Kinney, 
George Marshall, 
Ebenezer H. Snowden, 
Oscar Harris, 
William I. Gibson, 
William Sickles, 
Benjamin F. Spilman, 
George D. M'Cuann, 
George W. Janvier, 
Samuel G. Winchester, 
George Junkin. 

" Elders. 

Samuel Boyd, 
Edward Vanhorn, 
W. Dunn, 
James Algeo, 
James Agnew, 
Henry M'Keen, 
Charles Davis, 
W. Wallace, 
Joa. P. Engles, 
A. D. Hepburn, 
Js. M'Farren, 
A. Symington, 
A. Bayles, 
Wm. Agnew, 

"Philadelphia, May 27, 1834." 

Geo. Morris, 
H. Campbell, 
Thomas M'Keen, 
James Wilson, 
D. B. Price, 
c. hotchkiss, 
Chs. Woodward, 
W. A. G. Posey, 
James Carnahan, 
Moses Reed, 
James Steele, 
George Durfor, 
John Sharp, 
Isaac V. Brown. 

%m\m anh Crifiriflm. 

The Extent of the Atonement. The Atonement, not limited in all its uses to 
the elect, the faith of the Presbyterian Church. By the Rev. S. Brown. Cincin- 
nati: 1854. 

The object of this pamphlet appears to be to reconcile different views 
of the Atonement, which have been regarded as belonging to different and 
variant systems. The success of this undertaking, may be learned by 
noticing the author's main position, viz. : that, " No sinner of Adam's 
race, whether elect or non-elect, has a right to appropriate any of the 
blessings of salvation made and provided, without a grant from the divine 
government, however evident it may be, that the provisions were in- 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 33 

tended for sinners." " After a full atonement is made, it must be legally 
granted to men before they may appropriate it, and before they can be 
required to believe on pain of damnation." Here it is taken for granted 
except so far as the assumption is sustained by the preceding demonstra- 
tion, 1. That an atonement can be made, which may have no specific 
reference to persons. 2. 'That this atonement may not be applied after 
it is made, — may have no legal consequences — that God is free, even 
after the vicarious obedience and death of Christ, to withhold the bless- 
ings of redemption from any or all of the sons of men. 3. That no man 
has a right to appropriate this atonement, until he has received a legal 
grant of it. 4. That no man, who does not receive this grant, is bound 
to believe on pain of damnation. This we are to regard as the faith of 
the Presbyterian Church, drawn from the Symbols by one of her gifted 


The claims of this system, to truth and Presbyterianism, it is our pur- 
pose now to examine ; and we begin with the first in order. It denies an 
atonement having specific reference to individuals. What say our 
standards ? " They who are elected being fallen in Adam, are redeemed 
by Christ, are effectually called unto faith in Christ, by his spirit working 
in due season ; are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept by his power 
through faith unto salvation. Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, 
effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect 
only." Conf. cap. III., § 6. This language, with the most of people, 
would be regarded as sufficiently explicit, and designed by those who used 
it, for the very purpose of testifying to the world their faith in a limited 
atonement. But explicit as it is, it is not sufficiently so for our author. 
Starting with the assumption, that redemption always means, what it 
undoubtedly does sometimes mean, he regards the terms which follow it, 
in the passage just quoted, as merely exegetical of it. To be redeemed, 
according to his interpretation, is to be effectually called, justified, 
adopted, sanctified, and de facto saved. But where did our author find 
out that this is the meaning of the word redeemed in our Confession ? Was 
it from the structure of the language employed ? Why then not go through 
with the adopted principle of construction, and if the syntax indicated that 
f* redeemed," included all the subsequent clauses, why not make "jus- 
tified," and "adopted," and "sanctified," equally comprehensive of their 
respective attendants ? If to « be redeemed must mean, to be justified, 
adopted, sanctified, and saved, why, on the same principle of construction, 
should it not follow, that to be justified must mean, to be adopted, sancti- 
fied, and saved ? Truly the framers of the Confession of Faith, were stupid 
men, not to see that a discerning posterity would charge, them with the 
sin of pleonasm ! 

But apart from the standards of our Church, what are we to say about 
the point under discussion ? Could there be such a thing as an atonement 
which has no specific reference to individuals? We say there could not; 
and he who says there can, has no just conception of what an atonement 
is. If the fundamental idea of an atonement be the expiation of guilt, 
who but a Universalist would deny that it must have specific reference 
to individuals ? Sin cannot be expiated in the abstract. To atone for 
sin is to bear the guilt of sin ; and as the guilt of sin is nothing else than 
the exposure of the sinner to wrath, atonement must have reference to 

vol. v. — no. 1. • 3 

34 Review and Criticism. [January. 

those who are thus exposed ; and that, too, a reference such as an atone- 
ment must have. We say nothing at all about incidental advantages 
arising from the atonement. When we speak of the reference of it to 
men, we mean such a reference as is proper to it, as a thing intended for 
the removal of guilt. The doctrine, therefore, of "a general reference," 
is inseparable from the doctrine of Universalism. 

The next point contained in this expose of the faith of the Presbyterian 
Church is, that the atonement may, or may not be applied after it is made. 
That this is no misrepresentation of our author's doctrine, must be 
obvious from the language he employs and the principle he is endeavour- 
ing to establish. "After a full atonement is made," he tells us, "it 
must be legally granted to men before they may appropriate it," &c. 
What he means by a legal grant is more expressly stated afterwards, when 
it is defined as "a legislative grant." A legislative grant of what? Of 
an atonement ? Yes, " of an atonement to all men." Here, then, we are 
told, that between the rendering of an atonement by Christ and the 
offering of its benefits to men, there must come in an act of the divine 
legislature, which act alone can entitle them to an appropriation of it. 
Let not the reader think that our author in this passage, has reference 
simply to the offer of a salvation already purchased. Had this been all, 
nobody would have called his doctrine in question ; for we freely admit 
that before men can appropriate, or be condemned for rejecting, the bless- 
ings of the gospel, they must have an opportunity of hearing it. It is 
not of the impossibility of accepting that which has not been offered, he 
speaks, but of the want of a right to appropriate that which has not 
been legally granted. Here is the relation between the offer and the 
grant, as set forth in the pamphlet. " He (God), offers salvation to all 
in good faith, because he has made a legislative grant of an atonement to 
all men." The offer, therefore, is one thing, and the legal grant another; 
and the offer is based upon the legal grant. Now who so blind as not to 
see that this leaves out of view, altogether, the covenant made with Christ, 
as our great head and representative, in the covenant of grace? The 
Presbyterian Church, whose faith our author would expound, has been 
wont to give a very different view of the economy of grace devised in the 
eternal council. She has been accustomed to present these things in such 
an order, as to leave no room between the atonement and the offer, for a 
legislative grant. Her doctrine is, that to Christ, upon his fulfilling the 
conditions of the covenant into which he entered with the Father, there 
are given, not as a legislative grant, but as the purchase of his blood, the 
people for whom he covenanted. This people, it required no legislative 
act to make his. They were his, by covenant — his by purchase. The 
atonement once made, it was his in the administration of the economy 
of grace, to offer his salvation to the sons of men, and call his elect from 
every kindred and tongue and people, irrespective of any subsequent 
legislative grant. And to hold to the necessity of such a grant, is first 
to deny the right of the Redeemer to the rewards of his obedience and death. 
The next point is but the correlative of the one which we have just 
dismissed. In this clause of our author's proposition, it is stated that no 
man has a right to appropriate the atonement (by which we suppose he 
means the benefits of the atonement), until he has received a legal grant 
of it. This we say is but the correlative of the point which immediately 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 35 

precedes, and is, therefore, to be answered by the same arguments. The 
latter is just as inconsistent with the doctrine of a covenant made with 
Christ as the former. It requires no legislative grant to confer on men, 
a right already secured in the covenant of grace. 

The fourth and last point is a sequitur from the third, viz. : No man, 
who does not receive this grant is hound to believe on pain of damnation. 
The condemnation of a man who has never received a legal grant of the 
atonement is, in the estimation of our author, utterly out of the question. 
"But," says he, "if the atonement is in every respect limited to the 
elect, and legally granted to them only, then the rest of mankind are in 
precisely the same situation with fallen angels, as it respects the divine 
law and government ; and yet they are punished for not accepting what 
was never granted them ! This cannot be." We, nevertheless, doubt 
very much, whether the difficulty is removed by admitting a legal grant. 
It cannot be simply a legal grant made, but a legal grant made known, 
that can justify the condemnation of the rejector; for if it were the 
former, then, according to our author, all the race, except believers, 
would be under condemnation, whether they knew of such a grant or not. 
But as this doctrine of a legal grant has only been discovered by the 
writer of this pamphlet, and that too, subsequent to his public adoption 
of our standards, and as the pamphlet itself has not had a very wide cir- 
culation, it must follow that very few of our race have as yet incurred 
the fearful doom of those who have trodden under foot the Son of God, 
and counted (not the legal grant), but the blood wherewith he was 
sanctified, an unholy thing, and have done despite to the Spirit of Grace. 
There is, however, another inference from this doctrine of a legal grant, 
obvious and most awful. If the legal grant, as our author affirms, be the 
only warrant of faith, then all who have failed to discover it are lost ! What 
then is to become, or has become, of those who have simply received 
Christ, not as he is legally granted, but as he is freely offered, in the 
gospel ? 

We have neither time nor space for further animadversions on this 
singular document. We have directed our attention, chiefly to the prin- 
ciples of the system, leaving the details to find their way back to the 
systems from which they have respectively strayed. 

The Abrogation of the Plan of Union of 1801. By the General Assembly of 
1837, Historically Vindicated. By Isaac V. Brown, A. M. Trenton, 1854. William 
Brown, 8 vo. pp. 325. 

It has been often said within a few years past, that the history of the 
acts of the General Assembly of 1837, is yet to be written ; meaning 
thereby, that it is now too soon to give a calm and impartial history of 
those acts. This may be true to some extent, and in some aspects of the 
subject. The writer of this volume exhibits more of the earnestness of 
that language and phraseology which were unavoidable in 1837, than the 
coolness of diction and spirit, which we might expect in 1854. But the 
reason undoubtedly is, that he was prominently engaged in the contro- 
versy at that time, and has transferred to these pages a number of articles 
which he then prepared and published. To write on those stirring topics 

36 Review and Criticism. [January. 

without deep emotion and strong language in 1830-37, was no easy task, 
particularly for one who felt as Mr. Brown did, that the walls of our 
Jerusalem were in danger of being demolished. 

The volume, however, notwithstanding its fervour, contains a true and 
faithful history of those events, accompanied by reasonings and arguments 
of the writer, presented in his nervous and energetic style. It contains 
also the most important records and papers, preceding and connected with 
the acts of the Assembly; and the additional documents, relating to the 
civil suit which followed those acts. It may be considered, therefore, as 
complete a history as is necessary in order to give the reader a knowledge 
of the true issues between the two parties, and of the justice and neces- 
sity of that course, which was pursued by the Assembly, in order to 
restore the Church to her former purity and harmony. This history may 
not be the last which will be written. But whoever may write another, 
will resort, we doubt not, to the present volume, as one of the repositories 
from which he will draw his materials. Mr. Brown deserves the thanks 
of his brethren for his fidelity, in " contending earnestly for the faith 
once delivered to the saints." 

Professional Ethics : A Compend of Lectures on the Aims and Duties of the Pro- 
fession of the Law. Delivered before the Law Class of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. By George Sharswood, Professor of the Institutes of Law. Philadelphia, 
T. & J. W. Johnson, 1854. 

' Judge Sharswood is one of the clear-headed and modest men of learn- 
ing, of whom this great city may well boast, and to whom any court of 
justice may safely trust its decisions. With a most estimable personal 
character added to the influence of a well-regulated and commanding in- 
tellect, his words of counsel on " Professional Ethics" were received by 
his class of students with high appreciation of their merit, and will be read 
by others with deep interest. The profession of law, like other pursuits, 
has its peculiar temptations. Low views of the objects and principles of 
the legal profession are too widely prevalent. Judge Sharswood correctly 
states, " There is, perhaps, no profession, after that of the sacred ministry, 
in which a high-toned morality is more imperatively necessary than that 
of the law. There is certainly, without any exception, no profession in 
which so many temptations beset the path to swerve from the line of 
strict duty and propriety ; in which so many delicate and difficult questions 
of casuistry are continually arising. There are pitfalls and man-traps at 
every step, and the youthful adventurer needs often the prudence aud 
self-denial, as well as moral courage, which belong commonly to riper 
years. High moral principle is his only safe guide; the only torch to 
light his way amidst darkness and obstruction." 

The oath prescribed by the Act of Assembly, 1752, in Pennsylvania, 
which is administered upon the admission of an attorney to the bar, re- 
quires a promise u to behave himself in the office of attorney, acording to 
his learning and ability, aud with all good fidelity, as well to the court as to 
the client; that he will use no falsehood, nor delay any man's cause for 
lucre or malice" (with the addition, by the Act of 1834, "to support the 
Constitution of the United States, and of this commonwealth."). From 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 37 

the terms of this oath, the Judge deduces, as true elements in all correct 
ethical views of the subject, fidelity to the court, fidelity to the client, and 
fidelity to the practitioner himself. Fidelity to the court, in the Judge's 
opinion, requires outward respect in words and actions — a clause that 
means a great deal. Another plain duty of counsel towards the court, is 
to present everything in the cause to it openly, in the course of the public 
discharge of its duties. Another duty is, to support and maintain the 
court in its proper province, wherever it comes in conflict with the co- 
ordinate tribunal — the jury. And further, a practitioner ought to be par- 
ticularly cautious, in all his dealings with the court, to use no deceit, im- 
position, or evasion — to make no statements of facts which he does not 
know or believe to be true — to distinguish carefully what lies in his own 
knowledge from what he has merely derived from his instructions, — to 
present no papers or books intentionally garbled. These points are main- 
tained with force and dignity, and must command universal acquiescence. 

The topic of fidelity to the client involves many serious and difficult 
questions, which the Judge discusses with much ability and moderation. 
And we may here remark, that the dignity and calmness with which the 
various topics are discussed, are as prominent traits of this treatise as its 
ability and moral rectitude. On the point whether a lawyer may engage 
in a suit which he believes to be not founded in right, Judge Sharswood has 
a number of pertinent remarks. He states, in general, that " the lawyer 
who refuses his professional assistance, because in his judgment the case 
is unjust and unjustifiable, usurps the function of both judge and jury," 
but he earnestly maintains that there are many limitations which an 
honest man must carefully consider. Among these considerations, is the 
distinction between the prosecution and the defence of crimes ; between 
appearing for a plaintiff in pursuit of an unjust claim, and for a defen- 
dant in resisting what appears to be a just one. Another consideration for 
a conscientious lawyer is, that there may and ought to be, a difference 
made in the mode of conducting a defence against what is believed to be 
a righteous, and what is believed to be an unrighteous claim. Further- 
more, no counsel can with propriety and a good conscience express to 
court or jury his belief in the justice of his client's cause, contrary to 
fact. Judge Sharswood brings up other thoughts in this connection, but 
we cannot follow him throughout. His whole treatise deserves an atten- 
tive perusal; and those practitioners will be wise who adopt the counsels 
it contains. We trust that* this well-planned and well-written volume 
will be the means of much good in the community. We present a single 
extract, which is all that our space allows. 

" Let it be remembered and treasured in the heart of every student, 
that no man can ever be a truly great lawyer, who is not in every sense of 
the word, a good man. A lawyer, without the most sterling integrity, 
may shine for a while with meteoric splendour ; but, depend upon it, his 
light will soon go out in blackness of darkness. It is not in every man's 
power to rise to eminence, by distinguished abilities. It is in every man's 
power with few exceptions, to attain respectability, competence, and use- 
fulness. The temptations which beset a young man in the outset of his 
professional life, especially if he is in absolute dependence upon business 
for his subsistence, are very great. The strictest principles of integrity 
and honour, are his only safety. Let him begin by swerving from truth 

38 Review and Criticism. [January. 

or fairness in small particulars, he will find his character gone — whispered 
away, before he knows it. Such an one may not indeed be irrevocably 
lost ; but it will be years, before he will be able to regain a firm foothold. 
There is no profession, in which moral character is so soon fixed, as in 
that of the law; there is none, in which it is subjected to severer scrutiny 
by the public. It is well, that it is so. The things we hold dearest on 
earth, — our fortunes, reputations, domestic peace, the future of those 
dearest to us, nay, our liberty and life itself, we confide to the integrity of 
our legal counsellors and advocates. Their character must be not only 
without a stain, but without suspicion. From the very commencement of 
your career, then, cultivate, above all things, truth, simplicity, and can- 
dour : they are the cardinal virtues of a lawyer. Always seek to have a 
clear understanding of your object : be sure it is honest and right, and 
then march directly to it. The covert, indirect, and insidious way of doing 
anything, is always the wrong way. It gradually hardens the moral facul- 
ties, renders obtuse the perception of right and wrong in human actions, 
weighs everything in the balances of worldly policy, and ends most gene- 
rally, in the practical adoption of the vile maxim, ' that the end sanc- 
tifies the means/ " 

Addresses at the Inauguration of Wm. S. Plumer, D.D., as Professor of Didactic 
and Pastoral Theology in the Western Theological Seminary. Pittsburgh, 1854. 

Our opinion of these excellent addresses has been already given, and 
copious extracts appear in another part of our Magazine. Dr. Swift, and 
Professor Plumer, have proved themselves workmen after the true Presby- 
terian model. 

Addresses at tiie Inauguration or Alexander T. M"Gill, D.D., as Professor of 
Pastoral Theology, Church Government, and the Composition and Delivery of 
Sermons, in the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J. Phila. 1854. 

Dr. Murray selected as the subject of his able Address, " The Ministry 
We Need." Among the characteristics of an able ministry, he enumerates 
decided piety, literary qualifications of a high order, the capability of 
presenting fully the great doctrines of the gospel, and impressiveness, 
including in the latter idea, good writing, good speaking, and a solemn 
and earnest manner. The need of such a ministry is unfolded with much 
zeal and power. Dr. Murray's address is enlivened with many pithy re- 
marks, and contains valuable suggestions on a variety of topics, connected 
with his subject. 

The topic of Dr. M'Gill's address was " Practical Theology" and in 
this term the learned Professor includes a sixfold division of subjects, viz., 
I. Pastoral Theology, strictly considered. II. Hoiniletics, with the whole 
range of sacred rhetoric. III. Catechetics, embracing the whole variety 
of means for the instruction of youth and ignorance, other than public 
preaching. IV. Liturgies, — a title which embraces the Sabbath, and 
those ordinances of religion which are distinctively worship, and formal 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 39 

solemnity. V. The Church; her proper visibility, the true theory of her 
constitution, membership, and government. VI. Ecclesiastical law and 
discipline. It is sufficient to say that Dr. M'Grill's Address fully met 
the high expectations of the Board of Directors, and of the friends of the 
Seminary, and that he has made a beginning worthy of his high and well- 
deserved reputation. 

Letter on the Divinity of Christ. From a Father to Son. 1854. 

The " Layman," who writes this valuable and convincing Letter, is the 
same who lately gave to the public, an exposition of the doctrine of the 
Resurrection. The same sober, evangelical, and thoughtful views cha- 
racterize both performances. The extracts, published on a preceding 
page, exhibit the mode in which vigorous minds can rely upon the Scrip- 
tures, and show that an appeal to "the law and the testimony/' is the 
best mode of settling controversy. , 

The Influence of Missions on People and Nations. A Discourse preached 
before the Synod of Nashville. By the Rev. William H. Mitchell. Nashville, 

The church is not yet aroused to the importance of the missionary 
work, and needs " line upon line." The sermon of Brother Mitchell is 
well suited to its purpose, and will do good in its advocacy of this great 
cause. The points of the sermon are : I. Nations, if left to themselves, 
will sink to degradation and misery. " The history of Greece and Rome, 
affords proof of the fact that reason may rise to the zenith, whilst virtue and 
morality, may, at the same time, sink to the nadir." II. The superior 
adaptation of the Christian religion to civilize, and in the highest degree 
refine the barbarous and benighted nations of the earth j and to prepare 
them for the enjoyment of civil and religious liberty. III. The history 
of Missions affords cogent proof and convincing illustration of the power 
of Christianity. These points are well sustained and enforced by the 
eloquent preacher. 

Mr. Rutherford's Children. Vol. II. New York, George P. Putnam & Co.. 1854. 

This beautifully printed and illustrated volume, is worthy of the firm, 
which issues it. The tales seem to have a good moral ; and the authors, 
who wrote "The Wide, Wide World," "Dollars and Cents," &c, have a 
good reputation. 

The Lands of the Saracen : or Pictures of Palestine, Asia Minor, Sicily, and Spain. 
By Bayard Taylor. New York, George P. Putnam & Co., 1854. 

This is one of the finest books of travels issued for a long time. Few 
writers surpass Bayard Taylor in descriptive power, in life-like sketches 
of men and things, and in general vivacity of style. This volume com- 
prises the second portion of a series of travels, of which the " Journey 
to Central Africa" is the first part. It will be followed by a third and 
concluding volume, containing adventures in India, China, the Loo-Choo 

40 The Religious World. [January. 

Islands, and Japan. Mr. Taylor has certainly imparted a strong interest 
to the regions visited, and to the Saracen race, which is thes ubject of his 
observations. The journey from Aleppo to Constantinople, through the 
heart of Asia Minor, is one rarely taken by tourists, and forms a number 
of chapters which the reader will highly appreciate. The chapter entitled 
" The Visions of Hasheesh," contains writing of extraordinary power, 
quite worthy of the extraordinary visions produced by the extraordinaiy 
" Hasheesh." The volume is exceedingly entertaining and instructive, 
and will, we are quite sure, be extensively circulated in the community. 

i jUligton* JBotft, 

Last Remnants of the Delawares in Nebraska. — In the wilds 
of the far West, the last remnants of the once powerful Delawares are 
fast dwindling away. Once the lords of the soil in Eastern Pennsylvania, 
they have been driven westward by the tide of immigration setting in from 
the East. The hunters of the " beautiful river," the Lehigh, became 
exiles on the Susquehanna, the Allegheny, the Ohio, the Muskingum, 
and when the fugitives on the Thames (Upper Canada), after many years 
of outward tranquillity heard that there were yet remnants of their nation 
on the Kanzas, far beyond the Mississippi, an irresistible yearning com- 
pelled them to the West. In 1834 two brethren from Fairfield were 
deputed to reconnoitre that district, which it was reported to them had 
been reserved by the government of the United States for their nation. 
Though their report was unfavourable, still about 200 — by far the greater 
part of the congregation — in July, 1837, left their homes at New Fair- 
field, to seek a new home in the wilds of the Western Indian Territory. 
Br. Jesse Vogler accompanied them, and after many hardships reached 
the Kansas River in November, with only seventy-six of the emigrants, the 
rest having preferred to remain near Lake Winnebago till next spring. 
Here br. Vogler was joined in 1838, by br. and sr. Chrn. Miksch of Litz, 
and Westfield was founded on the Kansas. It was supposed that this 
tract of land belonged to their kinsmen, the Delawares, by whose invita- 
tion they had come. But some years ago it was ascertained, that the 
land on which our Christian Indians live, is the property of the Wyan- 
dots. The latter immediately laying claim to it, our Indians were notified 
in 1852, that they must leave next spring ('53). Accordingly a tract of 
land has been bought from the Delawares about nineteen miles from West- 
field, to the northwest, on the Kansas River, six miles from Fort Leaven- 
worth, and half a mile from the Missouri. This tract had for several 
years been the abode of the remnants of the Stockbridge or Mohegan 
Indians, who had arrived there about the same time with our Indians, seventy 
in number, but were dwindled down to ten. About sixteen years our 
Indians had lived at Westfield; 115 were buried there. The congregation 
numbered at the close of 1852, only seventy-seven souls, thirty-two of 
whom were communicant members. — Moravian Miscellany. 

1855.] The Religious World. 41 

Oahu College. — A College bearing this name, has been founded at the Sand- 
wich Islands. It is located about two miles from the city of Honolulu. It went 
into operation September 13th. The President of the College is Edward G. 
Beckwith, who has been two years Principal of the Royal School. Mr. Beckwith 
is a native of Great Barrington, Massachusetts, and graduated at Williams Col- 
lege in 1849. 

In addition to the degrees of A. B. and A. M., it is arranged in the College to 
confer the degree of B. P., which is thus explained : — 

The degree of B. P., is intended for those who wish to prepare for the pursuits 
of active life. In this course the Ancient Languages may be omitted ; but one 
Modern Language will be required, and a complete course in Book Keeping, 
accompanied with Lectures upon " Commerce and Mercantile Transactions." 

The Honolulu Friend, speaking of this enterprise, says: — 

The subject of establishing a higher Institution of learning, than has hithei'to 
existed, has often been made the topic of remark among the friends of education. 
Months and even years ago, some have urged its establishment. Several circum- 
stances have recently conspired to impress upon the minds of the Trustees of 
"Punahou School," that the time had come for prompt and decided action. There 
are certainly many things to encourage the Trustees and Faculty of the "Oahu 
College" to press forward. The site of the Institution is most admirable ; pro- 
bably none better in the group. The Hawaiian Government has liberally granted 
valuable lands, surrounding the present buildings. The American Board has 
already expended from $20,000 to $30,000, in the erection of buildings, and at 
present is responsible for the salaries of both President and Professor. The 
present wants, and future prospects of the foreign community in the Islands, 
clearly indicate that a well-endowed College must be established and maintained, 
if our children and youth are educated in the higher branches, and fitted for pro- 
fessional life. 

The Religion of the Japanese.— An officer of the Japan Expedition gives 
the following account of the religion of the Japanese: — 

The temples, chiefly Buddhist, are beautifully situated in the suburbs. The 
entrance to them leads generally through rows of elegant trees and wild camellias. 
They are large, plain structures with high peaked roofs, resembling the houses 
pictured on Chinese porcelain. In the space immediately in front is a large bell 
for summoning the faithful, a stone reservoir of holy water, and several roughly 
hewn stone idols. The doorway is ornamented with curious-looking dragons, and 
other animals carved in wood. Upon entering, there is nothing special about the 
buildings worth noticing, the naked sides and exposed rafters, having a gloomy 
appearance. The altar is the only object that attracts attention. It so much 
resembles the Roman Catholic, that I need not describe it. Some of the idols on 
these altars are so similar to those I have seen iri the churches of Italy, that if 
they were mutually translated, I doubt whether either set of worshippers would 
discover the change. The priests count beads, shave their heads, and wear 
analogous robes, and the service is attended by the ringing of the bells, the light- 
ing of candles and the burning of incense. In fact, except the cross is nowhere 
to be seen, one could imagine himself within a Roman Catholic place of worship. 

During the seventeenth century, Christianity was introduced by the Jesuits, 
and, for a time, made rapid progress ; but the missionaries, inflated by suc- 
cess, became haughty and presumptuous, and began to interfere in politics and 
government, which brought about a violent persecution. So deadly a hatred was 
conceived against the Portuguese, that in the space of forty years, they and their 
religion were completely extirpated. To this day, in some parts of the empire, 
the custom of trampling on the cross is annually celebrated. To such a pitch 
were the Japanese exasperated, that none of the Romish ceremonial was per- 
mitted to survive. Now the resemblance in the outward forms of the two religions, 
as I before stated, is strikingly remarkable, and is an interesting fact in reference 
to the priority of the ceremonies of the Church of Rome, as it is still undeter- 
mined whether they originated with herself, or were borrowed from Pagans. 

42 The Religious World. [January. 

Great liberty of conscience exists. Every Japanese has a right to profess 
whatever faith he pleases, provided only it be not Christianity. Religious sects 
are said to be as numerous as in the United States. The chief among them are 
the Sintoo or Buddhist, the former being the old national faith of the country, and 
is represented by the Milkado, or spiritual Emperor, who is thought to be a lineal 
descendant of the gods. 

They have some vague notions of the immortality of the soul, and of a future 
state of rewards and punishments. Buddhism, the most widely diffused religion of 
India, is supposed to have been introduced about the sixth century. Its principal 
tenet is the metempsychosis, or transmigration of the soul. The Buddhists believe 
that the spirits of the departed enter into the bodies of animals, and there remain, 
passing from one animal to another, until their sins on earth being purged away, 
they are received into realms of everlasting happiness. They abstain from all 
animal food, and their priests are under a vow of celibacy. The great majority 
of temples are Buddhist. 

In addition to these, there are sects of philosophers who hold the morality of 
Confucius in great estimation. The whole tenor of their doctrine is to render 
man virtuous in this life. They endeavour to preserve a good conscience, incul- 
cate filial affection, and a due obedience to the laws of their sovereign. All these 
different faiths have become so mingled and blended together, and their doctrines 
have so penetrated each other, that scarcely any religion preserves its original 

Free Ciiurch Theological Students. — Dr. Buchanan, of Glasgow, 
at the recent meeting of the Commission of the Assembly, referring to 
the " rapidly diminishing" numbers of the candidates for the ministry in 
connection with the Presbyterian Churches in North America, is reported 
to have said : " In our own country they had already indications of a 
similar result, as following from the inadequate support of the ministry ; 
for whereas there had always been an average of between 70 and 80 first 
year's students entering the New College Divinity Hall, there were only 
40 this session, — a fact of a most pregnant and alarming character." 

Dr. Cunningham made the following statement in reply to Dr. 
Buchanan's remark : There is no adequate explanation that can be given 
of the facts, that a few years after the Disruption the number of first 
year's students sunk to below 40, and, again, in a few years after, rose to 
above 80. But, taking an average of years as the only method of exhi- 
biting a fair result, I have to state as follows : First, instead of the 
average since the Disruption of first year's students entering the Hall of 
the New College with a view to the ministry of our Church, being, ac- 
cording to the reported statement of Dr. Buchanan, " between 70 and 
80," it is, including the present year, the numbers of which, amounting 
at present to 37, are not yet complete, 50 1-Gth. 

Second, instead of there being latterly an alarmiug decrease in the 
number of students of divinity entering the Hall of the New College, it 
turns out that, taking the twelve sessions since the Disruption, including 
the present one, the average for the first six years, of students commenc- 
ing their divinity studies for the ministry of the Free Church, is 49 
2-Gths, and the average for the last six, terminating with the present 
year, inclusive, is 51, showiug, in the latter period, a positive increase in 
the numbers. These are the facts of the case as it stands, and they de- 
monstrate the iuaccuracy of Dr. Buchanan's statement. At the same 
time it is true that the last two or three years, takeu by themselves, ex- 

1855.] The Religious World. 43 

hibit a somewhat lower average, a process of diminution, as I stated to 
the General Assembly of 1852, having set in, and being likely to con- 
tinue for some time. 

Progress op the Free Church of Scotland. — We take as our 
starting-point the period of the Disruption, when she had nothing but the 
living agency — when she had not a single church, or manse, or school — 
cast forth upon the wilderness, literally in need of all things — having, in 
obedience to the command of her head, suffered the loss of all things; 
and we shall note the progress which had been made in a few years, and 
the result arrived at up to the present time. 

In 1849, there had been erected: — 

665 Churches, at a cost of about £700,000 

390 Manses, " " " 90,000 

315 Schools* 

150 Teachers' Houses, 

712 Ministers, receiving about 470,000 

\ " 40,000 

s, f 

In that year, the Free Church of Scotland had considerably exceeded the 
dimensions contemplated in 1848 — at all events, had reached the limits 
then deemed necessary. 

In 1854, the number of churches was found largely increased. In- 
cluding those erected at preaching stations, there were certainly not fewer 
than 800. Great efforts have been made to free them of all debt. We 
have no data on which to base a definite statement as at the present time, 
but when it is remembered that, in 1849, there were 374 churches free of 
all incumbrance, 91 with debts not exceeding £50, and 30 whose obliga- 
tions did not exceed £100 — that is, almost 500 either free, or with a 
trifling amount of debt — and that much has been done since that date for 
obliterating outstanding obligations, we are warranted in inferring that 
the efforts of the last five years have placed the church property of our 
community on an eminently satisfactory basis, and the comparatively 
small deficit that must still remain, will be speedily provided for. The 
minute investigation of 1849 showed that the whole debt affecting 665 
churches amounted to no more than £76,000, and one-half of that sum 
was found resting on sixteen congregations, able and willing to sustain 
the burden without trenching on any public fund. Remembering the 
great activity which has been universally exercised towards the extinction 
of debt, and making full allowance for debts since created by the erection 
of new churches, the debt presently resting on the ecclesiastical fabrics of 
our church cannot possibly exceed £50,000. Wherefore, we are the 
holders of property to the value of about £850,000, whereof sixteen parts 
out of seventeen have already been paid. 

There has been progress also in manse and school-building — the measure 
of it we are less able to specify. 

The ministerial charges in the Church have risen to . . 760 
The preaching stations number, ...... 95 

Total places of worship, ....... 855 

The number of ordained ministers reported to last Assembly was 747. 

* Inclusive of two Normal Seminaries, fully equipped, the one in Edinburgh, the 
other in Glasgow. 

44 New Year's Musings. [January. 

The number of schools has risen to 651, and these are superintended 
by 661 teachers, independently of a number of schools supported by the 
funds of individual congregations. 

The effective staff of the Free Church is as follows. 

Professors, .......... 9 

Ministers, . . . . . ' 747 

Probationers, statedly employed in stations or missions, not less 

than 100 

Probationers, labouring occasionally, not less than . . . 100 

Teachers, . . . . . .' . . . . 661 

Total labourers in the home field, ..... 1617 

For the support of these, upwards of one million sterling has been 
raised since 1843. 

The population adhering to the Free Church, on the most moderate 
calculation, amounts to 700,000. 

The number of theological students attending the New College last 
session was 203, of whom 30 could speak the Gaelic language, and 22 
held scholarships, for which £11,900 had been invested. 

The normal seminaries in Edinburgh and Glasgow were attended by 
1235 scholars and 148 normal students. In the Edinburgh Institution 
there are 15 bursars and 40 Queen's scholars. The attendance in the 
schools connected with the Free Church is not less than 70,000. — Free 
Church Record. 

Ilem fmvB Jfeingi 


Just as a mother, with sweet pious face, 

Yearns toward her children from her seat, 
Gives one a kiss, another an embrace, 

Takes this upon her knees, that on her feet, 
And while from actions, looks, complaints, pretences, 

She learns their feelings and their various will, 
To this a look, to that a word dispenses, 

And whether stern or smiling, loves them still ; 
So Providence, for us, high, infinite, 

Makes our necessities His watchful task, 
Hearkens to all our prayers, helps all our wants, 

And even if it denies what seems our right, 
Either denies because 'twould have us ask, 

Or seems to deny, and in denying, grants. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Browning. 


Reader, you have entered upon a New Year. Do you think that its days and 
hours are yours — you are mistaken ! We speak not of the uncertainty of life. 

1855. . New Years Musings. 45 

For admitting that you will survive all the dangers, and escape all the deaths of 
the year, yet you are mistaken. — Your time is mortgaged, and you cannot use it 
properly until you redeem it. Yes, your time is mortgaged. 

1. Your business has a heavy incumbrance upon it. Last year for weeks you 
had scarcely time to pray or to read your Bible, the demands of your business 
were so pressing. Perhaps you are in the same business still, and it will have the 
same claims and insist upon them as peremptorily. Beware, 0, reader ! or that 
mortgage will foreclose upon you, and leave you a poor worldling, without any 
lingering hope of treasure in heaven. Attend to your business, honestly, indus- 
triously, diligently ; but redeem from it more time for the soul, the Bible, the 
closet, and eternity. 

2. Society has an incumbrance upon your time, a heavy one, particularly if you 
are a lady, in the circles of fashionable life. You say that you must conform to 
the customs of those around you. Your week evenings are mortgaged to party- 
giving friends, and you cannot get to the prayer-meeting. Your Saturday nights 
must pay such an instalment of late hours that you are unfit for the duties and 
enjoyments of the Sabbath. lady, redeem more of the hours of this New Year 
from the gay world, and give them to God ! 

3. Past habits have an incumbrance upon your time. You are the slave of 
some indulgence, or pastime, which you regard as harmless, but which consumes 
precious, priceless hours of your brief probation. Redeem yourself speedily ! 
There is so much to be done for our own souls, and for others, that every moment, 
is worth more than a diamond. The true pass-time for a Christian is serving 
God. For this he should economize his time. He should break the fetter of every 
habit that enslaves him, that he may husband his hours and his energies for this 
great business of his life. 

We might mention many other mortgages that are already executed for the 
year 1854. But, as we wish merely to suggest the matter for self-examination, 
these are sufficient. 

To redeem your time, reader, will require effort, and self-denial, but unless 
you do it you will be ruined, bankrupt forever. 


How shall I spend it ? — Not in mirth and frivolity, for I am one year nearer 
to death, judgment, and eternity. Too many of its 365 predecessors have been 
given to vanity : this should be given to the soul, the future, and to God. 

Not in feasting. The body is one year nearer to the place where worms shall 
feed upon it. Let me not begin a new year with fattening it for this base ban- 
quet, as if this were the sole end of our being. But let me enter upon this new 
life-lease, as if I had a mind as well as appetites, and a soul as well as a body. 

Not in business — in toil, care, and money-getting. Too many of. the priceless 
hours of the past have been thus employed, and there are things more valuable 
than gold, more important than business. We have aspirations, interests, and 
hopes, far greater than those of our traffic, profession, or trade ; and one day in 
a year should be given to them. 

How, then, shall we spend the day? In meditation. We have much in the 
past to recall and ponder on : Our follies, our sins, our disappointments, and our 
mercies. We should post up our day-book of experience, both debit and credit, 
and get a balance-sheet, showing where we are, and what, in character, we have 
gained or lost. 

In prayer. We have ten thousand blessings to acknowledge, and we need 
grace for the days to come. We want God to go with us through the coming 
year ; without him, it will be a worse year than the past. How fervently, then, 
we should, during its first hours, plead and wrestle with him for the help we need! 

In praise and thanksgiving. How can we expect God to bless us next year, if 
we show no appreciation of the mercies of the past year? 

In lowliness and faith, 0, reader, spend this day I Let your praises and prayers 
go up from a full heart to God ; then he will make this New Year the beginning 
to you of the days of his right hand. 

46 New Year's Musings. . [January. 



Lord, it belongs not to my care 

Whether I die or live ; 
To love and serve Thee is my share, 

And this thy grace must give. 
If life be long, I will be glad, 

That I may long obey ; 
If short, yet why should I be sad 

To soar to endless day ? 

Christ leads me through no darker rooms 

Than he went through before ; 
He that into God's kingdom comes, 

Must enter by His door. 
Come, Lord, when grace has made me meet 

Thy blessed face to see ; 
For if thy work on earth be sweet, 

What will thy glory be ? 

Then shall I end my sad complaints, 

And weary, sinful days ; 
And join with the triumphant saints 

That sing Jehovah's praise. 
My knowledge of that life is small, 

The eye of faith is dim ; 
But 'tis enough that Christ knows all, 

And I shall be with Him. 


(From the German of Jean Paul Rickter.) 

An old man stood in the New Year's midnight by a window, and gazed with a 
look of deep despair upon the unshaken, ever-blooming heavens, and down upon 
the still, pure, white earth, whereon now was no one so joyless and sleepless as 
he. His grave stood close by him concealed only by the snows of age, and not 
by the green of youth ; and he brought with him from the whole of a long life 
nothing but error, sin and disease ; a worn-out body, a desolate soul, a breast full 
of poison, and an old age full of sorrow. 

The bright days of his youth returned like spectres, and carried him back to 
that fair morning when his father first placed him upon the crossway of life, 
where the right leads through the sunny path of virtue into a wide and peaceful 
land, full of light and harvest and angel forms ; but the left conducts down 
through the mole-path of vice into a dread abyss, full of dripping venom, full of 
darting snakes and of dismal, suffocating damps. 

Alas ! the serpents were hanging upon his breast, and the poison drops were 
on his tongue, and he knew-not where he was. 

Senseless with unutterable grief, he cried aloud to heaven — "Give n\o my youth 
again ! Place me once more, father, upon the crossway of life, that 1 may 
make a better choice !" 

But his father and his youth were far away. He saw wandering fires dance 
along the marsh, and lose themselves in the graveyard, and he said — "These are 
my wasted days." He saw a star shoot from heaven, and sparkling as it fell, 

1855.] New Year's Musings. 47 

vanish upon the earth. "Such am I," said his bleeding heart, aud the serpent- 
teeth of remorse dug deeper in their wound. 

His glowing fancy showed to him spectres stealing along the roofs j a windmill 
raised its arms threatening to crush him, and a deserted mask in the empty 
charnel house gradually assumed his own features. 

Suddenly, in the midst of this conflict, the music of the New Year floated down 
from the church tower like a far off anthem. His soul became more calm. He 
looked around the horizon and over the broad earth, and he thought of the friends 
of his youth, who now, better and more blest than he, were teachers in the earth, 
were happy men and the fathers of happy children, and he said : — " 0, I might 
also like you, had I chosen, have slumbered on this New Year's night with tear- 
less eyes. Alas ! I might have been happy, ye blessed parents, had I but followed 
your counsels, and your New Year's wishes." 

Amid these feverish recollections of his youth, the mask with his features in the 
charnel house, seemed to rise up before him, until by means of that superstition 
which in New Year's night sees apparitions and future events, it became at 
length a living youth. 

He could look no longer. He covered his eyes, and a thousand scalding tears 
streamed down, vanishing in the snow. Distracted and comfortless, he could 
only moan forth in a low voice, " Come back, my youth, O come back !" 

And it came back, for he had only been dreaming so fearfully, that New Year's 
night. He was still a young man, only his errings were no dream. But he 
thanked God that he, still young, could retrace his steps in the filthy track of 
vice, and restore himself to that sunny path which leads into the pure land of 

Return with him, young reader, if thou art like him in the paths of error. This 
fearful dream will one day be thy judge, and when in the depths of anguish thou 
shalt cry, " Come back, bright youth," it will not then come back. 


What a comfort to the heart of a Christian, is the thought that every act of 
duty is an act of devotion, and the most acceptable that can be offered. 

Although "in everything, by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving," Chris- 
tians should make known their requests unto God, this is only a small part of what 
is required of them. There are the duties of every-day life, which demand atten- 
tion. The farmer must plough and sow, and cultivate the earth, and gather in 
his harvest. The mechanic must procure materials for his work, and tools with 
which to shape them into forms of usefulness or beauty. The literary man must 
spend hours in study. The professional man is often burdened with intellectual 
labour. In the quiet and retired sphere of domestic life, woman is found ever 
busy. Her house is to be kept in order. Her children are never-ceasing objects 
of care and watchfulness. Not unfrequently her time is all occupied with the 
various duties which devolve upon her. Among the poor, she is at the same time 
cook, chambermaid, housekeeper, nurse, seamstress, and teacher. Her time is 
not at her own command. She cannot appropriate even a half-hour that she may 
spend it alone in communion with her Father in Heaven. She is often tempted 
to despondency, because she can so seldom enjoy the religious privileges which 
have been so precious to her, and she longs to meet with God's children, to unite 
her supplications with theirs. 

Let all these weary workers remember that, whether they eat or drink, or what- 
ever they do, they may do all to the glory of God. The farmer, in the perform- 
ance of his labour as husbandman, may as truly honour God as the clergyman 
who is ministering to the spiritual wants of mankind. The mechanic, diligent 
in his business, may honour him in the faithfulness and honesty with which he 
performs his work, as really as he could do it by spending days and nights in 

48 New Years Uusings. [January. 

prayer and exhortation. The professional man, too, lias his own sphere of toil, 
where he may render acceptable service. 

Woman's cares are more continuous and more unvarying than man's, and they 
afford her fewer periods of rest than he enjoys. How much she needs, as she 
wearily attends to the wants of her family, to realize, in her inmost soul, that she 
is serving God most faithfully when she hopefully performs her duty, whatever it 
may be. She needs the life-giving support of this thought, that she may not de- 
generate into an automaton. It ennobles every kind of labour, and makes it 
honourable. It will elevate every being who cherishes it, and is comforted and 
sustained by it. 

Many Christians, from not understanding this rule, are groping in darkness, 
when, were their hearts opened to receive it, their path would be as the shining 
light, which shineth more and more unto the perfect day. Our Father in heaven 
requires no more of his children than he will give them grace to perform. One 
duty cannot interfere with another. If we seek divine guidance, and do with our 
might what our hands find to do, we shall be accepted of him. 

It is indeed a blessed thought that every act of duty is an act of devotion. God 
is not a hard master. He is a Father — a tender loving Father — easily pleased, if 
he sees in us a desire in all things to honour his name. 

Axxe H. 


Eternity is a sea without bottom or banks, for what line or plummet can 
fathom its depths ? 

eternity ! If all the body of the earth and sea were turned to sand, and all 
the air, up to the stan-y heaven, were grains of sand, and a little bird should once 
in every thousand years take aWay but the tenth part of a grain of that vast heap, 
the period consumed in taking it all away would not comprise eternity. 

What angel can span eternity? 2 Cor. 4: 17, " An eternal weight of glory." 
There is peace without trouble, ease without pain, glory without end. Eternity 
makes heaven to be heaven. It is the diamond in the ring; the sunlight of glory 
shall rise on the soul, and never set. The wicked have a never-dying worm, but 
the godly a never-fading crown. Then how willing should we be to work for God 
and live to God! 

Eternity is a circle that hath neither beginning nor end. It is the highest link 
of the saint's happiness — a lamp ever burning, never wasting. 


HorE is a grace planted in the heart by the Spirit of God, whereby a Christian 
is quickened to the expectation of those things which are held forth in the pro- 
mises : — "If we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it." 

There is a close affinity between faith and hope, but yet they differ. Hope 
looks at the excellency of the promise; faith to the certainty of the promise. 
Hope reads over the terms of the promise ; faith looks at the seal of the promise. 
Faith believes ; hope waits. Faith shows the Christian the land of promise ; hope 
sails thither with patience. Faith strengthens hope, and hope comforts faith. 
Faith is the cable, and hope the anchor; and both these help to keep the soul 
steady, that it doth not dash upon rocks or sink in the quicksands. 

True hope is quickening ; it is called u a lively hope. Hope becomes a spur 
to duty, a whetstone to industry. Divine hope is as winds to the sails, as wheels 
to the chariot. It makes the Christian active in religion, — " He runs the way of 
God's commandments." Hope wrestles with difficulties : it despiseth dangers — 
it marcheth in the very face of death. 



FEBRUARY, 1855. 

Mtroltanerra MltltB* 


As the purpose of Christ, regarding the extent to which the 
legal effects of his death should reach, is manifested in the position 
he occupied in the covenant of Redemption, so also may it be 
gathered from the intimate connection subsisting between his death 
and his intercession. From the fact, that our Redeemer intercedes 
for a limited number, we infer, that it was for a limited number he 
died. An argument, similar to this, has been already presented, 
the design of which was to show the extent to which the obliga- 
tions of the Father reached. The principle is the same in both.' 
The thing assumed in both cases is, that Christ would not be more 
sparing of his prayers, than of his blood. This is certainly a safe 
assumption, for nothing can be more agreeable to the convictions 
of all men, than, that a love which leads a man to die, would lead 
him to intercede. It is just a case of the a majori ad minus — h6 
who hath done the greater, will assuredly do the less — he who has 
died for us, will certainly intercede for us. The principle being,* 
then, unquestionable, the only thing to be proved is, that Christ 
does actually limit his intercession. The passages usually cited in 
support of this doctrine, have been given in the course of the ar- 
gument mentioned above. We shall, therefore, at present only 
add one other consideration in confirmation of what is there argued. 
This consideration is, however, a very weighty one — one which 
must of necessity determine the question. It is this, — that either 
the intercession of Christ is limited, of it is not always successful. 
One or other of these conclusions must be adopted ; for nothing 
can be more manifest than the fact, that all are not made partakers 
of the saving benefits of his mediation. To adopt, or cherish the 
latter conclusion, would be to take away from our great High 
VOL. v. — no. 2. 4 

50 The Extent of the Atonement. [February. 

Priest, the chiefest glory that sparkles in his diadem, and flatly 
to contradict a truth shadowed forth by the sweet savour, and ac- 
ceptance of the incense appointed under the ceremonial law, and 
didactically stated in the New Testament Revelation. His inter- 
cession must be always successful, for him the Father heareth 
always. There is an efficacy, a power, in that intercession, which 
cannot fail. It speaks of covenant ties — of pledges given — of 
conditions fulfilled. 

" There the exalted Saviour stands, 
Our merciful High Priest ; 
And still extends his wounded hands, 
And urges his request." 

Up from the scenes of Gethsemane and Calvary he comes, with 
all the triumphs of the conqueror of death. He enters the ever- 
lasting gates, and before him the angelic ranks give way; and 
there he stands, wearing on his breast, and bearing on his shoulders, 
the names of his people! Who is he that condemneth? It is 
Christ who thus appears, and where shall be found an accuser of 
the brethren ? In the presence of such an advocate, the law, and 
Satan, and conscience are all silent ; and from the elders, and 
"the living creatures," and the angelic armies, there arises one 
shout of glory, and honour, and blessing, and might, and majesty, 
and dominion to him who sitteth on the throne, and to the Lamb 
forever ! That intercession fail ! 0, were those who question its 
constant efficacy admitted to look upon that scene before the 
throne, how would they hide their heads with shame in presence of 
the enraptured throng ! 

If then, his intercession be all-prevalent, it must be limited as 
to its objects. There is no possibility of holding, that the inter- 
cession of Christ is all-prevalent, and yet, at the same time, of 
holding, that those for whom he intercedes are not saved. The 
efficacy and the limitation of the intercession are, therefore, in- 
separable ; and he who holds the former, must admit the latter. 
But, as we have already seen, to speak of an intercession limited, 
and an atonement unlimited, would be nothing short of ascribing 
folly to Christ. Can we conceive of such a change in the love of 
the compassionate Redeemer ? Can we conceive of him, the 
merciful High Priest, loving all men so as to die for them, and yet 
not loving them so as to intercede for them ? Ah, no ! — the thing 
is inconceivable ; and he who holds to an efficacious intercession, 
must admit a limited intercession, and he who admits a limited in- 
tercession, must admit a limited atonement. 


Our next argument is drawn from the connection that obtains 
between the gift of the Son, and the gift of the Holy Spirit. It 
is certainly reasonable to suppose, that these two gifts would have 
an equal extension ; and this the more especially,' as the Spirit was 

1855.] The Extent of the Atonement. 51 

given for the very purpose of applying the redemption purchased 
by Christ. So reasonable, indeed, does this appear, that no reason 
can be assigned why the gift of the Son should be general, or uni- 
versal, and the gift of the Spirit limited to a particular number. 
And still stronger does the case appear, when it is considered that 
the achievement of the end aimed at, in the gift of the Son, de- 
pends altogether on the gift and operation of the Spirit. For 
these a priori reasonings, we have a very firm and extensive basis 
— a basis as wide, and as stable, as the infinite wisdom of God. 
Who, with the impression of the infinite wisdom of Jehovah rest- 
ing on his mind, could, for a moment, entertain the idea, that he 
would give his Son to provide salvation for all, and yet only give 
his Spirit to apply that provided salvation to some ? Those who 
hold such views of the economy of grace, must either give up their 
system, or adopt one of two absurdities. They must admit, in 
connection with a universal gift of the Son, and a restricted gift 
of the Spirit, that the infinitely wise Jehovah was unable to devise 
a scheme adapted to the attainment of the end in view, or that 
having begun with the intention of delivering the whole race, he 
changed his purpose, so as to embrace the elect only. These are 
the legitimate and necessary consequences, of extending the gift 
of the Son beyond the gift of the Spirit ; and, that they are both 
inconsistent with the very idea of a God, is too obvious to require 
any argument. 

But, besides being sustained by the divine wisdom, the foregoing 
reasoning is confirmed by the divine love. And here our argu- 
ment is just the argument of Paul, Rom. 8 : 32: "He who spared 
not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not 
with him also, freely give us all things?" Here is an argument of 
irresistible power ; the major and the minor is love — infinite un- 
changing love ; a love whose outgoings were not checked, or 
thwarted by that mysterious, infinite, eternal love, with which he 
loved his own Son ! Why, it would seem as if there was actually 
a conflict between his love for man, and his love for Him who was 
on his own bosom from all eternity ! And 0, amazing grace ! his 
love for man prevailed — prevailed so as to lead to the gift of his 
Son, as a sacrifice for sin ! And are we to be told, that he, the 
everlasting Father, would be more sparing of his Spirit ? — that he 
would give his own well-beloved, only-begotten Son, to all the 
griefs and sufferings and anguish of his humiliation, and yet, not 
give his Spirit to apply what that Son, by his obedience and death, 
has purchased ? Why, all right reason, as well as Scripture, rises 
up to condemn such conclusions. The voice of reason, and the 
voice of love, and the voice of Scripture, proclaim, that he who 
gave his Son to suffer, would, most undoubtedly, give his Spirit to 
sanctify. And surely, if he gave his Son to suffer for all, he would 
give his Spirit to sanctify all. 

Now these simple truths being premised, the only thing neces- 

52 The Extent of the Atonement. [February. 

sary to complete this argument, is to prove, that the Holy Spirit 
is not given to all. This is simply a question of fact, and is, there- 
fore, to be determined by facts. The question is, has the Holy 
Spirit applied the benefits of redemption to all the sons of men ? 
This question has its answer written on the very face, not only of 
heathendom, but also of the Christian world. It is enough to 
prove that the gift of the Holy Spirit is limited, that he has not 
taken of the things which are Christ's, and shown them to all. 
The broad fact engraven in the history of our race, that the saving 
benefits of Christ's death have not been extended to the whole 
human family, proves beyond all controversy, that the Spirit of 
grace has been granted to a limited number. Here, then, the ar- 
gument from the connection between the gift of the Son, and the 
gift of the Spirit, is complete. To all, for whose salvation the 
Father gave the Son, he would, undoubtedly, give his Holy Spirit ; 
but he has given the Holy Spirit to a limited number : therefore 
the Son was not given up to die for all, but only for a limited 
number. Precisely similar is the argument of the apostle, Gal. 
4 : 4-6 : "When the fulness of the time was come, God sen.t forth 
his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them 
that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of 
sons. And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of 
his Son into your hearts, crying Abba, Father." Here, the order 
is first the gift of the Son for the redemption of those who were 
destined to sonship, and secondly, the gift of the Spirit to those 
sons thus redeemed. The divine purpose determines the extent of 
both gifts. And, therefore, when we know the extent of either of 
the gifts, we can infer the extent of the other, and the extent of 
the purpose. It is for those who are to become sons, and be con- 
ducted to glory, the Son is given to die; and it is to those for 
whom he has become the curse of the law, that the Spirit of adop- 
tion is given. We can, therefore, beghi with those links of the 
chain which lie within the compass of our vision, or with the 
tangible realities of our own experience, and find our ascending 
way up to the otherwise inscrutable purposes of the infinite 

Again, the predetermined limitation of the atonement may be 
argued/mn the doctrines of grace. These we shall take up in order, 
beginning with regeneration, or effectual calling. That it was the 
purpose of him who devised the economy of redemption to limit 
the benefits of the atonement, is a conclusion to which we are 
driven by the doctrine before us. Effectual calling, as defined by 
our shorter catechism, " is the work of God's Spirit, whereby con- 
vincing us of our sin and misery, enlightening our minds in the 
knowledgo of Christ, and renewing our wills, he doth persuade and 
enable us to embrace Jesus Christ, freely offered to us in the gos- 
pel." Now if there be such a thing as effectual calling, and if it 

1855.] The Extent of the Atonement. 53 

be what it is here represented to be, it must follow, that none ob- 
tain, and that none can obtain, a saving knowledge of Christ, or 
partake of the benefits of his atonement, but those on whom the 
Spirit of God has descended in his quickening power. It is here 
taken for granted, that man is dead in trespasses and sins, that his 
understanding is darkened, and needs illumination, that his will is 
perverted, and needs renewal, that the man is not only indisposed, 
but unable and unwilling to embrace Christ when offered for his 
acceptance. A more wretched, helpless condition cannot be con- 
ceived of. Now of what avail to such an one would be an economy 
which made no provision for the removal of these otherwise in- 
superable obstacles ? Of what avail were the waters of Bethesda's 
pool to the impotent man, bereft, as he was, of all strength to de- 
scend and bathe him in its troubled tide ? But what is such 
physical impotency, compared with the moral inability of the 
sinner? Ah, there are other and more frustrating elements than 
the mere impotency to be taken into the account ! To the impo- 
tency of the cripple, there are to be added the obstinacy, and the 
proud indifference, and the contempt and scorn, of a Naaman. He 
has his own Abana and his own Pharpar, and these rivers of his 
Damascus are, in his estimation, better than all the waters of 
Israel. Thus stands the sinner as viewed by him who devised a 
way for his deliverance. Thus he stands shrouded in a darkness 
which nothing but the light of the Divine Spirit can dispel, filled 
with an enmity which nought but the mighty power of that Spirit 
can destroy. Thus he stands, we say, and his standing was all 
known to God. But, with a full knowledge of the sinner's con- 
dition, he provides an atonement, which he knows full well the sin- 
ner has no power to accept, and that, too, an atonement which it 
cost the life's blood of his own Son to provide. He lays upon the 
man of sorrows the guilt of those on whom he never intended to confer 
the indispensable gift of the Holy Spirit. He redeems those whom 
he never intends to regenerate ! And thus we are presented with the 
strange anomaly of a universal atonement and a limited regeneration ! 
We have, forsooth, got over the difficulty of reconciling the infinite 
love of God with a limited atonement, and find ourselves landed in the 
far greater, yea, the altogether insurmountable, difficulty, of re- 
conciling the love, and the wisdom, and the justice of God, with 
the doctrine of a limited application of those benefits which have 
been purchased by the precious blood of his own eternal Son ! We 
repeat it, the doctrine of a limited regeneration, and a universal 
atonement, are beset with difficulties which are utterly insuperable. 
The legal standing of man, and the absolute sovereignty of God, 
form an ample vindication of that decree in pursuance of which 
the sins of some only are atoned for by Christ. But what mind, 
human or angelic, shall devise a vindication of that system under 
which the sins of all are atoned for, and the hearts of some only 
regenerated? Reason and Scripture proclaim the absolute freedom 
of an offended God to redeem, or not to redeem ; but neither the 

54 The Extent of the Atonement. [February. 

one nor the other gives any countenance to the doctrine, that a 
similar freedom existed after that determined redemption was pur- 
chased. In determining who were to be atoned for, he determined 
who were to be actually saved. Redemption precluded all right or 
possibility of a subsequent choice, even were it possible to conceive 
of a change from the original choice, wherewith those to be re- 
deemed were chosen in Christ, before the foundation of the world. 
To choose some out of a race, every member of which lay under 
a righteous condemnation, simply involved the exercise of a 
sovereignty which confessedly belongs to God ; but out of those 
thus chosen and covenanted for, and promised, and purchased, as 
subjects of redemption, to make another and a subsequent selection 
of individuals, who alone should become the subjects of regenera- 
tion, would involve a departure from the first principles of truth 
and righteousness. It would be nothing less than a breach of 
faith with him, on whom the iniquities of his people were laid. Re- 
generation, therefore, must be co-extensive with redemption. All 
who have been redeemed must, undoubtedly, be regenerated. And 
if all are not regenerated, the conclusion is inevitable, that all were 
not redeemed. And this is just all one with saying, that the atone- 
ment is limited. 

Now it will be at once seen, that this argument takes for 
granted, that it is God who regenerates the heart, that it is he who 
begins and completes the great work of applying to the soul the 
benefits of redemption ; and that in commencing, as well as in 
prosecuting, this work, there is no motive derived from those who 
are the objects of his mercy — that the only assigned reason is the 
good pleasure of his will, according to which he hath mercy on 
whom he will have mercy. This, however, is taking for granted 
what is most abundantly taught in the Scriptures, and deponed to 
by the experience of every child of God. He who thinks that he 
has regenerated himself, or that God has regenerated him, because 
he deserved it, had need to examine the foundations, for as sure as 
the Scriptures are the word of God, he is building on a foundation 
that will fail when tried by the tempestuous wrath of the coming 
revelation. Indeed, to enter seriously upon an argument for the 
purpose of proving that a man cannot regenerate himself, we would 
regard as nothing short of an insult to the intelligence of any 
student of the Bible; and surely to talk of deserving regeneration, 
is to aim a blow at the very foundation of the economy of redemp- 
tion. He who thinks that by any hatred of sin, however deter- 
mined, or any sorrow for it, however pungent, he has laid an 
offended God under obligation to cancel his guilt, and renew his 
nature, and restore him to his image and favour, has yet to learn 
what be the first principles of the doctrines of grace. 

Nor do we regard it as any mitigation at all, but rather an 
augmentation, of the absurdity, to say, that it is only those who 
desire regeneration, to whom the Spirit is given. For what is this 

1855.] The Extent of the Atonement. 55 

but to hold, either that the carnal mind, which is enmity against 
God, can, in its carnality, desire after a deliverance from its own 
carnality, and a restoration to the family and the favour of God, 
or just to hold, that the Spirit regenerates those ■whom he does 
regenerate. Ah ! very different are the teachings of Scripture on 
the desires and aspirations of the mind, prior to regeneration ! If 
we are to take the depositions of the eternal word for it, the mind, 
in its unregenerate state, is unconscious of its wretchedness, insen- 
sible of the chains with which it is bound to death, and incapable 
of breathing one sigh after deliverance from the bondage of its own 
corruption. The incipient desires of the arrested sinner, are as 
truly breathed by the Spirit of all grace, as are the earnest long- 
ings of the maturing saint, when he sighs after the perfect holiness 
of the upper sanctuary, and longs to enter upon the inheritance 
of the redeemed, and join in the everlasting song. Those, there- 
fore, who assign these incipient desires as a reason for the work of 
regeneration, have still to account for their existence in the carnal 
mind ; and this can be done in no other way, than by a direct 
denial of its utter carnality. The conclusion of the whole matter, 
then, as far as the present argument is concerned, is simply this: 
that God, in the regeneration of men, is determined by nothing 
beyond his own good pleasure and eternal purpose, so that it fol- 
lows, of necessity, that those who reject a limited atonement, have 
just the other alternative, of accepting in its stead, a predetermined, 
limited regeneration, beset, as it must be when placed side by side 
with a universal atonement, with difficulties altogether insuperable, 
and irreconcilable with Scripture and reason. 

Our next argument in support of the doctrine of a limited atone- 
ment, is drawn from the doctrine of justification. In the justifi- 
cation of the sinner, the Father, acting in the capacity of judge, 
and as the representative of law, pronounces the sinner just, re- 
gards and treats him as righteous. This he does not on the ground 
of any righteousness inherent in, or wrought out by, the sinner 
himself, but on the ground of the righteousness of Christ, imputed 
to him, and received by faith. Now here, there are two things to 
be considered; first, the imputation, and secondly, the reception of 
the Redeemer's righteousness; and from each may we deduce the 
doctrine of a limited atonement. From the doctrine of an imputed 
righteousness, it is utterly inseparable. The point to be deter- 
mined is, why is the righteousness of Christ imputed, or reckoned, 
to the sinner? It cannot be because of his own personal right- 
eousness, for then would he have no need of the righteousness of 
another. It is not those who are reckoned with, on the ground of 
their own personal righteousness, whom David and Paul pronounce 
blessed, but those to whom the Lord imputeth righteousness with- 
out works. The reason of the imputation, therefore, is not to be 
sought in the conformity of the man to the law of God, and there- 
fore, not to be sought in the man at all ; for he who is not con- 

56 The Extent of the Atonement. [February. 

formable to law, deserves that iniquity, and not righteousness, be 
imputed to him. We are therefore driven beyond the man alto- 
gether, and are to seek the reason of this imputation in a higher 
source. And when we pass away from the sinner himself, to what 
other source can we trace it, than the good pleasure of him who 
imputeth ? He imputes the righteousness of Christ to men, be- 
cause it hath pleased him to provide it for them. If then he con- 
fessedly imputes righteousness to some only, it follows that he has 
not provided it for all. For to provide a righteousness for all, and 
yet impute that provided righteousness to some only, would cer- 
tainly (when the way in which this righteousness has been pre- 
pared is considered) be at variance with the wisdom, truth, and 
justice, of the unchangeable Jehovah. For whom the righteousness 
has been provided, to them it must be imputed. The Redeemer 
must see not a part of his people, not a few of his seed, but the 
whole. Upon every child of redemption must the robe of his 
righteousness be cast, and the travail of his soul have a full reward. 
As far, then, as the atonement extends, so far must the imputa- 
tion extend ; and as the imputation is limited, so also must the 

But besides the imputation of Christ's righteousness to the sin- 
ner, there is another element to be considered, in order to perceive 
the full force of the argument from the doctrine of justification. 
When the sinner is justified, the righteousness, on the ground of 
which he is regarded and treated as righteous, is not only imputed 
to, but received by him. Now as the sinner cannot be justified 
until, and unless he accept his Saviour's righteousness, some there 
are who, misunderstanding the nature of faith, and overlooking its 
source, have concluded, that after all, the extent of the effects of 
Christ's death depends on, and is determined by the will of man. 
This would, perhaps, be a just inference, if faith were an act of the 
mind in its carnal state. If it were true, that without the forth- 
putting of the mighty energy of the Holy Spirit, the sinner could, 
by a mere act of self-determination, hate sin, and love God, and 
believe in Christ, it might be legitimately concluded, that the 
extent of the saving benefits of the atonement did, in the end, 
depend on the will of man, and not on the will of God. But if 
the power to believe, if faith itself, be a gift of God, and if only 
those whom the Holy Spirit persuades, and enables to embrace 
Christ, do actually receive his righteousness, surely it is God, and 
not man, who determines the extent to which the benefits of Christ's 
sufferings and death shall reach ; which is just all one with de- 
termining the extent of the atonement. If then the gift of faith 
is a limited gift, so also is the gift of Christ's righteousness. And 
thus, from the two leading elements of the doctrine of justification, 
arc we inevitably driven to the doctrine of a limited atonement. 

It was our intention to have continued this line of argumentation, 
so as to show how intimately the doctrine of a definite, limited, 

1855.] Battle of Inkerman and the Grrand DuTces. 57 

atonement, is connected with all the doctrines of grace ; but we 
must postpone, for the present, the full execution of our plan. 
We must rest satisfied with having shown, what we deem it of some 
importance to show, that the doctrine for which we have been con- 
tending, and which is usually regarded as one of the most distin- 
guishing features of the Calvinistic theology, is altogether insepa- 
rable from the other doctrines of the Gospel of Christ, and inter- 
woven with the very attributes and prerogatives of an omniscient 
and unchangeable Jehovah. These arguments, which have been 
given merely in outline, are so wide in their relations, and do so 
completely ramify the whole scheme of redemption, that it must 
be obvious, how essential to a right faith, and how indispensable to 
the believer's peace, must be the doctrine of a definite atonement, 
and, on the other hand, how prejudicial to peace and truth and 
holiness, must be the doctrine of a universal, indefinite satisfaction 

for sin. 

R. W. 


The Battle of Inkerman, fought before Sebastopol, on November 
5th, 1854, was one of the most terrible in the history of warfare. 
About fifty thousand Russians attacked eighteen thousand troops 
of the Allies, and were driven back with immense slaughter. The 
killed and wounded among the Russians are supposed to be from 
ten to fifteen thousand, whilst the Allies suffered a loss of at least 
four thousand. So dreadful are the sufferings of war. 

The object of the attack was to raise the siege of Sebastopol, 
and to drive the Allies from the Crimea. The plan of operations 
is said to have been formed by the Emperor Nicholas himself, who 
sent his two sons, the Grand Dukes Nicholas and Michael, to share 
the glories of the triumph. The plan of the battle is universally 
conceded to have been good. The Emperor ordered the height on 
the right of the British — inadvertently left undefended — to be 
taken, and to be armed with cannon ; and, when the British were 
routed by the advancing hordes of fresh Russian troops, the latter 
were to descend upon the siege-works, cut off communication with 
Balaklava, and take in reverse the line of circumvallation ; whilst 
a column from another direction were to form a junction with the 
assailants, and in co-operation with a sortie of the garrison exter- 
minate the Allies. This ingenious plan was defeated by the " re- 
markable solidity" of the British, and by the activity of the French, 
who rushed to the rescue " with the light of battle on their faces." 
Six divisions of the Russians, posted in the rear, and waiting to 
crush the flying regiments of England and France, with artillery, 

58 Battle of Inkerman and the Grand Dukes. [February. 

infantry, and cavalry ready to act, waited in vain. The doom of 
the Russian army was sealed, and Grand Dukes, generals, and 
privates were put to promiscuous flight. With the view of illustrat- 
ing the fanaticism of Russia and its desperate purposes of vengeance, 
let us notice the means taken to animate the troops with the spirit 
of war. 

In the first place, religion was made the instrument of exciting 
the feelings of the barbarous soldiers. The Emperor not only 
wrote a special communication to the army, but sent an emissary 
to carry the image of the Saviour into the bastions and batteries 
to bless the defenders ! Prince Menschikoff 's official despatch has 
the following statements : — 

" Independently of the flattering words vouchsafed by your Imperial 
Majesty for the army and garrison of Sebastopol — words, that I have con- 
veyed to them by a special order of the day, in execution of your orders, 
Prince Gralitsyne has exactly fulfilled the mission confided to him. He 
has gone through all the bastions and batteries, where the seamen are 
stationed. The thanks and encouragements of the Sovereign, which 
Prince Galitsyne had the honour of being charged with, in order to ad- 
dress them to these brave seamen in the name of your Imperial Majesty, 
have not only redoubled their ardour, but have also touched every one of 
them to the bottom of his soul. They listened with tears of tenderness 
to the words of their Monarch and Father, who is full of care for his 
well-beloved children, as your Imperial Majesty deigned to express your- 
self in the rescript with which you honoured me on the 31st of last 

" It is with a similar sentiment of pious and grateful veneration, that 
the troops have received the gift and benediction of her Majesty the 
Empress. After a religious ceremony, the image of the Saviour, 
brought by Prince Galitsyne, was conveyed, accompanied by all the 
inhabitants the city contains, from the church of St. Michael to the 
Nicholas battery, and thence this holy image was carried, with the suit- 
able religious ceremonial, into all the bastions and batteries, in order to 
bless their defenders. All the men present, listening with pious atten- 
tion to the address of the priest, prayed fervently, aud came up to kiss 
the holy image of the Saviour. 

" This image is now deposited in the place prepared for it near the 
entrance gate of the Nicholas battery." 

Thus was an image of the Redeemer sacrilegiously used to rally 
a nominally Christian people to the battle-field ! 

Another means to excite the fury of the soldiers was the distri- 
bution of extra rations of an intoxicating drink. The different 
accounts of the Allies agree in representing the Russian troops to 
have been under the influence of a powerful stimulant. All the 
concomitants of the battle, from the unearthly grunt, with which 
the Russians made the charge to the stubbornness with which they 
came forward again and again to their hopeless task, indicated the 

1855.] Battle of InJcerman and the Grand Dukes. 59 

existence of an extraordinary agent, propelling the low and de- 
based army of the Czar to the work of death and assassination.* 

In addition to intoxicating drinks, bribes and rewards were held 
out to the besotted troops. On the day before the battle, a solemn 
religious service was conducted by the bishops ; and, at the end of 
the mass, one of the prelates made an address, the conclusion of 
which was as follows : — 

" If you are conquerors, great joy is in preparation for you. We know 
from unimpeachable sources, that these English heretics have in their 
camp an enormous sum, which God will give into your hands. This sum 
amounts to thirty million roubles. The Emperor makes you a present of 
the third part of this tremendous sum. The second third is reserved for 
the purpose of the rebuilding of Sebastopol, which you are on the point 
of relieving. The remainder will be divided amongst the Princes and 
officers who will to-morrow be your commanders in the battle. Every 
one of you, soldiers, will receive five hundred and eighty roubles. To 
the wounded the Emperor promises a month's pay and rations. As to 
those of you chosen by God for a glorious death, your Emperor will per- 
mit you to dispose of your share in the booty by will. Whatever may be 
the wishes of any of you, they will be respected solemnly." 

The speech was terminated by an appeal to the God of armies 
to bless the soldiers of Russia. A distribution of medals and 
coronets followed. 

The presence of the Grand Dukes was also relied upon to infuse 
martial daring into the army. They had been sent all the way 
from St. Petersburg with the Imperial plan for execution, and it 
seems that they conducted themselves with at least some show of 
bravery. Prince Menschikoff declares in his official despatch : — 

" I had the honour to testify that their Imperial Highnesses, the Grand 
Dukes Nicholas Nicolaievitch and Michael Nicolai'evitch, proved them- 
selves on the field of battle, under the warmest fire of the enemy, not 
only worthy in everything of their high position, by coolly confronting 
danger, but also that they had set an example of true warlike courage. 
Their presence in the midst of the fire excited all and each to perform 
their sacred duties to the sovereign and the country. 

" The troops confided to my command were witnesses of this, and the in- 
trepidity they displayed in this combat, so fierce on either side, was as- 

* One of the letters from the Crimea states that " the Russian soldiers were all 
drunk, and fought like madmen. About five hundred prisoners were taken — 'all 
almost too drunk to stand upright.' " " ' In going over the field,' writes another, ' I 
found many bottles which had contained spirits, and I was informed by the escort in 
charge of prisoners that they all smelled strongly of raki. There is no doubt, that 
the Russian army was primed with drink for the attack; most of our men went into 
battle without their breakfasts.' Every appeal, both to their fanaticism and their 
passions, seemed to have been made by their leaders. The churches of Sebastopol 
were observed to be lighted, and their bells to be tolling as for a solemn service. 
Their whole bearing was that of an army under the influence of religious and sensual 
frenzy. Their continued and loud shouting, and the impetuosity of their attack, ren- 
der it probable that they were under the influence of some artificial stimulus. In 
the canteens of many of the killed was found a mixture of raki and water.'' 

60 Battle of Inkerman and the Grand Dukes. [February. 

suredly the fruit of the thought, that the sons so dear to the monarch and 
to Russia were in our ranks, and that each man ought to take example 
from their self-denial." 

After all the extraordinary efforts of the Czar, his plan of the 
campaign met the most signal defeat. Neither superstitious reli- 
gious ceremonies, nor intoxicating drinks, nor lying bribes, nor the 
Grandest Dukes, could avail against British " solidity" and French 
impetuosity. The Russian army was signally routed, and since 
then, the height, which gave the Russians such advantage, has been 
strongly fortified, so as to preclude future danger from that posi- 
tion. In the meantime, the Allies have strongly intrenched them- 
selves, and are preparing to winter in the Crimea. The issue of 
this expedition is among the arcana of Providence. God will 
overrule all things for the advancement of truth and righteousness 
among men. Strongly as we are opposed to war, we recognize it 
as one of the necessities of a sinful world. The sympathies of 
liberty and religion are generally with the Allies in the present 
conflict. Whether peace is near at hand, or far off, and whether 
the Crimea is to continue, or not, under Russian dominion, the 
following speculations of an English Journal are interesting in 
the present position of things : — 

u The grandeur of these disasters is only in keeping with the magnifi- 
cence of the prize, or rather with the majesty of the task. Sebastopol 
once in our hands, and the Crimea secured from invasion by land, Eng- 
land and France may hold it, and with it the dominion of the Black Sea 
and the control of the Mediterranean for ages to come. It is impossible 
to exaggerate the consequences of such a position in the hands of two 
such powers, but we will venture to say that, largely as the Crusades bore 
on the interest of humanity and the course of the world, the Anglo-French 
ascendency in the Black Sea, the iEgean, the Mediterranean, and the 
East, is pregnant with far greater consequences. Turkey, Asia Minor, 
Egypt, Africa, Persia, Arabia, Central Asia, and many other countries 
now crushed by Turkish apathy, menaced by Russian ambition, or lying 
in their own ancient barbarism, will be opened to the civilizing and 
softening influence of the West. Very possibly we shall live to see the 
realization of the dream that even sober men have indulged in, — the re- 
plenishment of the depopulated countries of Asia with copious migrations 
from Western Europe. It cannot be imagined but that the religion of 
the West will go along with the power of our arms. But can these great 
objects be attained in a day, or even in a few brief months? Such a 
rapidity, not to say versatility, is not to be expected in Fortune herself. 
No; we shall have to fight hard, to contend with storm, plague, famine, 
and every form of disaster — with impregnable forts and innumerable 
armies — before we can put forth our hands and grasp the high object of 
our ambition." 

We very much question the execution of this "high object ;" but 
God has, without doubt, gracious designs in the movements of 
contending armies, and will bring good out of evil. May right 
prevail "from eastern coast to western." 

C. V. R. 

1855.] We are Children. 61 


Gal. 3 : 26. "For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus." Rom. 
8 : 17. " And if children, then heirs, heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ." 

We are children, ransomed children, 

Set from grievous bondage free, 
And the price which burst our fetters 

Was the blood of Calvary. 
Wondrous love ! rich in mercy 

Christ to blighted Eden came, 
And to win our souls to glory, 

Bore the cross, endured the shame. 
Blessed Jesus ! sweet to be 
Saved from sin and death by thee. 

We are children, erring children, 

Oftentimes we go astray. 
Satan tempts us, earth is winning, 

We forsake "thy perfect way;" ■ . 
Yet thy tender loving-kindness, 

When we come with contrite tears, 
Stretches forth the golden sceptre, 

Puts to flight our gloomy fears. 
Blessed Jesus 1 sweet to flee, 
And find a pardoning God in thee. 

We are children, helpless children, 

Frighted by the tempter's darts ; 
Of ourselves we can do nothing, — 

Lord, uphold our sinking hearts. 
E'en our fairest works are evil, 

Filthy all our righteousness, 
But we cling to thee for succour, 

Lean upon thy promised grace. 
Blessed Jesus ! sweet to see 
All our weakness strength in thee. 

We are children, pilgrim children, 

Hasting through a stranger land ; 
Soon we'll stem the swelling Jordan, 

Soon our joyful souls shall stand 
In that great and glorious city, 

Where the radiance of the throne 
Shines upon Christ's ransomed children, 

Gathered every one at home. 
Blessed Jesus ! sweet to see 
Thy loving face eternally. 

Columbia, Pa. 

L. M. L. 

62 "Friend of God" or, the Excellency of [February. 


(Continued from page 8.) 

A friendship such as we have described, contains the elements 
of perpetuity. But among sincere and permanent friends, some 
are more highly valued than others. In addition to that conge- 
niality of feeling, which is essential to all true friendship, there 
are in some cases, a fervour and refinement of affection far 

u Above the common walks of virtuous life :" 

a friendship like David's and Jonathan's, who "loved each other, 
as he loved his own soul." Our Saviour bestowed on all his disci- 
ples, the endearing appellation of "friends;" but John was dis- 
tinguished above the others, in being called by way of emphasis, 
the "disciple whom Jesus loved." 

So it was with Abraham. God had many other friends, both 
before and after his day ; constituted such by the same evangelical 
faith which he possessed, and some of them were eminent believers. 
But in none of those ancient worthies, was faith so illustrious in 
its manifestations as in Abraham — none whose confidence in the 
Divine Avisdom, power, and goodness, was so firm and unbounded ; 
whose obedience was so prompt, cheerful, and self-denying ; who 
was so bright an example of those graces and virtues, which are 
the fruit of faith ; so fine a model of religious fidelity to his chil- 
dren and household, and so eminent for his devotional feelings and 
heavenly frame of mind. In some of these particulars he may 
have had his equals, but as a whole he excelled all others. 


It is mentioned by Paul, as one of the properties of Abraham's 
faith, that it was "strong." (Rom. 4 : 18-21.) Reference is had 
to his belief in the promise of a son, from whom was to descend 
the Messiah — that "seed," in whom "all families of the earth 
should be blessed" — the promise being made, when he and Sarah, 
his wife, were far advanced in age. Phrase after phrase, is em- 
ployed to describe and honour his faith with regard to that promise. 
"Who against hope, believed in hope — being not weak in faith, he 
staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief; but was 
strong in faith, giving glory to God; being fully persuaded that 
what he had promised, he was able also to perform." 

Our faith is strong, in proportion to its freedom from every 
worldly element : when it consists in a reliance on God's promise 
alone, without connecting with it any subsidiary ground of evidence, 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 63 

or support ; and when the thing believed is highly improbable, 
according to any known or conceivable process of human reasoning. 
To believe a man's testimony, or to confide in his promise, under 
circumstances like these, would be to confer upon him extra- 
ordinary honour. No higher tribute could be paid to his veracity 
or fidelity. The promise made Abraham was of this character ; 
and his believing it, with a firm unwavering confidence, "gave 
glory to God." This promise, accorded not with experience or 
observation. It was not deducible from the established connection 
between cause and effect. The history of our race, furnished no 
such example, and the analogies and laws of nature were wholly 
against it. Yet he entertained no more doubt of its fulfilment, 
than as though he could have foretold the result, by the clearest 
logical argument, or by mathematical demonstration. God had 
promised, and he felt the need of no further assurance. He 
doubted neither his ability nor his love. Persons of weak faith, 
would have asked for some sensible sign ; but his confidence in 
God was so firm and unbounded, that those difficulties which would 
have produced doubt in most others, totally disappeared. The 
" God of glory" who had manifested himself to him as the God of 
grace, and had won his faith, his affections, his heart, was the 
"Almighty;" and his power and faithfulness were to his mind a 
sure guarantee for all he had promised. This strong, childlike 
confidence, was pleasing to God ; and to show his special regard, 
he distinguished him from men of sense and of sight, by calling 
him his friend. 

Without particular attention to the scope of the Apostle's ar- 
gument, the reader may be liable to connect the words (v. 22), 
"and therefore, it was imputed to him for righteousness," with 
the immediate context, and hence infer that Abraham's faith was 
imputed to him for righteousness, because it was strong. This, 
however, is a mistake, and will lead to erroneous views concerning 
justification. This verse is an inference, not from the immediate 
context, but from the whole preceding argument, commencing at 
the beginning of the chapter; the design of which was to show 
that Abraham was justified by faith in opposition to the deeds of 
the law, and not by a strong, in distinction from a weak faith. In 
bringing the argument to a close, he noticed the extraordinary 
manifestation of his faith, with reference to the birth of Isaac ; 
but this was incidental to his main design — an expansion of his 
argument, but not essential to the specific object he had in view, 
which was to exhibit that faith which must be exercised by all 
believers, in order to justification. "It is of faith," says he (v. 
16), " that it might be by grace, to the end the promise might be 
sure to all the seed." Sure to all the seed: i. e., to all true be- 
lievers, and not to those only who should attain to an eminent de- 
gree of faith. God is glorified when sinners believe in Christ, even 
with a tremulous faith. Indeed, special tenderness is exercised 

64 "Friend of Grod," or, the Excellency of [February. 

towards such. " A bruised reed he will not break, and the smoking 
flax he will not quench." 

It does not follow, however, that he is not more glorified by a 
strong than a weak faith ; or that the former is of no special benefit 
above the latter. Though our justification, when it occurs at all, 
is complete, the evidence of pardoned sin, and the comfort flowing 
from it, will be very different in the two cases. He who comes to 
Christ with doubt and hesitation, from an apprehension that he 
will not be welcome, or that his demerits surpass the efficacy of 
Christ's blood, may nevertheless rely on the Divine promise with 
sincerity and hope. But he will seldom experience joy and peace 
in believing. These are the fruit of that strong faith which takes 
God at his word, without looking to any other quarter for corrobo- 
rating testimony or encouragement. Spiritual comfort flows from 
him ; and this kind of faith is the golden conduit through which 
it is communicated in large measures to the soul. The reason is, 
that this expresses much more than a weak faith, the homage due 
to his adorable perfections, and is accordingly more pleasing in his 
sight. It is a more full and acceptable tribute, paid by conscious 
unworthiness to infinite merit; of conscious weakness to Divine 
strength ; and of conscious guilt and ill-desert, to unbounded grace 
and mercy. 

Reader, have you a desire to obtain an interest in Christ ? In 
exercising faith in him, you will be much aided by thinking of him 
as a friend. The fact that he is able to save, derives its chief en- 
couragement to us, from our knowing and feeling that he is also 
willing. The power of an enemy is terrible — that of a friend in- 
viting. The former repels, the latter attracts ; the one excites 
fear, the other hope and confidence. In coming to him, therefore, 
view him as on a throne of grace; as the "friend of sinners;" 
whose pity towards us was manifested by the surrender of his 
own life for our salvation; and who possesses now the same kind 
and compassionate heart that he did then. 

Are you a disciple of Christ? Avail yourself of the special 
encouragement afforded by this high relation, to trust in God's 
providence. Though not able to point to a Scripture promise ad- 
dressed to us by name, as Abraham could ; yet if we can, upon 
good evidence, call God our friend, in that highest and best sense 
in which this term was applied to him, we can by an easy and 
legitimate process, enjoy the full benefit of those " exceeding great 
and precious promises," which are recorded in the sacred volume. 
Those promises are designed for God's friends — for each and every 
one of them whenever and wherever they might sojourn on earth. 
Hence if we are his friends, we are authorized to appropriate them 
to ourselves, as a part of our Christian inheritance. What stronger 
ground of confidence exists among men than friendship? "A 
friend loveth at all times;" and to the extent of his ability, we 
feel sure he will assist us in time of need. God is a " friend that 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 65 

sticketh closer than a brother." He knows all our wants ; yea, he 
anticipates them all before they are known to ourselves ; and he 
possesses infinite ability to supply them. And besides, he has 
made this promise — " I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee," 
with many others equally precious. Is not this sufficient to inspire 
confidence ? Do you want any stronger security than the promise 
of your heavenly friend? " thou of little faith, wherefore dost 
thou doubt?" If you would enjoy "strong consolation," seek to 
obtain strong faith. And to this end open the treasury of God's 
promises, and by faith appropriate them to your own condition. 
Contemplate his love, — uttering and confirming those promises. 
Consider his all-pervading providence, and his tender care for all 
his people. And connect therewith, the devout and earnest 
prayer — " Lord, increase our faith." 


Abraham's faith was characterized by a prompt, cheerful, and 
self-denying obedience. Two instances of this are particularly 
mentioned. One when God commanded him to leave his country, 
his kindred, and his father's house, and take up his abode in Ca- 
naan. (Gen. 12 : 1-4.) The Apostle Paul denominates his obedi- 
ence to that command, the obedience of faith. " By faith Abra- 
ham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should 
after receive for an inheritance, obeyed, and he went out not know- 
ing whither he went." (Heb. 11 : 8.) He knew nothing of that 
country, nor the way thither. But if he had known, there were 
to the e} 7 e of sense no such attractions in the land of Canaan, at 
that time, as to induce him, for the sake of an inheritance there, to 
leave his own sunny clime in Chaldea, and to alienate himself from 
all his early associations, his secular interests, and his worldly pros- 
pects. But the "God of glory" who appeared to him, issued the 
command, "Get thee out of thy country," &c, and he promptly 
obeyed. The Divine authority over him was fully recognized, and 
his readiness to yield to its requirements was cheerfully and prac- 
tically acknowledged. His obedience, however, was not merely a 
subjection to the mandate of a ruler, though this would have been 
obligatory. God is our moral governor, and has an infinite right 
to control and guide us according to his good pleasure. But an- 
other element entered into his obedience, which modified its cha- 
racter and made it peculiarly pleasing to God. It was of the same 
nature and under the same influence with the obedience of Paul, 
when the risen and ascended Saviour met him on his way to Da- 
mascus, and by the glorious manifestation of himself, made him, 
first a trophy of his grace, and then a herald of the cross. Paul 
tells us, that "when it pleased God to reveal his Son in him, he 
conferred not with flesh and blood," but proceeded immediately to 
fulfil his mission as an apostle to the Gentiles. So it was with 
VOL. v. — NO. 2. 5 

66 " Friend of God," or, the Excellency of [February. 

Abraham. His faith in God's promise, was the principle of a new 
and spiritual life, controlling his purposes and bringing them into 
sweet and holy subjection to the Divine will. That promise contained 
both temporal and spiritual blessings ; but his subsequent history 
shows that he was influenced chiefly by the latter. Though his faith 
produced that filial spirit which would have led him to go to any 
other country as cheerfully as to Canaan, if God had commanded it ; 
yet there was a special reason for his being directed to locate him- 
self in that land, — a reason which was so closely associated in his 
mind with the promise of a Saviour, as to make his going thither 
an appropriate and precious act of faith. The words, " In thee 
shall all families of the earth be blessed," were the crowning mo- 
tive to animate him in his obedience; and those words, as we have 
already seen, were to be fulfilled under the reign of the Messiah. 
They contain, therefore, in the connection in which they stand, an 
implied announcement of God's purpose to make the land of Ca- 
naan the earthly home of the promised "seed," and that his de- 
sign in putting Abraham in possession of that country, was to 
fulfil his purpose in this particular. 

Thus in obeying the Divine command, his faith associated the 
land of his future sojournings with his highest future hopes. 
Whatever temporal blessings or trials he might anticipate, these 
were lost sight of in comparison with the pleasing reflection that 
his residence there was in order to prepare the way, through his 
descendants, for the birth of the Redeemer, who would in due 
time, hallow its various localities by his presence and ministry. 

The other instance of his obedience, which is mentioned with 
special commendation by the Apostle Paul, was his offering up his 
son Isaac. " By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up 
Isaac, and he that had received the promises offered up his only 
begotten son, of whom it was said, that in Isaac shall thy seed be 
called." (Heb. 11 : 17, 18.) The English version of the Old Testa- 
ment says concerning this command, "that God did tempt Abra- 
ham." (Gen. 22 : 1.) But the sense of the original is expressed 
by Paul, who instead of tempt renders it by the term try. The 
command was a trial of Abraham's faith, partly by trying his 
affections. " Take now thy son, thy only son Isaac, whom thou 
lovest, and get thee to the land of Moriah, and offer him there for 
a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will show 
thee." (Gen. 22 : 2.) No attempt is here made to weaken his 
affection for Isaac; nor a word said which implies that his love 
was too great. But between the two, God claimed the preference; 
and this injunction served to show whom Abraham loved most — 
his child or his God. The result proved the strength and fervour 
of his religious feelings. Parental fondness and affection yielded 
to the higher claims of his Friend in heaven. 

But this command tried his faith especially with reference to the 
promise that the Messiah should descend from him through the line 
of Isaac. God had said, "In Isaac shall thy seed be called." 


1855.] Faith and a Eoly Life. 67 

But now he required him to offer up this very son as a burnt offer- 
ing. A man of less filial spirit, and of a feeble faith, might have 
questioned, complained, remonstrated. But not a word of either 
escaped the lips of faithful Abraham. Without hesitation or delay 
he proceeded to fulfil the severe office of sundering with his own 
hand the tender tie which formed the link of connection between 
himself and the human nature of the Lord Jesus. Until the last 
moment he fully expected to perform the act. In his own mind, 
therefore, the sacrifice was actually made. Yet as in the case of 
Isaac's birth, so now, he " staggered not at the promise of God 
through unbelief," " accounting that God was able to raise him up 
even from the dead, from whence also he received him in a figure." 
As has been already noticed, it was with reference to this trans- 
action that the Apostle James informs us, Abraham was called the 
friend of God. He speaks of it, moreover, as the fulfilling of that 
Scripture, " Abraham believed God, and it was imputed to him for 
righteousness ;" and denominates it his being justified by works, 
whereas the Apostle Paul refers to the same Scripture to illustrate 
his being justified by faith. This apparent discrepancy is easily 
harmonized. The two statements relate to different periods in 
Abraham's life, and hence to different aspects of the doctrine of 
justification. The time alluded to by Paul was twenty-five or 
thirty years earlier than that of James, from which it follows that 
Abraham was in a justified state at the first period mentioned, and 
hence that James, who refers to the later period, was treating the 
subject in a different relation from that of Paul. James was dis- 
coursing concerning the nature of justifying faith — Paul concerning 
the nature of justification itself, which, he teaches, is by faith, 
without the deeds of the law ; yet this faith, says James (and 
Paul would have said the same), is not dead and inoperative, but 
living and active, producing a pious and willing obedience to God's 
commands. To show its practical effect, he adduced as one in- 
stance, Abraham's offering up Isaac, by which, says he, the Scrip- 
ture Yf as fulfilled, &c, i. e., it was thus exemplified and illustrated. 
This act of obedience showed the nature of that faith by which 
he was justified, and proved it to be genuine. Thus, though it was 
Abraham's faith alone that justified him, in the sense of his being 
forgiven and accepted as righteous before God, and so becoming 
his friend, yet in another and kindred sense he was justified by 
works, his works proving him to be a righteous man, and hence in 
a justified state. They proceeded from a gracious principle, and 
a gracious heart, and were also of such a character as pleased 
God. This act of obedience in particular, manifested in an extra- 
ordinary manner the power and excellency of his faith, and 
strengthened and endeared that friendship which began many 
years before. The appellation, therefore, which he received, if it 
had its origin in that transaction, must be understood as express- 
ing more than its ordinary import, and to him who was so "called," 

68 " Friend of Crod," etc. [February. 

it doubtless imparted tbe liveliest emotion. It was no small favour 
to have his beloved Isaac restored to his embrace ; but it was still 
more valuable to descend from the Mount with such a token of the 
Divine favour. 

These two instances of obedience may serve to illustrate the 
commencement and progress of the Christian life. It begins in 
obeying the gospel call to renounce the world, with its affections 
and lusts, and to follow Christ. Our country, our kindred, our 
father's house, and whatever else we hold dear, must be forsaken, 
provided they stand in the way of our coming to Christ. Dear reader, 
this call is virtually addressed to you. It is not a call to leave your 
country and kindred, and go to a distant land in a literal sense; or, 
if God's providence should call you to this, it is not to go thither, 
as many are constantly doing, for the sake of worldly gain. Your 
leaving all must be in order to follow Christ, and the primary and 
essential movement involved, is not physical, but moral or spiritual, 
— that of the heart quitting its idolatrous hold on earthly good, 
and obeying that gracious command, "Believe in the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and thou shalt be saved." It is not sufficient to submit your- 
self to God as your moral governor. Though this is required, it 
forms only a part of your duty, and if you do no more, the omis- 
sion of the other is an essential and ruinous defect. Evangelical 
submission consists in the obedience of faith. Though it involves 
subjection to legal authority, the latter may exist without the 
former, and in a certain state of mind, it is a serious barrier to the 
exercise of faith in Christ. Self-righteousness is the bane of 
gracious affections. Take heed, therefore, lest it be with you as 
with some in Paul's day, " who, being ignorant of God's righteous- 
ness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, did not 
submit themselves unto the righteousness of God. For Christ is 
the end of the law for righteousness, to every one that believeth." 
The Gospel is God's remedy for saving sinners. The law has power 
to condemn, but none to pardon. If you desire forgiveness and 
salvation, obey the overtures of Divine mercy made in the Gospel, 
and enter upon that life of faith which commences at the cross of 
Christ, and follows the way of his commandments. 

This life of faith is the second thing referred to as illustrated by 
Abraham's obedience. " The life which I now live in the flesh," 
says Paul, " I live by the faith of the Son of God." This consists 
in a cordial and believing subjection to him in all his requirements. 
Not in doing what he has not required, whether imposed by others, 
or invented, or voluntarily assumed by ourselves, under an im- 
pression that some extraordinary act of penance or self-denial will 
be pleasing to God. With reference to every such device, his word 
utters the rebuke, " Who hath required this at your hands ?" But 
when he commands, it is your duty to obey, even though he should 
call for the sacrifice of your "Isaacs," your darling children, or 
any other earthly comfort. " lie that taketh not up his cross," 

1855.] A Time to Dance. 69 

says Christ, " and followeth after me, cannot be my disciple." 
This cross may consist in self-denying duties, or in severe afflictions. 
But whether the one or the other, when imposed upon you by the 
word or providence of God, yield a prompt and cheerful obedience 
to the one, and an humble and confiding resignation to the other. 
You owe this to God as your Creator, who has an unlimited right 
to command your services, and to dispose of you and yours ac- 
cording to his good pleasure. You owe it to Christ as your Re- 
deemer, whose labours and sufferings for your good were more severe 
and self-denying than any duty or trial which he requires of you. 
And you owe it to yourself, whose privilege it is, as well as your 
duty, to be conformed to his will. Do you profess to be a friend 
of Christ ? Read his own words : " Ye are my friends, if ye do 
whatsoever I command you." (John 15 : 14.) Is it not your de- 
sire to stand high in his affections, to enjoy the light of his counte- 
nance, to be greeted by his smiles? This distinguished blessing is 
to be obtained by one way only, — the obedience of faith, a prompt, 
hearty, and universal obedience to your Divine Master. 

J. W. 

[To be continued.] 


If any are not content with adhering to the simplicity of man- 
ners and of worship which adorned the profession of the first Chris- 
tians, but will insist that there certainly is " a time to dance," I 
will not dispute the matter with them further, but will admit it to 
be so. I will agree that there are times and seasons when men 
may perhaps do well to praise God in the dance ; as did Miriam 
upon the shores of the Red Sea, or David, when he danced before 
the Ark of God, even at the risk of being despised as one of the 
" vain fellows." 

Let us say then that a time to dance is such as this : — 
1. When in answer to fervent and importunate prayer, God 
removes affliction or calamity from a person, a family, a church or 
a commonwealth. In such a change there is oftentimes^ produced 
so great a reaction of feeling in the soul, from deep depression to 
exuberance of joy, that it is with difficulty the transition can be 
credited as real. One is ready to take up as their own the song 
of the pilgrims from Babylon — " When the Lord turned again the 
captivity of Zion we were like them that dream ; then was our 
mouth filled with laughter, and our tongue with singing. * * * 
The Lord hath done great things for us; whereof we are glad." 
And the ecstasy of delight which fills the heart of the released 

* An extract from a sermon recently preached by the Rev. S. R. Wilson, of Cin- 

70 A Time to Dance. [February. 

mourner finds expression in singing, and shouting, and laughing, 
and dancing. 

2. When upon a soul that has been walking in darkness God 
lifts up the light of his countenance, and after having for a season 
withdrawn the sensible evidences of his favour, restores again to 
him the joys of salvation. Now the reclaimed and revived saint 
may take down his unstrung harp from the willows, and tuning it 
anew to the songs of Zion, go forth in the dance of them that 
rejoice in the Lord who gives light in darkness, the oil of joy for 
mourning, and the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness. 

3. When the devices of those that devise evil counsel against 
the Church are brought to nought, and the enemies of Christ and 
his people are broken and scattered, and their power for harm de- 
stroyed. Let the victory thus granted to his Church call forth the 
highest tribute of praise to Him that sits and rules as King in 
Zion ; let Miriam seize once more her timbrel and lead the dance 
of the daughters of Israel, whilst they sing to Jehovah who 
triumphs gloriously over all his foes. 

4. When the prodigal, who has wasted his substance in riotous 
living, thinks upon his ways with penitential sorrow, and returns 
from his wandering in the paths of folly and sin, back to his 
heavenly Father's house ; then celebrate the happy event with 
music and dancing, for it is meet to make merry and be glad when 
the dead are alive and the lost are found. Yes, such an event 
claims at our hands unwonted demonstrations of joy, for it is an 
event that thrills the celestial choir, and strings their harps anew. 
A soul emancipated from the slavery of sin. A criminal, condemned 
to die, freely and fully pardoned. A sinner saved. A child of hell 
made an heir of heaven. Surely a change so strange, so great, 
may well cause the " lame man to leap as a hart, and make the 
tongue of the dumb sing." The penitent prodigal, the pardoned 
sinner, the reconciled believer, if he will, may leap and dance, 
whilst he sings in chorus with a gladsome Church, 

"Amazing grace! how sweet the sound, 
That saved a wretch like me ; 
I once was lost, but now am found; 
"Was blind, but now I see." 

If these be the occasions when it is fitting that men should praise 
God in the dance, then may I not safely decide when it is not a 
time to dance ? Surely it is not a time to dance when the judg- 
ments of God arc abroad in the earth. When the hearts of men 
are failing them because of those things that are coming upon the 
world — when the ways of Zion mourn because few come to her 
solemn feasts — when the quickening power of the Holy Spirit is 
withdrawn from the Church — when men are hastening in mad and 
careless crowds to the judgment bar of heaven without Christ, and 
having no hope in the world. Shall a nation to whom God is 

1855.] The Downfall of Turkey. 71 

speaking in wrath, as he scatters upon it the burning coals of pes- 
tilence, or hurls against it the thunderbolts of war — shall such a 
nation dance ? Shall men condemned to eternal death, with the 
burning pit of hell before them, and avenging Justice swift pur- 
suing them — shall such men make merry ? Ah, no ! The voice 
of reason, of conscience, of Scripture, of God's Spirit, all — all 
call such to mourning instead of dancing — to sackcloth instead of 
feasting. S. R. W. 


At the present time, when the Eastern war is filling men's minds 
with the deepest anxiety, an extract from " The Signs of the 
Times," a lecture by Dr. Cumming, of London, may not be unin- 
teresting to the readers of your Magazine. 

"The prophet Daniel specifies 2300 years as the duration of the 
Mahometan power. The beginning of the 2300 years is dated by 
the most accomplished and learned scholars in prophecy at about 
the year 430, or the era of the noontide glory of the Persian Em- 
pire, and the splendid progress of Xerxes, when it was in its meri- 
dian grandeur. 

" From that date Daniel looks along the centuries to the epoch 
of its decay, and predicts that 2300 years from that date its decay 
would begin. This lands us in the year 1820, when what is called 
in the Apocalypse the drying up of the river Euphrates, or the 
wasting away of the Mahometan power should begin to take place. 
Now if this calculation be correct, we should expect that in the 
year 1820 or thereabouts, this Mahometan power did begin to 
waste. What are the facts ? In the year 1820 the Ottoman Em- 
pire had reached its meridian strength — free from all foreign inva- 
sions, and in possession of perfect peace. What takes place soon 
after this ? In the summer of that very year Ali Pacha revolted 
from the Sultan. In the autumn the Greek insurrection broke out. 
Soon after, Northern Greece, the isles of the Egean Sea, and the 
Danube provinces, all revolted from the Turkish Empire. In the 
Morea, the Greeks destroyed an army of 30,000 Turks. In 1827 
the combined fleets of Britain, France, and Russia destroyed the 
Turco-Egyptian fleets at the battle of Navarino. In the year 
1828, Russia crossed the Balkan, entered Adrianople, and Con- 
stantinople was saved by the interposition of the Western Ambas- 
sadors. Servia, Wallachia, and Moldavia are at this moment held 
by the Russians. The Turkish province of Algiers is now a 
French colony. And the Rev. Mr. Walsh, the British Consul at 
Constantinople, writing in 1831, says, 'Within the last 20 years 
Constantinople lost more than half its population. Two conflagra- 
tions happened while I was there, and destroyed 15,000 houses. 

72 The Downfall of Turkey. [February. 

It is no exaggeration to say, that within the period mentioned 
300,000 have been swept away in this city by causes not operating 
in any other capital whatever.' 

" The special prediction under the Sixth Vial is, the drying up 
of the river Euphrates, that is, a progressive evaporation of Ma- 
hometanism, beginning in 1820, and expected by every student of 
prophecy to end in a very short time. It is to die out ; it is not 
to be struck down. It is the evaporation of a stream, not the de- 
struction of a citadel at a blow. But it does not follow that the 
Russian Eagle is to have the Mosque of St. Sophia for his eyrie. 

" It does not follow that the Turks are to cease to be, when they 
cease to be Mahometans. They may become Christians. 

" The 9,000,000 of Eastern Christians that are under the Cres- 
cent, and subject to all its insults, its oppression, and its tyranny, 
may rise up to be a glorious nation, a nobler obstruction to Rus- 
sian ambition than the decrepit and dying Turkish Empire. 

" Turkey, just at the period predicted in prophecy, begins to die 
out. The evidence of this is recent testimony respecting her. 
Lamartine's last remark, in one of those sagacious aphorisms by 
which his eloquence is distinguished, says, 'Turkey dies for want 
of Turks.' This gradual decay of the Turkish Empire identifies 
the period in which we now are with what is called in the Apoca- 
lypse the Sixth Vial. Mr. Habershon, in his excellent work upon 
the subject, calculated, in 1830, that the Turkish Empire would 
cease to exist soon aftdr 1849. Its end is at hand. He was not 
very far wrong. Every day I expect to hear of its stream dried 
up, of the Crescent waning, and of Turkey as a nation that was, 
not a nation mighty, any longer able to maintain itself. Plague, 
famine, pestilence, profligacy, are fast drying up her empire; her 
exchequer is now all but bankrupt ; her momentary success against 
Russia, is a surer prognostic of her destruction. Britain and 
France, like clouds, may spread over the Euphrates, and try to 
prevent the evaporation of its waters ; but all is vain. The echoes 
of victory by the fleets of the ambitious Autocrat, and the cruel 
destruction of the Turkish, are resounding through Europe. This 
gradual decay of the Crescent, after the period predicted under 
the Sixth Vial, is assuredly taking place. Its final destruction 
may be looked for every day, and now Russia, like a gigantic vul- 
ture poised in mid heaven, on outstretched wings, waits for the 
moment to descend and to destroy. Peace or war is equally ex- 
hausting Turkey. Help her and you may soften her fall, but you 
will not avert her decay. 

"The 'sure word of prophecy' is stronger than the combined 
fleets of England and Franco. We are watching at this moment 
for the issue, and I confess I long to see the expiring throes of an 
empire that has long oppressed the free and crushed the good, to 
hear the last boom of Mahometan cannon, and to see the beautiful 
lands around Constantinople, so fertile, emerge from the deluge of 

1855.] Broken Buds. 73 

Mahometan superstition, and not Russia, but Christianity ascend- 
ant, the result, but the way prepared for the march of the kings of 
the East — the dispersed Jews — to their beloved Palestine, the land 
of their fathers." 

The above is from the pen of one of the most learned and 
eloquent preachers of the present day, and although we may not 
entirely agree with every idea presented, yet there is much to 
commend it to the serious perusal of every man that loves the 
coming of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

W. M. S. 

JhtWJjtflfr CIjDttgfjfiL 


" There is no flock, however watched and tended, 
But one dead lamb is there." — Longfellow. 

Not many hearts can shut their doors against loving little 
children. Touching helplessness, love unselfish, faith beautiful in 
completeness, countless winsome graces, all these are childhood's 
dower, and all these cry too loudly for admittance, to be left 
"standing without." Oh yes ! as " good and perfect gifts" from 
"the Father of lights," little children are loved and cherished 
the green earth over. The home circle knows no sweeter music 
than their voices, no brighter sunlight than their smiles — when 
that music is hushed, that sunlight faded, the bitterness of desola- 
tion oversleeps as a flood, the perfection of sorrow indeed draws 
nigh. Alas ! that watching, loving hearts should often watch and 
love in vain. For seem the bulwarks around the home-world never 
so strong, " the spoiler will come in — a bud of beauty is smitten — 
a cherished blossom slain;" then "the shadow of a little grave" 
falls on the hearthstone. Ah ! how dark a shadow ; in its gloom 
stricken souls sit down to weep. Earth was but in the daybreak 
of existence, when sin entered, "and deathby sin;" since then the 
shadow has been falling, falling over countless hearthstones, the 
dark, dark shadow of little graves. 

Ages ago, a "voice in Ramah," took up the burden of lamenta- 
tion, and bitter weeping, "refusing to be comforted" for the chil- 
dren, "because they were not," and the echo of that mournful 

74 Broken Buds. [February. 

voice lingers yet, dying not, until death itself is dead. Yet there 
is light in darkness, consolation in bitterness. Mourning, childless 
households ! there is " a balm in Gilead," even for your " grievous 
hearts." The flower is faded in its freshness, the bud broken in its 
beauty, yet murmur not, "nor charge God foolishly." Shroud 
the tiny form for its coffin bed, close the eyes, those sweet bright 
eyes, which you had thought could never grow dim, fold the fairy 
hands upon that breast, so cold and pulseless; but in all this, 
sorrow not as those without hope. While you weep, " remember 
the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said," " Suffer little chil- 
dren to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the 
kingdom of heaven." Precious saying ! even as its echoes 
linger on the ear, the heart goes back, far down the tide of time, 
and in the rays of Bible light beholds a gracious picture. " The 
coasts of India, lying by the farther side of Jordan," are here, the 
rapt and eager multitude, the rebuking and rebuked disciples, 
the mothers pressing forward with their little children, and Jesus, 
" the Prince of life and glory," the gracious and eternal God, 
taking those children in his arms, and blessing them. Sweet 
wayside scene ! drawn by the pen of inspiration, saved from the 
mists of the past, that stricken hearts might look thereon, and 
looking find fulness of joy and comfort in tribulation. Fadeless in 
beauty, divine in consolation, the picture stands for you, oh 
mourners — a rich legacy for your dai-kened hearthstones. 

And hear again these blessed words, so supporting, so far-reach- 
ing in their promise: "Suffer little children to come unto me, 
and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven." Think 
of that kingdom. Is it not a realm of glory ? Have you not in 
the tender, solemn morning musings, in the silence of the night 
watches, longed to flee away to its bright courts, and be at rest ? 
You believe that it is good to be there. The light of revelation 
shows it to you as a land of peace, the home of our " elder brother," 
the paradise of our God. Why then weep so bitterly, because 
your cherished child has gone up thither before you ? Look upon 
the kingdom of this world, see its thorns, its temptations, its many 
tears. Could earthly love, ever so watchful, have shielded your 
little one from a portion in these bitter things ? Oh, remember, 
"Man is born unto trouble, as the sparks fly upward." 

" Of such is the kingdom of heaven." This word 18 sure. " The 
voice said Cry, and I said, What shall I cry?" "The grass 
withereth, the flower fadeth, but the word of our G-od shall stand 
forever." Realize this, lean upon Christ's gracious saying with all 
your strength. " He is faithful that promised." Brush away the 
tears which dim the eye of faith, look up, pierce the veil, and see 
your broken bud expanding in the paradise above, your smitten 
lamb folded where the pastures are always green, led by the good 
Shepherd, " beside still waters." Sinful by nature, but made pure 
through love divine, snatched from evil to come, the little creature 

1855.] Thy Gentleness hath made me Great. 75 

■which wept and smiled in your household, walks the golden streets 
of "the New Jerusalem," the companion now of angels, and "the 
spirits of the just made perfect." Cease thy wailing, smitten 
heart! " It is well with the child." 

A glorious train of infanthood, without doubt already stand in 
those upper courts ; and little pilgrims each day and hour are 
swiftly hastening thither, many falling asleep in the soft hush of 
their cradle beds, loving tearful watchers sitting by. Some* 
" entering in" by a stormy way, weeping with baby terror, sinking 
in the depths of mighty waters, but at last awaking from their 
ocean sleep, in the arms of Jesus, folded to His gracious breast. 
Happy forever, "for the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne 
shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of water, 
and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes." * * 

Christian parents ! mourning parents ! hear a word of comfort. 
" Thus saith the Lord : Refrain thy voice from weeping, and thine 
eyes from tears." " I will save thy children," " and great shall be 
the peace of thy children." 

L. M. L. 

Columbia, Pa. 


The Psalms, considered collectively, may be taken as an expo- 
nent of God's educational system with erring man. We have here 
the experience of a wide, full, many-sided human nature, brought 
under the action of the direct training of the Divine Spirit. To 
David's eye the veil had been lifted, and he had learned to see in 
the whole complex system of life — in the signs and wonders and 
starry dances of the heavens, in this earth with all its glorious gar- 
niture and systematic array of forces, only the scenery and acces- 
sories of a wonderful system of moral education, conducted by an 
unseen teacher. Hence, through the whole of the Psalms are 
scattered such expressions as these, " Thou shalt guide me with 
thy counsel :" " The meek will he guide in judgment, the meek 
will he teach his way." 

This idea of divinity employing superior wisdom and power in 
the moral training of man, is almost purely Hebraistic. We meet 
in the Greek and Roman literature but faint and shadowy glimpses 
of it, wavering as tree shadows seen in water. Socrates had his 
guiding spirit, doubtless a dimmer and less perfect approach of 
Him who guided David ; but Socrates as reflected by Xenophon 
and Plato, breathed altogether a different element from that which 
surrounds us in the Psalms. An inexpressible sense of sadness 
overcomes us in reading his noble and beautiful defence before his 

* There were many little children on board the Arctic— Weekly Paper. 

76 Thy Gentleness hath made me Great. [February. 

judges, as we hear him saying in conclusion, " It is now time to 
depart — for me to die — for you to live — but which is the better 
state is known to God only." We think of David's triumphant 
words, " Thou shalt guide me with thy counsel, and afterwards 
receive me to glory !" 

The intimate educational life of God with man is the very heart 
of the Psalms ; it is what has given them their undying vitality 
in every nation, language, and tongue. Socrates and Plato interest 
one class of minds, but their words have not struck the great com- 
mon chords of humanity, so that the rudest and most illiterate 
minds are aroused and vitalized by them in common with the most 
refined and elevated. 

David, in a few words, gives the summary of his great teacher's 
method. " Thy gentleness hath made me great." 

Now there is a tendency in all merely human modes of educa- 
tion and discipline, to undervalue gentleness. The fact is, that 
gentleness is out of repute in society, because it is seldom exhibited 
by the strong-minded and sensible. What passes for gentleness is 
too often mere stupidity — a quiet sluggishness, or an indolent 
selfishness. So we commonly hear the expression, too gentle. We 
hear the mother's gentleness set off against the father's sense and 
right reason, as if it were necessarily an antagonistic force. But 
to David it was given to see that gentleness was the great embra- 
cing atmosphere in which all the intense energies of the divine 
nature lived and moved. What was seen by John and Mar} r in the 
daily life of Jesus, was foreseen by David in all the movements of 
the one altogether lovely, with whom he walked. As one nearing 
the Spice Islands is encompassed by an atmosphere of perfume, so 
when he drew near to God he felt himself encompassed by an 
atmosphere of gentleness, and he recognizes this more than all, as 
having been the forming element in his moral life. "Thy gentle- 
ness hath made me great." We know full well in David's history 
that this was no weak gentleness — no dead, inert, blind impulse. 
For the faults and sins of his moral nature the great Physician 
employed treatment the most active. Despite the fastings, the 
pleadings, and the tears of the father, this Gentle One took from 
him the child of his love. From his throne came forth the destroy- 
ing angel that scattered mourning and death through the doomed 
villages of Judah. By his permission, David became for a season, 
a crownless king — despised and rejected of men — a man of sorrows 
and acquainted with grief. Severe as was this discipline, it was, 
after all, the essential conviction of the gentleness of Ilim who 
sent it that gave it its force. Severity from one who is at heart 
severe, has a crushing but never a reviving force ; but any amount 
of necessary severity from one who is at heart gentle, has a tonic 
rather than a depressing power. We bear from the firm and care- 
ful hand of a physician, an amount of pain which would be abso- 
lutely unendurable, if it was inflicted by angry violence. 

1855.] Thy Gentleness hath made me Great. 77 

The Psalms, in unfolding God's method of moral education, give 
a perfect mode, to all who would strengthen and confirm the failing 
and erring heart of man. In the family it is gentleness that is 
more needed than anything else. Any amount of restraint or dis- 
cipline may be endured, so long as it is made apparent to the child 
that the soul of the parent is not overclouded by angry feeling. 
Restraint and firmness there must always be in the guidance of 
inexperienced mind ; but if the father finds that his reproofs and 
his discipline produce angry frowns and fierce retorts, let him ask 
himself, Am I not angry 9 Has not the mind of my own disturbed 
soul, thus tossed the frail and movable soul of my child ? Am I 
gentle as God is gentle ? If discipline come from a gentle and 
loving soul, the child's anger is short lived, and in a calmer moment 
he will acknowledge it. Happy the parent, whose son can say to 
him in after years, " Thy gentleness hath made me great." In 
friendship, too ; would we seek the highest and noblest office of 
friendship, the moral improvement and perfecting of our friend, 
we must become like God, immovable in gentleness. For if our 
friend's injustice or infirmity reacts in us, and we become also in 
our turn excited and unjust, then is our power for good gone. 

In maintaining perfect gentleness of feeling, our hardest struggle 
sometimes is with our keen sense of justice. Our friend seems to 
us sharply unreasonable, and in a moment of bitterness over- 
whelms us with accusations which we know to be untrue. Shall 
I bear this f is the indignant language of justice within us. 

Yes, bear it. " Consider him that endured such contradiction 
of sinners against himself, lest ye be weary and faint in your 
minds." How often have you wounded the Divine sense of what 
is just and right, and yet his gentleness fails not. Seek to enter 
with him into that secret tabernacle of patience, where the rude 
voice of injustice and fault-finding is heard as one by the warm 
fireside hears the raging wind beating against the bolted shutter. 
This immovable gentleness has in itself a property and power of 
victory. He who can love, and whose love cannot be vanquished, 
in the long run, must prevail. By invincible, self-controlling gen- 
tleness, the mother at last wins back to virtue the son whom no 
threats, no severities, no storms and upbraiding of passion could 
subdue. Geologists tell us that the calm and silent influence of 
the atmosphere is a power mightier than all the noisier forces of 
nature. Rocks and mountains are worn down and subdued by it. 

There are often times in the history of our friends, when their 
minds are in a transitional state. The elements of an old life are 
breaking up, the elements of a new one forming; but all is wild, 
incoherent, inchoate. We do not know them — they do not know 
themselves; what we once knew seems passing away; and what is 
coming seems chaotic and discordant. Such periods, however, un- 
lovely as they seem, are often the birth-hour of a higher and nobler 
nature. But there are few friends whose love can abide through 

78 Review and Criticism. [February. 

these times, and yet these are the seasons when it is most essential 
that friends should stand firm. As Paul said of the sailors, 
" Except these abide in the ship, ye cannot be saved." So when a 
poor human soul has lost its helm, and is driving wildly on rocks, 
the enduring gentleness of a friend is often the last cable that 
holds it from destruction. Ah, many a goodly young man has been 
wrecked because just at such a moment the cable of fatherly and 
motherly patience has snapped, and then all was lost. 

Many too have been saved by one loving heart, whose gentle- 
ness no wrong, no unreasonableness, no outrage could alienate. 
Some souls there are who receive from God that divine gift of infi- 
nite, unconquerable love ; and in this love lies salvation. 

Bear up, therefore, father, mother, friend — enter into the sanc- 
tuary of God's gentleness, seek to be made immovable in love, and 
welcome the sharp trial that gives the opportunity of patience. To 
thee, oh patient heart, shall be given both the beauty and the 
victory of gentleness ; a golden cord from thy heart shall draw 
round the wayward heart of child or friend, bringing both them 
and thee to the bosom of Eternal Love. — "Independent." 

jUtmm anh CritiriatiL 

The Problem Solved; or Sin not of God. By Miles P. Squier, D.D. Professor of 
Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, Beloit College, Wisconsin. M. W. Dodd, New 
York, pp. 255. 

TriE design of this volume appears to be, though not stated in direct 
terms, to refute the hypothesis of the "Conflict of Ages," concerning the 
origin of evil in our world. This problem was attempted to be solved by 
Dr. Beecher, in his treatise, by a most unsatisfactory and unfounded 
theory. But unfortunately for the cause of truth, the solution proposed 
and advocated by Dr. Squier, is as much at variance with Scripture, as 
the book he seems to have intended to answer. In avoiding Scylla, he 
has fallen into Charybdis. He assumes that the Calvinistic doctrine of 
divine decrees, makes God the author of sin ; and in order to avoid tins, 
he denies that God decreed sin at all, and holds that it entered the world, 
not without his knowledge, but contrary to his will, as the result of that 
power of causation, inherent in our first parents as moral agents; who in 
their sphere, possess " the principle of cause," as really as God does in 
his. "They [sinners] pursue no divine plan and purpose, and fulfil no 
decretive will" of God in their rebellion against Ifim, but utterly thecon- 
trary. "They themselves, are cause even to a resistance of the will and 
command of God." "Sin has an economy of its own, and antagonistic 
to 'that of God in .all things." "The Infinite One rejects it, and has 
nothing in it, and only takes action in relation to it, as the method of 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 79 

another, and for which he is not responsible, in the prosecution of his own 
ends, as any good being may in his sphere, in respect to the machinations 
of the wicked, and serve himself out of them." 

Dr. Squier rejects the distinction between absolute and permissive de- 
crees, and maintains that there can be no decree, properly speaking, 
except it be "of the nature of an executive act." "You gain nothing," 
says he, " as to the actual being of a universe in the forming of its plan. 
Another link must be supplied in order to make the plan efficacious. It 
must become a cause, in its own behalf and that of its author, in execu- 
tion of its behests. God must somewhere stand in the relation of cause 
to sin, or a decree of it by him avails nothing. The sin in its actuality, 
stands in no connection with his decree of it, unless he institutes that 
connection and give it vitality. Dr. Emmons took this matter to its last 
analysis and its only legitimate issue. He held that God is the 'efficient 
cause' of sin, and equally an agent in respect to it, as in respect to holi- 
ness, and thus inaugurated sin as the perfect method of the absolute. All 
this we must adopt, or give up as useless the position that sin is of the 
arrangement and method of God." 

In order to avoid a conclusion so abhorrent to our moral sense, and so 
contrary to God's word, Dr. Squier takes the ground that " will is cause, 
as properly in the finite as in the infinite;" that "men have in themselves 
the attributes of complete personality;" that "they are themselves cause, 
and have inherently and of themselves the power to do right and to do 
wrong;" that "there is no decretive will of God in the element of wrong 
in man," &c. And further, with a view of showing the absurdity of the 
position that sin is decreed, he asks, " Why break in upon God's economy 
and supersede his will, and be anxious about that which, after all, meets 
his mind, and is the fulfilment of his own way and pleasure? God can 
have his own way, and does, says the scheme. There is just as much 
piety on the earth as he sees best there should be, and when he would 
have more, he will see to it that there is; and why need I distress myself 
about it, or be wiser or better than God ?" &c. 

If the above, and other kindred sentiments contained in the book (em- 
bracing the whole system of Taylorism), were the productions of an avowed 
Arminian, we should not be surprised. But what shall we think, when 
they proceed from a writer, who has adopted the Confession of Faith of 
the Presbyterian Church ? in which the Divine decrees are asserted in the 
clearest manner, and are at the same time so stated and to be so understood, 
as not to make God the author of sin. Has Dr. Squier left the Presbyterian 
Church (New School), and adopted an independent Confession of Faith, 
of his own framing? If not, it will augur badly for that body, if the 
doctrines of this volume shall be found to express the current views of 
the author's ministerial brethren. 

The perusal of the book made an unhappy impression on our own mind, 
by causing us to live over again, in the way of painful recollection, a por- 
tion of our unconverted life ; when we were harassed, distressed, and 
tempted by similar thoughts of God, as the Almighty Ruler of the 
universe, and the sovereign Disposer of all events, as are drawn out in 
methodical form, in this volume. We sincerely hope the author does not 
feel in his heart what has thus passed through his mind. If he does, 
we would most earnestly recommend him, instead of endeavouring to find 
relief in a theory which is unscriptural and dangerous, to seek it where 

80 Review and Criticism. [February. 

alone it can be found, so as to give peace to the conscience, viz., in that 
submission of his intellect, his reason, and his understanding, to the con- 
trol of those gracious affections which rejoice in the Lord, without attempt- 
ing to approach so near the throne, as to incur the charge of presumption 
or impiety. 

"Aspiring to be gods, if angels fell, 
Aspiring to be angels, men rebel." 

We regret that a Professor in one of the Western colleges should have 
produced a book, so defective in its moral reasonings. The Chair of In- 
tellectual and Moral Philosophy, is one that has frequently been perverted 
to the undermining of true, evangelical religion. Some of the Scotch 
Universities, which in former days had unsound teachers in moral philo- 
sophy, were the instruments of doing much to destroy the ancient faith 
of that glorious Church, especially among the educated youth. It is so 
in Germany at the present day. We venture to affirm that the West- 
minster Confession will not be held in high repute by the students, who 
imbibe the views of Professor Squier, in regard to the doctrines discussed 
in this book. "The Problem Solved!" No. The demonstration is as 
erratic as the claim is ambitious. We have often seen young men, who 
said they were prepared to recite their lessons, make egregious failures in 
the class-room. Thus is it with the Professor himself. He has failed to 
meet his own announcement. His boasted solving is a weak solution of 
Arminianism, which will not bear the test of the standards of his own 

Historical Discourses, relating to the First Presbyterian Church, in Newark, New 
Jersey. By Jonathan F. Stearns, D.D., Pastor of the Church. With Notes and 
Illustrations. 1855. 

The First Presbyterian Church in Newark, New Jersey, is very rich in 
historical interest. It is the mother church in an important section of 
country; has been under the pastoral care of many eminent servants of 
Christ; and has exercised a great influence from its earliest origin. Dr. 
Stearns gives a histoi-y of the early settlement of New-Work, since cor- 
rupted into Newark, and traces its origin to the Connecticut Puritans. 
A large, mass of historical and biographical information is brought to 
light through the patient and successful investigations of the author ; and 
numerous errors of Dr. Macwhorter and others are detected. Dr. Stearns 
appears to possess admirable qualifications for inquiries of this nature, 
and has discharged his duties in a satisfactory and erudite way. A large 
number of notes and illustrations add to the value of the work. Many 
points of special interest are discussed, and among them the early origin 
of Princeton College. 

We congratulate our friends in Newark on the success which has fol- 
lowed Dr. Stearns's labours in compiling this interesting history. It will 
ever be a standard work for information and reference. 

We are not sure that Dr. Stearns has made no errors in this history. 
If on closer examination, we should discover any, we kuow that the Doctor 
will be glad to have them pointed out. 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 81 

Parish and other Pencillings. By Kirwan. New York. Harper & Brothers. 

Kirwan has brandished the sword so often in valiant and necessary 
controversy, that a volume of parish pencillings presents him before many 
readers in a new light. Whether as general Church warrior, or as simple 
parish priest, his writings will always be popular. The present volume 
is full of interesting narratives, and practical evangelical counsels. The 
chapters on Drs. Green, Alexander, and Miller are specially attractive. 
There is much variety of subject and of illustration throughout the 
volume; and each chapter is read with interest, either as complete in 
itself, or as forming a part of a miscellaneous whole. We consider these 
pencillings to be fine specimens of a kind of composition, which takes 
with the people. Various questions of casuistry are skilfully solved ; 
the dealings of Providence are narrated and unfolded with pious discrimi- 
nation ; and the whole production is calculated to edify both the head 
and the heart. Kirwan shows that a faithful minister can also be a 
popular author; and that, amid the preparations for the pulpit, a diligent 
man can effectually serve his generation through the medium of the 

American Principles on National Prosperity: A Thanksgiving sermon preached 
in the First Presbyterian Church. Elizabethtown, New Jersey, November 28, 1854. 
By Nicholas Murray, D. D. New York. Harper & Brothers: 1854. 

Dr. Murray's eloquent sermon on Thanksgiving day has had an exten- 
sive circulation. The first question discussed is, "In what does true 
national prosperity consist V The answer is, not in extent of territory, 
nor expanded commerce, nor in powerful armies and navies, nor in the 
skill of artisans, nor in the wealth of citizens — but in a constitution 
founded on just principles, in just laws and statutes, in an educated moral 
people, and in an upright magistracy. The second point is the dangers 
which threaten our prosperity. These are the too prevalent desire to be 
rich, a spirit of insubordination, a spirit of extravagance, and the varying 
and peculiar forms of religious belief which prevail. In the third place, 
the means by which our prosperity is to be promoted are declared to be 
wise legislation, a disinterested patriotism, and a pure religion. During 
the discussion, Popery does not receive more than its full share of over- 
whelming condemnation. 

A Voice from Twenty Graves : A Discourse occasioned by the awful calamity in 
the Third Presbyterian Church. Louisville, Kentucky. By Rev. L. J. Halsey. 
Louisville. 1854. 

The calamity which occasioned this Discourse, was the destruction of 
the Third Presbyterian Church in Louisville, by a violent tornado on Au- 
gust 27, 1854. Mr. Halsey preached to his people on the succeeding 
Sabbath a discourse of great solemnity and power. He first drew the 
attention of the congregation to the fact that the lessons, whatever they 
were, which Cod had in view, came with a deep and impressive solemnity 
by reason of the extent of the calamity, in the time and place of its oc- 
currence, in the character of the persons on whom it fell, and in the 

vol. v. — no. 2. 6 

82 Review and Criticism. [February. 

almost unparalleled suddenness of the blow. A variety of practical 
remarks concludes this thrilling discourse. 

The Elements of Intellectual Philosophy. By Francis Wayland, President 
of Brown University, and Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy. Second 
edition. Boston: Philips, Sampson & Co. New York : J. C. Derby. 1854. 

A good text-book of Intellectual Philosophy has long been a desidera- 
tum. When we were at Yale College, some years ago, Stewart was in 
vogue ; and, although we are far from depreciating that distinguished 
philosopher, we have no hesitation in saying that his book is dull, prolix 
and unsatisfactory to the youthful mind. Our own Upham has written 
an excellent work, and far better than Stewart's to impart an elementary 
knowledge of the science. Payne's Treatise is also excellent. The two 
writers last mentioned follow, in the main, the acute scientific analysis of 
the immortal Thomas Brown, who, notwithstanding his few material 
errors, has made a better classification, than any one before him, of the 
intellectual powers. Dr. Wayland renders suitable homage to Dr. Brown 
in the classification he adopts; but his mode of treating the subject is 
more simple, concise and rigidly philosophical. The following shows 
Dr. Wayland's classification of the faculties of the mind, with the defini- 
tions attached to them. 

"1. The Perceptive faculties are those by which we become acquainted 
with the existence and qualities of the external world. 2. Consciousness 
is the faculty by which we become cognizant of the operations of our own 
minds. 3. Original Suggest ion is the faculty which gives rise to original 
ideas, occasioned by the perceptive faculties or consciousness. 4. Ab- 
straction is the faculty by which, from conceptions of individuals, we 
form conceptions of genera and species, or in general, of classes. 5. 
Memory is the faculty by which we retain and recall our knowledge of 
the past. 6. Reason is that faculty by which from the use of the know- 
ledge obtained by the other faculties, we are enabled to proceed to other 
and original knowladge. 7. Imagination is that faculty by which, from 
materials already existing in the mind, we form complicated conceptions 
or mental images, according to our will. 8. Taste is that sensibility by 
which we recognize the beauties and deformities of nature or art, deriving 
pleasure from the one, and suffering pain from the other. It is by no 
means intended to assert that these are all the powers of a human soul. 
Besides these, it is endowed with conscience, or that faculty by which we 
are capable of moral obligations ; with will, or that motive force by which 
we are impelled to action ; with various emotions, instincts, and biases, 
which, as observation teaches us, are parts of a human soul. These are, 
however, the most important of those that are purely intellectual. " 

Dr. Wayland's treatise appears to us to be characterized, first, by great 
acutencss and accuracy of discrimination, and hence it can be relied upon 
as a text-book for students. Secondly, it is sufficiently concise as a whole, 
and yet it goes considerably into detail on the points which materially 
require the most investigation. Thirdly, the work constantly appeals to 
the consciousness of the reader for the truth of its results, and thus 
keeps the mind in a state of enlivened exercise and conciliates attention 
to its great subjects. Fourthly, the spirit and tone of the book are emi- 
nently modest and worthy of a Christian philosopher. Having examined 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 83 

all the chapters with some care, we have arrived at the conclusion that it 
is the best text-book extant for the promotion of the knowledge of mental 
philosophy among the young. The only serious objection to the work is 
that it is not complete, inasmuch as the emotions are entirely overlooked, 
as well as the moral part of our nature. The latter, indeed, forms the 
subject of a smaller volume, already issued. But we think it is very 
desirable to have a complete text-book, in one volume, of mental and 
moral philosophy, for the use of academies and colleges. At any rate, 
Dr. Wayland, even if he leaves morals for a separate volume, ought to 
incorporate the emotions into a system of the philosophy of the mind. 

The Plurality of Worlds. With an Introduction by Edward Hitchcock, D. D. 
A new edition, to which is added a Supplementary Dialogue. Boston : Gould & 
Lincoln. New York : Sheldon, Lamport & Blakeman. 1855. 

The author of this treatise, said to be the distinguished philosopher, 
Dr. Whewell, maintains that the facts of science do not warrant the 
conclusion that many of the heavenly bodies are inhabited by moral and 
intellectual beings, like man. A vast amount of scientific knowledge is 
laid under contribution to uphold the theory. Geology and astronomy 
furnish the chief data for the argument, although abstract reasoning is 
also employed. We produce a single specimen of the author's reasoning 
from the chapter " on the argument from design :" 

"The universe is so full of such rudiments of things, that they far outnumber 
the things which outgrow their rudiments. The marks of possibility are much 
more numerous than the tale of actuality. The vitality which is frustrated is far 
more copious than the vitality which is consummated. So far, then, as this ana- 
logy goes, if the earth alone, of all the planetary harvest has been a fertile seed 
of creation ; — if the terrestrial embryo have alone been evolved into life, while 
all the other masses have remained barren and dead : — we have, in this, nothing 
which we need regard as an unprecedented waste, an improbable prodigality, an 
unusual failure in the operations of nature : but on the contrary, such a single 
case of success among many of failure, is exactly the order of nature in the pro- 
duction of life. It is quite agreeable to analogy, that the Solar System, of which 
the flowers are not many, should have borne but one fertile flower. One in eight, 
or in twice eight, reared into such wondrous fertility as belongs to the Earth, is 
an abundant produce, compared with the result in the most fertile provinces of 
Nature. And even if any number of the Fixed Stars were also found to be bar- 
ren flowers of the sky, objects, however beautiful, yet not sources of life or de- 
velopment, we need not think the powers of creation wasted or frustrated, thrown 
away or perverted. One such fertile result as the Earth, with all its hosts of 
plants and animals, and especially with Man, an intelligent being, to stand at the 
head of those hosts, is a worthy and sufficient produce, so far as we can judge of 
the Creator's ways by analogy, of all the Universal Scheme." 

No reasoning in the book can produce the conviction in many minds, 
that our own globe is the only body in the illimitable universe that is the 
abode of intelligent and moral beings. On this subject, as on some of 
the speculations of geology, we think it is far better to wait in ignorance 
than to believe in theories derogatory to the Creator. The work before 
us is not irreligious in its spirit, and its facts and fancies challenge peru- 
sal. Sir David Brewster's Beply is as satisfactory as can be expected 
from our present attainments in knowledge. 

84 Review and Criticism. [February. 

Organic Christianity : or the Church of God, with its Officers and Government, 
and its divisions and variations ; Embracing a thorough Exposition and Defence 
of Church Democracy. By Leicester A. Sawyer. Boston : John P. Jewett & 
Co. 1854. 

Mr. Sawyer's book is divided into four parts. The first part examines 
the Polity of the Christian Cburch under Christ and the Apostles. The 
second part refers to the past Apostolic Churches, from A. D. 100 to 606, 
embracing the rise of the Hierarchal System. The third part discusses 
questions about the patriarchal and papal churches. And the fourth part 
includes what are called the Revolutionary churches, viz., the Lutheran, 
Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational, &c. The author ad- 
vocates church democracy chiefly on the ground, that there are no condi- 
tions of stability " except iu the most perfect liberty, or in the most per- 
fect despotism." We deny that either independency or despotism is a 
true condition of stability, and refer to our own form of civil government 
as a much more hopeful guarantee. Our Union is composed of states, 
and our states are divided into counties, just as our General Assembly is 
composed of synods, and our synods are divided into presbyteries. The 
author has an inbred and vital horror of appeal from an inferior to a 
superior judicatory ; but does not the system of appeal from the lower 
to the higher tribunal in civil affairs viudicate the principle of the 
organization of our various church courts ? 

Mr. Sawyer has an excellent chapter "on the critical position of New 
School Presbyterianism," which ism he considers a decided failure, 
doomed to extinction. On this point public sentiment is becoming quite 
unanimous. He says " the whole movement has resulted in a great Old 
School victory, and in the virtual abandonment, by the New School body, 
of some of their principles." Nothing is truer than that, our brethren 
themselves being witnesses. The following extracts will show in what 
light able and intelligent advocates of Church Democracy view the Old 
and New School churches : — 

" Already has the Nino School church disappointed both friends and foes. 
Regarded for a long time as the party of progress in the Presbyterian family, 
and by some as the revolutionary party, all the world expected that, on coming 
out and taking its independent position in the family of churches, it would accom- 
plish something worthy of its pretensions. But what has it done ? What great 
act has it performed ? What are its heroic achievements in the cause of God 
and man? It has done nothing original; nothing that its great exemplar, the 
Old School, has not done or might not have done. The mountains have been in 
travail, and an ordinary birth only has occurred, not to speak of more dimiuutive 

" The Old School body has enjoyed very considerable prosperity, has a large 
annual growth, and is one of the most respectable and influential bodies in the 
land. It is probably the best specimen of Westminster Assembly Presbyterian- 
ism and Calvinism in the world, exceeding even Scotland in realizing the ideal 
both of Westminster divines and of Calvin. Its leading ministers are men of 
eminent learning and piety, and its laymen comprehend some of the most distin- 
guished of the American people. As a body, they are considerably zealous for 
tlieir church polity, and regard their standards with great veneration. Whatever 
the system can accomplish, they will be likely to effect. They are thoroughly 
testing both the system of Calvinistic theology and Presbyterian polity ; and 
seem likely to show, by experiment, what they can do for humanity, where their 
beneficial operations end, and how they are limited." 

Thus is history already recording the triumphs of true Westminsterian 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 85 

doctrine and polity, or, as brethren call it, of " sour, Scotch Presbyterian- 
ism." Mr. Sawyer's book contains many interesting and satisfactory dis- 
cussions on Church questions, and is worthy of a place in the library of 
intelligent Christians. As an exposition and defence of Independency, 
it will, no doubt, be considered by the brethren of that way, to be con- 
clusive. "We do not so regard it. 

Cyclopedia ©f Missions ; containing a comprehensive view of missionary opera- 
tions throughout the world; with geographical descriptions and accounts of the 
social, moral, and religious condition of the people; by Rev. Harvey Newcomb. 
Published by Charles Scribner, New York: pp. 784. 

Next to the preservation of her own existence and purity, the great 
work of the Church is to evangelize the world. This formed the chief 
object in the labours of the Apostles ; and it has occupied the thoughts 
and efforts of God's people, more or less, from that day to this. The 
spirit of Christian missions has been her life and glory; and in her pro- 
secution of this work, God has signally manifested his favour, by blessing 
her very much in proportion as she has endeavoured to bless others. A 
history therefore such as the " Cyclopedia of Missions" professes to 
be, is entitled to special consideration. A faithful record of what has 
been done and is now doing for the diffusion of the Gospel, is as much 
more interesting to the mind of the pious reader than ordinary history, 
as the progress of Christ's kingdom transcends in importance all other 

From the attention which we have been able to bestow on this volume, 
the author appears to have redeemed the pledge virtually given in the 
title page, viz., to furnish a faithful history of missions throughout the 
world. We are confirmed in this opinion by the evidences of great labour 
and special care which are apparent in the work, and particularly by the 
manner in which, as stated in the preface, the book has been produced. 
" There have been more than twenty different persons engaged upon 
it." ..." Their names appear at the close of their several articles, and 
will afford a sufficient guarantee of thoroughness and accuracy. The 
articles which appear without a name have been prepared, either in whole 
or in part, by the editor. The portions relating to the missions of the 
American Baptist Union have been furnished by the author of the valu- 
able and interesting 'History of American Baptist Missions;' and those 
of the Methodists in this country and England, by a respected clergyman 
of that denomination, whose name was mentioned to me by the Secretary 
of the Methodist Missionary Society, as the most suitable person to un- 
dertake it. The missions of the Presbyterian Board, have been chiefly 
taken (by permission) from the Rev. J. C. Lowrie's < Manual of Mis- 
sions.' The article on the Church of Rome and its missions was pre- 
pared by a Roman Catholic layman." These facts show that the author's 
aim has not been merely to write a book ; but to supply the friends of 
missions with a reliable history, in which the several Christian denomina- 
tions most prominent in the missionary labours, might relate for them- 
selves " what God has wrought by them." 

The various articles are printed in alphabetical order, which arrangement 
is well adapted to convenient reference; and there are interspersed through 
the volume thirty-two maps, " covering nearly all the ground occupied by 
foreign missions." It brings down the history and results of missionary 

86 Review and Criticism. [February. 

operations to the present time. It contains a large amount of valuable 
information that is generally inaccessible, and only to be found in a few 
missionary libraries, spread out in a series of volumes, extending through 
a period of half a century. 

These statements, which are mostly taken from the preface, are copied 
with a view of furnishing to the readers of the Magazine, such informa- 
tion concerning the work as will enable them to judge concerning its 
value. It states further that one object in the preparation of the work, 
has been to provide the means of adding interest and value to the Monthly 
Concert ; for which it certainly contains ample materials, and their use 
at those meetings for prayer for the world's conversion, would add to 
them no little interest. A missionary spirit is promoted in our churches 
very much in proportion as they are regularly informed of the condition 
of the world, and the progress and success of missionary efforts. 

We are not able to give the price of the book, which the preface states 
to be " low." But we cheerfully recommend it to our readers as a volume 
full of instruction. It is designed not only to be consulted for reference, 
but to be read; many of the sketches and narratives being of thrilling 
interest. Considering its large size, it may not be convenient for all to 
purchase, who would like to read it. In these cases it might be purchased 
by the church as a part of their library, for the use of all the members, 
or it might be placed in our Sabbath School libraries, for the special use 
of the minister, teachers, and older scholars. 

The Book of Remembrance. — A Pastor's Gift for New Year. By Charles W. 
Shields, Pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia. William S. and 
Alfred Martien, 1855. 

The Christian pastor, on the last Sabbath of the year, allegorizes from 
the verse, " There is a remembrance again made of sins every year." An 
angel stands before him with a book, which is the Book of Remembrance, 
and in his hand is a scroll, containing the key to all that was written 
therein. To each man is his book; and to each act its record. Every 
year has its leaf, and the spaces and other marks show the days, the weeks, 
the Sabbaths, the sacramental occasions, &c. The pastor carries out tbe 
allegory in a most skilful and edifying manner, conveying solemn truth 
to the mind and conscience of the hearer, and bringing to startling view 
the great fact, " There is a remembrance again made of sins every year." 
The whole performance is as well executed as it is original. 

God in the Pestilence, and the Blessed Dead. — Two discourses preached in 
the Presbyterian Church of Columbia, Pa., on October 1st and 15th. By the Rev. 
Ebenezer Erskine, Pastor of the Church. Wm. S. Martien, Philadelphia, 1854. 

During the last summer, Columbia suffered severely from the pesti- 
lence, which, in the form of cholera, ravaged so many of our cities. In 
these able and solemn discourses, the Rev. Mr. Erskine preaches the 
truth with a special reference to the calamity. In the discourse on the 
pestilence, he shows first, that the bund of God must be acknowledged in 
sending the visitation, and secondly, that it was sent in judgment, on 
account of the sins of the community, among which sins he specifies irre- 
ligion, recklessness as to human laws, profanation of the Sabbath and of 

1855.] The Religious World. 87 

God's holy name, undue love of money, &c. In the third place, the 
purposes of the visitation were to draw the hearts of the people to God. 

The discourse, entitled "The Blessed Dead," after briefly expounding 
the celebrated passage in Revelation 14 : 13, gives sketches of the four 
church members, who died duriug the prevalence of the scourge, Mrs. 
Hannah Odell, Mr. Robert A. Spratts, Mrs. Susan Dick, and Dr. Richard 
E. Cockran. Dr. Cockran was a ruling elder, and a man of no ordinary 
character. We trust that the publication of these sermons will be pro- 
ductive of much good, especially in Columbia. 

[Notices of other books are necessarily postponed until the next number.] 


% IWigtoM ffiforlh. 

The Presbyterian Church. — Columbia Theological Seminary. The 
Rev. James H. Thornwell, D.D., has been elected by the Synods of 
South Carolina and Georgia, to the Professorship of Didactic Theology in 
the Theological Seminary at Columbia. Dr. Thornwell has signified his 
determination to accept the appointment, and will retire from the Presi- 
dency of the State College at the beginning of the next seminary year. 
Dr. Benjamin M. Palmer has also been elected to the Professorship of 
Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity, in the same Seminary, and has 
accepted the appointment. The Theological Seminaries of the Presbyte- 
rian Church, have been remarkably successful in obtaining the services 
of eminent and faithful men. 

Synod of Mississippi. — The Synod of Mississippi has overtured the 
Assembly to appoint an Executive Committee of the Board of Domestic 
Missions for the Southwestern States, to embrace within its field of agency 
the States of Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. The same 
Synod has overtured the Assembly to divide it into three Synods, so as to 
include Louisiana in a Synod by itself, and to have an eastern and western 
Synod in Mississippi. 

Dr. Pltjmer called to the Pastorate. — Dr. Plumer, Professor in 
the Western Theolgical Seminary at Alleghany, has been called to the 
Central Presbyterian Church in that city. The call was placed in his 
hands by the Presbytery of Alleghany City, and being accepted, arrange- 
ments were made for his installation on the 17th of January. The Pres- 
byterian Banner states that, " the arrangement now made will not inter- 
fere in the least with the duties of Dr. Plumer in the Western Theo- 
logical Seminary. And since this is a matter that concerns, in some de- 
gree, the whole Church, it may be well to give the resolutions in full with 

88 The Religious World. [February. 

regard to this connection, as they were passed when the call was made 

Resolved, That in calling him (Dr. Plumer,) to this important office, we fully and 
distinctly recognize his relations to the Western Theological Seminary, as Pro- 
fessor of Didactic and Pastoral Theology, and its prior claims to his labours and 
attention ; and have no desire or intention to interfere with the full discharge of 
his duties to that important institution ; but believe from the experience of the 
three months now drawing to a close, that without any neglect to the Seminary, 
he can render entire satisfaction, and be to our edification as Pastor. 

Resolved, That we cheerfully recognize the privilege of our Pastor elect, to sup- 
ply the pulpit with other ministers of the Gospel, when the state of his health, or, 
in his judgment, other circumstances require it, and during the summer months, 
to absent himself for such times as may be needed for proper relaxation from 

The Maine Law. — The rise and progress of laws in various States, 
prohibiting the sale of intoxicating drinks, is briefly exhibited by the fol- 
lowing abstract : — 

1851 — Passed by Legislature of Maine. 

1852— " " Minnesota. 

" — " " Ehode Island. 

11 — " " Massachusetts. 

" — Ratified by the people of Minnesota. 
" — Passed by Legislature of Vermont. 

1853— " " Michigan. 
u — Ratified by the people of Vermont. 
" — " " Michigan. 

" — Its submission to the people pronounced unconstitutional by the 
Supreme Court in Minnesota. 

" — Pronounced unconstitutional by U. S. Supreme Court in Rhode 

u — State Supreme Court equally divided in Michigan. 
1854 — Pronounced unconstitutional in Massachusetts. 

" — Passed by Legislature of New York. 

u — Vetoed by Governor. 

" — Passed by one branch of Legislature of New Hampshire. 

* — Passed by one branch of Legislature of Maryland. 

f — Passed by Legislature, but two branches failed to agree in Pennsyl- 

" — Passed by Legislature of Ohio. 

" — Voted for by people of Wisconsin. 

" — Pronounced unconstitutional in Ohio. 

" — Passed in modified form by Legislature of Rhode Island. 

" — Passed by the Legislature of Connecticut. 

It will be observed that it has passed the Legislatures of seven States 
and a Territory. It has fallen, through legislative disagreement, in four. 
It has been submitted to the people, aud ratified by them, in four. It 
has nowhere been repealed by the Legislature, though it has been four 
times set aside by the Judiciary, and in one re-enacted in a modified 

It will probably be the subject of discussion in the Legislatures of all 
the Northern States, and in those of Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Texas. 

1855.] The Religious World. 89 

Theological College at Belfast, Ireland. — The General As- 
sembly's Theological College at Belfast, is organized with six professor- 
ships, viz.: Systematic Theology, Dr. Edgar; Biblical Criticism, Dr. 
Wilson ; Church History, Dr. Killen ; Christian Ethics, Mr. Gibson ; 
Hebrew, Dr. Murphy ; Sacred Rhetoric and Calechetics, Dr. Cooke. 
Each of these professors receives a parliamentary grant of 250 pounds per 
annum, and two guineas from each student; but students attend free after 
the second session. The number of such free students is about one-third of 
the whole. The average number of students in the classes at present is 
about 40, — a much smaller number than attended some years ago. The 
college session begins on the first Monday in November, and ends in the last 
week of April. There is a vacation of eight days, at the close of Decem- 
ber and beginning of January. Each class commonly meets one hour 
every day except Saturday, besides extra meetings for examinations. 
There were formerly eight professors, but by the death of Dr. Hanna, in 
1852, one of the professorships of Theology ceased to exist, and at the 
meeting of the Assembly in 1854, it was resolved to discontinue the chair 
of Biblical and Ecclesiastical Greek. The law of the General Assembly 
requires every professor, being a minister, to resign his pastoral charge, 
with all its emoluments, before entering on the duties of his professorship. 
The subject of the Reyium Douum and the salaries of the Assembly's 
professors excite not a little discussion in Ireland. Three bodies of 
Presbyterians in that country reject the Reyium Donum, not from 
political but from religious considerations, regarding it as dishonouring 
to the Saviour. 

The Immaculate Conception. — A correspondent of the Newark 
Daily Advertiser gives the following account: "The immaculate concep- 
tion of the Virgin is now a fixed fact — a settled dogma of faith in the 
Boman Catholic Church. It was magisterially proclaimed in the midst of 
the celebration of the fete of the conception in St. Peter's, on the 8th of 
December, by the authentic voice of the Supreme Pontiff. The circum- 
stances were imposing. Over 200 full-robed ecclesiastical dignitaries, 
including 60 cardinals, and 140 archbishops and bishops, representing 
every part of the world, besides innumerable lesser office-bearers of the 
Church assisted in the ceremonies of the eminent occasion. 

"The grand procession was formed at the Vatican at 8 J o'clock in the 
morning. A long line of officials preceded the rich baldachin of the 
Pontiff. A more sumptuous cortege could scarcely be conceived. 

" The spectacle in the church after the Pope mounted the throne, sur- 
rounded by the gorgeous suite, was, perhaps, too oriental to suit western 
notions of religious rites. But the services were nevertheless performed 
with becoming dignity. After the chanting of the Evangelists in Latin 
and Greek, Cardinal Macchi, as doyen of the Sacred College, conjointly 
with the prelates present, including the bishops of the Greek and Arme- 
nian rites, presented at the foot of the throne a petition in the Latin 
tongue, of which I subjoin a free translation, viz. : — 

" That which for a long time, O Most Holy Father, has been ardently desired, and 
with full voice demanded by the Catholic Church, viz. : the definite decision by your 
supreme and infallible judgment of the Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed 
Virgin Mary, mother of God, for augmenting her praise, her glory, her veneration, 
We in the name of the Sacred College of Cardinals, of the Bishops of the Catholic 

90 The Religious World. [February. 

world, and of all the faithful, humbly and urgently pray, that in this solemnity of The 
Most Holy Virgin may be accomplished the common desire. For which end, in the midst 
of this august sacrifice — in this temple sacred to the Prince of the Apostles, and in 
this solemn assembly of the most ample Senate of bishops and people, deign, Most 
Holy Father, to raise thy apostolic voice, and pronounce the dogmatic decree of the 
Immaculate Conception of Mary, by which there will be joy in heaven and great 
rejoicing on earth. 

" The Pope responded, that he willingly received the petition, but added 
that it was necessary to invoke the aid of the Holy Spirit in order to 
answer it. The Veni Creator was then chanted by the choir and the 
whole assembly ; after which, the Sovereign Pontiff read aloud, but with 
a tremulous voice (in Latin), the following 

"It is a dogma oi faith, that the Blessed Virgin, in the first instant of her conception, 
by the singular privilege and grace of God, in virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, 
Saviour of the human race, was preserved exempt from all touch of original sin. 

"The pronounciation of the decree was instantly announced to the 
world without by the cannon of the Castle of St. Angelo, when all the 
hells of Rome, forthwith commenced a joyful chime, and the inhabitants 
displayed their various coloured satin and damask ensigns from the 
windows and balconies of the city. The gloomy streets suddenly be- 
came as gay as the flower-bordered walks of a pleasure-garden. 

"The entire city was illuminated in the evening, including the cupola of 
the Vatican ; and the French and Italian bands made the air vocal with 
the choicest music for hours." 

Mr. Hugh Miller, writing in the Edinburgh Witness, remarks of this de- 
cree : " ' You might steal God from them without their knowing it,' 
said one in speaking of Romanism. Blot out the name of God from some 
Latin prayers, where it still remains, and would any void or alteration 
ensue in the worship of the Roman Church ? We do not say that this 
decree formally enacts that ' there is no God ;' but we maintain that 
its effect is to obliterate God from the minds and beliefs of the people of 
the Roman Church. The decree bids them not to pray to God, nor look 
for any blessing from God, nor cherish any love to God, nor even think 
of God. It is, we strongly suspect, the filling up of the cup, for it is 
the last truth of the Bible left standing now blotted out. It is not the 
manner of that church to deny truth in the way of leaving its place a 
blank, but to deny it in the way of displacing it by the antipodal error. 
In this way has she gone the whole round of revelation, extinguishing 
one light after another; and now all is dark, — darkness that may be felt. 
She denied the atonement by substituting the sacrifice of the mass ; she 
denied the existence and agency of the Spirit by substituting the sacra- 
ment; she denied holy Scripture by substituting tradition. There re- 
mained only a belief in a God ; and now the Church of Rome has blotted 
out that last truth by a decree which is tantamount in proclaiming the 
deity of Mary, and which fixes her, in the feelings and beliefs of the 
members of that Church, as the supreme and only God. However diver- 
gent their courses, and diverse their forms, all error has a common point 
of meeting ; and thus the infidelity of Voltaire, and the superstition of 
the Popes, have found at length their common culminating point in 
Atheism. ' There is no God,' said the French Convention, when they 
celebrated the apotheosis of a female at Notre Dame ; and Pius IX. and his 

1855.] The Religious World. 91 

bishops re-echo the cry from beyond the Alps, in the apotheosis of Mary 
in St. Peter's, « There is no God.' " 

Dr. Nott on Tobacco — Dr. Nott in his deed of trust conveying the 
enormous sum given by him to Union College, made the following condi- 
tions : — 

Sec. 58. Art. VII. — It is earnestly recommended to, and expected of, 
every Professor to avoid the use of tobacco in any of its forms. 

Sec. 60. — And each Assistant Professor, before entering on the duties 
of his office, shall subscribe to the book, to be provided therefor, a declara- 
tion in the words following, to wit : — 

I solemnly promise that I will neither use tobacco in any of its forms, 
so long as I continue to receive the avails of an Assistant Professorship, 
founded by the deed of trust executed by Eliphalet Nott and Urania 
E. Nott to the Trustees of Union College, bearing date the 28th day 
of December, 1853, and that I will discourage the use of such articles. 


" The sum advertised by the Commissioners of the Patriotic Fund 
as having been received by them up to Saturday last, amounts to about 
£320,000 ; and as a number of places have yet to send in their contribu- 
tions, — the subscriptions still pouring in, — there is every reason to believe 
that the original estimate of what the Fund would probably realize, — 
£500,000, — will be considerably exceeded. We observe from the adver- 
tised list that London has already raised £69,000. The money contribu- 
ted towards the Central Association in aid of the widows, and families, 
and orphans, of soldiers ordered to the East, which is a separate fund, 
amounts to £97,000 ; and the Association is at present dispensing relief to 
300 soldiers' widows and 390 orphans. Another Association for the re- 
lief of the widows and families of seamen and marines in cases arising out 
of the present war, has received £5670. A new association was formed 
only the other day, — the Crimean Army Fund, — for supplying the troops 
with comforts and necessaries ; and upwards of £12,000 has been already 
subscribed, not to speak of the large quantity of presents of clothes of all 
sorts, wine, spirits, beer, &c., game, venison, and poultry, groceries, pre- 
served vegetables, tobacco, books, &c, which the Committee has received. 
The Committee has already despatched a large ship for the Crimea, 
heavily laden with provisions, clothing, and other articles ; and another is 
about to start. When to all this we add the £12,000 or £13,000 raised 
some time since under the auspices of Sir R. Peel for sending out neces- 
saries and comforts for the sick and wounded in the Crimea, £2000 col- 
lected by inhabitants in Wales as a special testimonial to the 23d Welsh 
Fusileers for their gallant conduct at Alma, besides the sums contributed 
for training and sending out nurses, and for a number of other purposes, 
it will be seen that upwards of half a million sterling has been already ob- 
tained for the benefit of our heroic soldiers and sailors, while the liberality 
of the country appears to be welling forth as freely and copiously as at 
the first. But it is not only in the amount of money actually raised, that 

92 Statistics. [February. 

the strong sympathy felt for those who, in the face of the most fearful 
hardships, are winning fresh laurels for their country, is evinced ; for there 
is scarcely a town or village in the kingdom in which there is not a band 
of ladies engaged in preparing and forwarding supplies of warm clothing 
for the troops. — Edinburgh Witness. 


The following interesting facts, connected with prayer, on the day of 
the battle of Inkerman, which was fought on the Sabbath, were not 
within the editor's reach when the article on pp. 56-60, was compiled. 
The facts were furnished by the "London Patriot." 

"The battle of Inkerman was preceded by a remarkable intercessory 
meeting, at which ministers and other persons of various denominations as- 
sembled, to commend the Allied arms to the blessing of the God of battles. 
This 'concert of prayer' took place at Constantinople. The subject, which 
had been previously mentioned in private, was introduced on the day be- 
fore the battle, at a meeting for business of the American missionaries. 
Without any foresight, of course, of the impending action, arrangements 
were made for simultaneous prayer, in all the Protestant congregations, 
native and foreign, throughout the Moslem capital. While the hostile 
armies were actually contending in the field, the Christians of Constanti- 
nople were thus unitedly commending them to the care and help of Hea- 
ven. Although the Chaplain to the British Embassy was prevented, by 
the restrictions of his Church, from offering special prayer for the troops 
at the regular time of service, he held a prayer-meeting on their behalf in 
the afternoon, precisely, in all probability, when they stood in most immi- 
nent need of the Divine help. Thus, during the entire progress of that 
tremendous conflict, and till victory crowned the cause of right, were its 
brave champions sustained by the intercessions of their fellow-Christians, 
offered up in six different languages, and in twice as many separate ser- 
vices, in the capital of the empire whose independence is at stake." 


Our Foreign Population*. — Governor Gardiner, of Massachusetts, thus alludes 
to this subject: "The most prominent subject before our State and Nation at the 
present moment, and that which most naturally commends itself to-day, and in 
this place, to our attention, concerns our foreign population j the duties of repub- 
licanism towards them, its dangers from them. 

The immigration to this country was — 

From 1790 to 1810, 120,000 

" 1810 to 1820, 114,000 

" 1820 to 1830, 203,979 

" 1830 to 1840 778,500 

" 1840 to 1850, 1,542,850 




And statistics show, that during the present decade, from 1850 to 1860, in regu- 
larly increasing ratio, nearly four millions of aliens will probably be poured in 
upon us. 

u With this alarming decennial ratio of increase — with the astonishing statistical 
facts that nearly four-fifths of the beggary, two-thirds of the pauperism, and more 
than three-fifths of the crimes spring from our foreign population, — that more 
than half the public charities, more than half the prisons and alms houses, more 
than half the police and the cost of administering criminal justice, are for foreign- 
ers, — the people demand of the statesmen, and wise statesmanship suggests, that 
national and State legislation should interfere to direct, ameliorate, and control 
these elements, so far as it may be done within the limits of the Constitution. 

" The remarkable spectacle presented to the eyes of our people, naturally and 
wisely jealous of their nationality, of a foreign immigration in the ten years from 
1840 to 1850 outnumbering the whole previous influx since the organization of 
the republic, progressing too in an equally increased ratio since the latter date, 
and probably European convulsions threatening a steady augmentation of this 
flood, tend naturally to attract and bind together the people in one united national, 
not party, movement." 

Our Country — the Extent of It. — How much activity is necessary in fol- 
lowing up the tide of the people who are pouring into the new states and territo- 
ries ! According to the Census Report, the area of the United States and terri- 
tories is 2,936,166 square miles. The following table, taken from that document, 
but transposed so as to give each its proper rank, shows the area of each state and 
territory : — 

Nebraska Territory, . . 
Utah l; ... 


New Mexico Territory, . 
Oregon " 

Minnesota " 


Washington Territory, 


Indian Territory (Kansas), 












re Miles. 





















North Carolina, 
Mississippi, . 
New York, . 
Louisiana, . 
Ohio, . . . 
Kentucky, . 
Maine, , . . 
South Carolina, 
Maryland, . 


New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, . 
Massachusetts, . . 
Connecticut, . 
Delaware, .... 
Rhode Island, 
District of Columbia, 






















The Nebraska Territory is large enough to cut up into seven states of the size 
of New York and leave a surplus of territory large enough for a state of the size 
of Connecticut ; Kansas Territory has an area sufficient to make two states of the 
size of Ohio, and one of the size of Indiana ; Texas will make four states the size 
of Alabama and one of the size of Indiana ; and California has a sufficient area to 
convert into sixteen states of the size of New Hampshire and a surplus to make 
one about the size of Massachusetts. — Missionary Advocate. 


31isceIlaneous Thoughts. 


American Railways. — We find in The American Railway Times the annexed 
railway statistics, made up to the close of 1854: — 





Maine, 12 

New Hampshire, 16 

Vermont, 7 

Massachusetts, 39 

Rhode Island, 1 

Connecticut, 12 

New York, 32 

New Jersey, 11 

Pennsylvania, G9 

Delaware, 2 

Maryland, 2 

Virginia, 23 

North Carolina, 5 

South Carolina, 10 

Georgia, 16 

Florida, 2 

Alabama, 6 

Mississippi, 7 

Louisiana, S 

Texas, 1 

Tennessee, 12 

Kentucky, 10 

Ohio, 47 

Indiana, 39 

Illinois, 31 

Michigan, 5 

Missouri, 6 

Iowa, 4 

Wisconsin, 11 

Total, 444 


Miles opened, 1,278 

in opera- 








of miles 
in course 
of con- 






















































3Hi0f*llaiu0ti0 tKjjougljts. 


The power of prevailing with God by prayer is the highest form of 
power of which men is susceptible. And yet it is intrusted to each and 
every believer, however humble his position. It is not confiued to the or- 
ganic action of the Church, nor to its officers nor its men of influence. 
The obscurest child of God has as short a way, and as open a door to the 

1855.] Miscellaneous Thoughts. 95 

throne of grace, as any other. No one has need to wait for church action, 
before his own heart may have liberty to act upon the heart of God in in- 
tercession. No one has need to wait to give precedence to a more aged or 
honourable person, before he can come into the audience of his God and 
King. Every believer, be he ever so weak and powerless with men, may 
as a prince have power with God and prevail. And possibly he may do 
more for Christ and the salvation of meu, than those who have tenfold of 
his outward advantages. God holds himself and all his forces ready to go 
forth at the call of the prayer of faith. And he says — " Concerning my 
sons, and concerning the work of my hands, command ye me." Be it, that 
you are only a private person, holding an obscure place among the children 
of Zion — your prayers no sooner escape your heart and lips, than they go 
forth, not in your name, but in that of the most public of all persons — 
the Head of the Church, the all- prevalent Intercessor. They no sooner 
escape from your heart, than they are caught up and adopted as his, and 
uttered by himself in his own name. The weakest Christian here has a 
vantage ground, from which he may put forth a power to move the world. 
He can go in an agony of desire, and pour out his heart to One who is able 
to do exceeding abundantly, above all we can ask or think. We have a 
great High Priest, who for us has passed into the heavens, Jesus Christ 
the Righteous, in whose righteousness we may come boldly to the throne 
of grace, and obtain help in the time of need. — Puritan Recorder. 


In flakes of a feathery white, 
It is falling so gently and slow ; 

Oh, pleasant to me is the sight 
Of the silently falling snow ! 
Snow, snow, snow I 

The fall of the feathery snow I 

The earth is all covered to-day 
With a mantle of radiant show ; 

And it sparkles and shines in the ray, 
In crystals of glistening snow! 
Snow, snow, snow ! 

The sparkling and glistening snow ! 

It covers the earth from the cold ! 

Would you think, little Ella, it's so ? 
And when it comes down on the world, 

It is only a warm coat of snow ! 
Snow, snow, snow I 
The curious warm coat of the snow ! 

From my window the snow-birds I see : 
They hop and they flit as they go ; 

And they speak of a lesson to me, 

While they feed in the beautiful snow ! 
Snow, snow, snow ! 

Happy birds, that delight in the snow ! 

96 Miscellaneous Thoughts. [February. 

The trees have a burden of white, 

They stretched out their branches, I know, 

And filled their great arms in the night, 
To play in the sunbeams with snow ! 
Snow, snow, snow ! 

The trees with their branches all curling with snow ! 

How spotless it seems, and how pure ! 

I wish that my spirit were so ! 
And that while my soul shall endure 

It might shine far more bright than the snow ! 
Snow, snow, snow I 
Were my heart but as pure and as bright as the snow ! 

It shall go with the breath of Spring ! 

And down to the river shall flow ! 
And the Summer again shall bring 
Bright flowers for the silvery snow I 
Snow, snow, snow! 
Bright flowers shall spring on the grave of the snow ! 

Leisure Hour. 


Just as our Magazine was going to press, we received the January number of 
the "Presbyterian Critic," a Monthly Magazine to be published in Baltimore, 
under the editorial supervision of the Rev. Stuart Robinson and Thomas E. 
Peck. We extend the right hand of fellowship to our brethren in the work. 
The topics proposed for discussion are of immense importance ; and " Truth, 
like a torch, the more it's shook, it shines." For ourselves, we can freely say, 
that we have always regarded the field of periodical literature wide open to all 
collaborators. When some of our Pittsburgh brethren, last year, thought of 
establishing a Monthly Magazine, we advised them to proceed, and assured them 
of cordial welcome on the part of the existing Magazine. Indeed, we have often 
thought, that New York and Baltimore ought, each to issue some publication, 
being important centres of influence. 

May the Lord guide our brethren in their new enterprise. 

The price of the " Presbyterian Critic" is One Dollar a year, in advance. 

11 This Magazine is devoted to the free discussion of ecclesiastical and religious 
subjects generally ; its articles will all be original, condensed, and spirited, and 
designed to promote the purity and efficiency of Christianity, especially by Pres- 
byterian means. A number of the most gifted minds in the Church will con- 
tribute to enrich its pages. It addresses intelligent Presbyterians, both clergy- 
men and laymen, and will be found to meet an urgent want in our ecclesiastical 



MARCH, 1855. 

HimllamflM Irttfte; 


The readers of the Presbyterian Magazine are aware that his 
holiness, the Pope, and a vast assembly of cardinals and bishops, 
have lately been engaged at Rome in determining what the doctrine 
of the Church really is, on the question of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion. To some it may appear strange, that nineteen centuries of 
the Church's history have passed by, and that it should have re- 
mained for a pope in our day to decide by his own dogmatic deli- 
verance, what the true faith is on a subject which, for centuries, 
was never heard of among the professors of this Christian faith, 
and which, when originated, led to some of the most bitter and 
determined religious dissensions among Romanists themselves, 
which have ever agitated and divided the followers of the papacy. 

A few historical details on the subject may not be uninteresting, 
touching the nature of the doctrine, its history and reception in 
the Church, the controversies to which it has given rise, together 
with the prospects which exist in the present state of Romanism, 
for a final settlement of this disputed question. 

" The defenders of the immaculate conception maintained that 
the Virgin Mary was conceived in the womb of her mother, with 
the same purity that is attributed to Christ's conception in her 
womb." It would appear that this doctrine was first distinctly 
proclaimed in the twelfth century by Peter Lombard, and the in- 
creasing homage and veneration of Mary had rapidly prepared 
the minds of many for its reception. Lombard's views were op- 
posed by Thomas Acquinas ; but, on the other hand, Duns Scotus 
addressed himself with all the power of his keen dialectics, to sus- 
tain the propositions of Lombard ; and thus the doctrine was ren- 
dered more popular. That the mother of our Lord was born free 

VOL. V. — NO. 3. 7 

98 The Immaculate Conception. [March. 

from sin, was recognized as a fact, even as early as the ninth cen- 
tury, by the theologians of Rome ; and in a later age, when the 
followers of Peter Lombard, and of Duns Scotus were ranged 
against each other, they were entirely agreed, as to her sinlessness 
at birth. In the eleventh century, a festival was instituted in 
commemoration of her nativity; and it is reported, that in England 
this occasion was rendered of special importance, under the auspices 
of Anselm, the Archbishop of Canterbury. In course of time, 
certain of the French churches began to observe the day, in con- 
nection with the doctrine of the conception; and if the church at 
Lyons was not the first, it was the most important one, in which 
these observances were maintained. Accordingly, we find that in 
1140, a controversy had publicly commenced, in consequence of 
St. Bernard disapproving of these practices, and addressing a 
letter of remonstrance on the subject to the Canons of Lyons.* 
The discussion speedily presented the usual amount of heat and 
exacerbation on the part of the combatants ; but, as yet, the war 
had only commenced. It soon became apparent that the two great 
orders of the Franciscans and Dominicans were to spend all their 
strength, and marshal all their forces against each other on this 
debatable territory. The subject of their learned strife was, whe- 
ther at any time before her birth, the Virgin contracted the taint 
of original sin, at the moment of her conception, or at the infusion 
of the soul ; or whether she escaped all forms of human depravity, 
being immaculate and sinless, from the commencement of her being. 

The Franciscans maintained the latter, and even went so far, 
as to proclaim that she was begotten in the womb of her mother by 
the Holy Ghost. The leading schoolmen of the thirteenth century 
inclined to the opposite opinion ; some of them holding, that the 
power of sanctification anticipated the stain of original sin ; while 
others believed, that it followed, and remedied all moral defects, so 
as to insure her birth without sin ; while the precise period when 
this total purification took place, was left undetermined. 

The Dominicans maintained the same views with unbounded 
zeal, and by every means in their power endeavoured to overthrow 
their enemies, the Franciscans. They had recourse to revelations 
from heaven, and ecclesiastical miracles, in order to sustain their 
cause ; but as Gieseler shows, | their last attempt at the super- 
natural recoiled on themselves ; as a prior, and three leading mem- 
bers of a religious house in Berne, were burnt alive, in consequence 
of their attempting to poison a man by the sacrament, who had 
detected them in their clumsy eiforts in miracle manufactures. 
Great reliance was placed by the Dominicans on the revelation of 
St. Catherine, that the Virgin was even born under the taint of 
original sin, but she was sanctified just three hours aftenvards ! 

* Yid. St Bernard's Epistle, clxxiv. torn. i. p. 170, and Moslieia) (Murdqck's ed.), 
yol. ii. p. 261, note 3S. 
f Gieseler's Ece. His. iii. § 144. 

1855.] The Immaculate Conception. 99 

Important as this intelligence was, even from such a reliable per- 
son as a saint, the fanatical spirit of the Franciscans predominated ; 
and as the Virgin was rapidly rising to the dignity of Queen of 
Heaven, all who crowned her with honours, no matter how absurd 
their nature, were almost sure of popular favour, and in the end of 
securing the victory. 

As we have mentioned, St. Bernard, the canons of Lyons, and 
John Duns Scotus, and the leading men of their day, held that 
the Virgin was actually born without sin ; but when the contro- 
versy arose on the novel proposition about the immaculate concep- 
tion, the views which St. Bernard expressed, in opposition to this 
dogma, found determined and warm supporters. Among the most 
distinguished, was John de Moncon, better known by his Latin 
appellative, John de Montesonus. He was a native of Arragon, a 
Dominican doctor, and a professor of theology. Preaching on the 
doctrine of original sin, he declared that this stain was inherent in 
all human creatures, from the moment of their conception, and, as 
it could only be effaced by the redemption of Jesus Christ, he 
inferred that the Virgin Mary was conceived in sin. This fact he 
urged, as an incidental illustration of the established doctrine, 
intending to make it more clear and striking. He soon met with 
opponents, and, in 1384, the controversy raged with much violence. 
He now proceeded so far, as to proclaim that all who held the 
dogma of the immaculate conception, sinned against religion and 
the faith. For several years, the strife on this extraordinary sub- 
ject continued to agitate the church, being aggravated by a public 
discussion, in which Montesonus defended himself in the boldest 
manner. The University of Paris had been displeased with the 
Dominicans and the Franciscans, in consequence of several disputes 
with both these orders, and now that Montesonus was censured by 
the theologians, no time was lost by the heads of the University, 
in denouncing the Dominican doctor, whose views were pronounced 
an impious outrage against the mother of Christ. The doctors 
sustained their views by affirming, that the prophesied sacrifice of 
Christ had an effect before its accomplishment, on his birth, and 
on that of his mother, and that in her case this exemption from 
moral taint was rightly designated the immaculate conception.* 

Mongon, in alarm, fled to Avignon, where Clement VII. resided, 
and appealed from the decision of the University. The entire 
order of the Dominicans, regarding themselves in their capacity of 
inquisitors, as the special guardians of the true faith, were indignant 
at finding one of their number thus charged with heresy. Accord- 
ingly? they sent seventy of their most learned doctors to sustain 
the opinions of Mongon before the papal tribunal, and as they well 
knew the nature of the arguments which had the weightest effect 
at Avignon, they subscribed and forwarded 40,000 crowns of gold 

» His. of Popery, London, J. W. Parker, 1838, p. 186. 

100 The Immaculate Conception. [March. 

to support his cause. The Sorbonne was not idle. The most 
illustrious professors of this eminent school were deputed to oppose 
him, and thus the church which rejoices in the possession of infal- 
libility, presented an instructive spectacle as to unity of faith. 
The Pope was sorely tried ; he dreaded to displease either party; 
he knew the value of the Dominicans, and he feared the power of 
the others ; and with a view to save himself, he secretly dismissed 
Montesonus, and sent him to seek refuge in Arragon. 

The theologians of the Sorbonne were not satisfied by partial 
success, and they succeeded in persuading Charles VI., the young 
king of France, who had not yet completed his twenty-first year, 
and who was noted for his ignorance, to decide the question on their 
behalf. It was known that his confessor favoured the views of 
Montesonus ; and even Clement himself was inclined to the side of 
the inquisitors ; but the decision of the monarch, and his conduct 
in sending to prison all who denied the views of the doctors of the 
Sorbonne, produced a decided effect. Clement VII. had long 
dreaded that he would be sacrificed to his rival, Urban VI., and 
as he relied for support on the court of France, he feared to offend 
Charles. Accordingly, contrary to his convictions, and in terror 
as to the result from the fury of the Dominicans, he issued a bull, 
condemning John de Moncon and all his adherents. The gratified 
monarch was permitted to institute a new festival in honour of the 
immaculate conception, to constrain his confessor and the leading 
Dominicans to renounce their opinions, while the order of St. 
Dominic was degraded to the lowest rank, and none of that body 
were in future to act as confessor to the king.* 

The action of Clement VII. did not pacify the Church ; and the 
exclusion of the Dominicans from the University of Paris, from 
1889 until 1404, helped to prolong the discussions. Gradually, how- 
ever, the attention of the faithful was attracted to other subjects, 
and the controversy abated. The old quarrel was renewed again 
in the seventeenth century, and caused much annoyance to Paul V., 
Gregory XV., and Alexander VII. In Spain also the dispute was 
revived, and so much annoyed were Philip III. and IV., that they 
despatched envoys to Rome, beseeching the head of the Church to 
determine the subject. The same influences distracted the Spanish 
court, that alarmed and terrified the Vatican. Although inclined 
to the side of the Franciscans, the monarchs of Spain thoroughly 
comprehended the terrific influence of the inquisitors, and hence 
their anxiety to call in the aid of Rome. Nothing, however, could 
be gained at Rome, except that it was affirmed by the head of the 
Infallible Church that the cause of the Franciscans was very plau- 
sible ; the Dominicans were forbidden to assail it, and the Fran- 
ciscans were enjoined to refrain from charging heresy or error 
on their antagonists. 

• His. of Topery, 8vo., J. W. Parker, London, 183S, pp. 180, 1S7. 

1855.] The Immaculate Conception. 101 

It was not strange that the Spanish court should have favoured 
the sentiments of the Franciscans. When the Moors were in Spain, 
the order of the Knights of St. Jago had been instituted for the 
purpose of driving them out of the country, and subsequent to the 
conquest of Granada, the new object which called forth their valour 
was the defence of this absurd dogma. In process of time the 
Grand Mastership of the order had passed into the Royal family, 
and hence their pride and superstition combined to incline the 
Spanish sovereigns to the Franciscan views. 

Notwithstanding all this controversy, the Church felt that the 
point was not settled. The Council of Basle, in 1435, appointed a 
committee to procure books, and collect decrees and decisions on 
the subject, and four years afterwards a conclusion was arrived at 
in favour of the Immaculate Conception, which Baronius thought 
was " one of the few good things they did." In 1476, Sixtus IV., 
whose degraded character is notorious, promised forgiveness to all 
who would observe the festival of the conception of the " immacu- 
late virgin," using such terms as did not determine whether the 
conception was immaculate or not. The Council of Trent pro- 
nounced no deliverance on the point ; for although on the fifth 
session, held June, 17, 1546, it was declared that, " Whoever shall 
affirm that Adam's prevarication injured himself only, and not his 
posterity, and that he lost the purity and righteousness which he 
had received from God for himself only, and not for us also ; or 
that when he became polluted by disobedience, he transmitted to 
all mankind corporal death and punishment only, but not sin, which 
is the death of the soul; let him be accursed." Yet in the con- 
cluding section of this same decree the following exception is in- 
serted : " The Holy Council further declares that it is not its de- 
sign to include in this decree, which treats of original sin, the 
blessed and immaculate Virgin Mary, mother of God." 

No doubt the presence of the old antagonists, the Dominicans 
and the Franciscans, and the consciousness that the light of the 
Reformation, now shining with considerable brightness on their 
transactions, served to warn the council from running any further 
into the danger and strife which lay before them. 

Even now, notwithstanding all the solicitude of Pio Nono to do 
honour to the Virgin Mother of God ; notwithstanding all the 
enormous expenditure required to congregate the cardinals and 
bishops of the Church at the Vatican ; notwithstanding the presence 
of his lordship of New York, and his brother peer from Baltimore, 
the counsel and countenance of dignitaries from Poland and Ire- 
land, from Hungary and Spain, England and Italy, Belgium 
and Portugal, notwithstanding all the parade and show consequent 
on the solemn deliverance of Pius IX., and the subsequent corona- 
tion by papal hands of the Madonna, as the Immaculate Queen of 
Heaven, amid the thousands of prostrate idolatrous worshippers, it 
is felt that the point of faith is undetermined still. There are in- 

102 The Immaculate Conception. [March. 

fluences at work in the Romish Church of sufficient power to per- 
petuate the strife. One party know quite well that a general 
council has not been called with the Pope at its head to determine 
the question. The deliverance of Pius IX. is therefore understood 
to he an intolerable grasp of power. It is an assumption of all in- 
fallibility as centred in himself; and, degraded as the papacy is, 
the Romish doctors are not yet prepared to concede such a mon- 
strous claim. Besides the old antagonists have a lively recollection 
of their ancient feud, and already the Dominicans are in the field 
prepared to resist the papal decree. It appears that Austria re- 
fuses to allow the papal decree to be published in Lombardy, and 
has even prohibited the priests from preaching on the subject. The 
Archbishop of Paris is dissatisfied, and France has not yet consented 
to permit the decision of Pio Nono to be proclaimed. M. Cor- 
menin is understood to be preparing a Report for the Council of 
State against it, and by the Concordat of Napoleon I., the consent 
of the Council is essential. To admit the decree of the Vatican 
would be suicidal, for the Gallican clergy would thereby be placed 
under the power of the Jesuits, who it is well known have been 
the leading party in the present movement. In Tuscany, the 
Dominicans have protested against the procedure of the Vatican ; 
and their chief, it is said, has shared the fate of the Madiai in be- 
ing committed to gaol by the authority of the archbishop. 

[Thus it appears that even yet the question is not settled, and 
until these dissensions are ended and a greater unity is displayed 
in matters of faith, it would be well for the votaries of Rome to 
cease all allusions to the divisions which have at any time distracted 
the Protestant Church. 

The two things we deplore, in relation to this subject are, first, 
the public incorporation of palpable heresy into the creed of a 
church, and secondly, the influence of the dogma in promoting 
Madonnaism among the Romanists. 

We occupy little space in pointing out the unscriptural charac- 
ter of this absurd dogma. The children of our Sabbath-schools, 
happily, know that, as by one man sin entered into the world, and 
death by sin, so death hath passed on all men, because all have 
sinned. The mother of our Lord died, and as she has not yet 
been exalted to the rank of a Saviour, who made atonement for sin 
by her death, her mortality can only be accounted for on the prin- 
ciple which the apostle has here laid down, and which demonstrates 
on the authority of the Holy Ghost, the blasphemous nature of this 
idolatrous tenet. That the Virgin knew her connection with the 
family of man to be natural, and that she needed deliverance from 
sin, is avowed by her own lips, in the language of confession and 
praise: "My spirit hath rejoiced in God, my Saviour," — an utter- 
ance which gives the lie to all popish figments relative to her im- 
maculate conception, her stainless birth, and sinless life, — figments 
antagonistic to the idea of her ever having been, as she herself 
declares, the subject of salvation. Moreover, it is clear that 

1855.] " Friend of God," etc. 103 

the Scriptures represent Christ as "holy, harmless, undefined, 
and separate from sinners," the one holy being, whose obe- 
dience to the law was perfect. Mary is nowhere put on an 
equality with the Redeemer, in this pre-eminent and glorious cha- 
racteristic. Nor did the scheme of redemption require, as congru- 
ous to its ends, the immaculate conception of the Virgin herself. 
On the contrary, whilst the Saviour was himself to be miraculously 
conceived, he was still to be "born of a woman," — of a woman 
partaking of the common qualities of Eve's descendants, and de- 
scending "by ordinary generation" from the corrupt stock. What 
God's plan required, was the miraculous birth of a Saviour, — 
not the immaculate conception of his mother. Accordingly, the 
Scriptures narrate with great particularity the circumstances of 
the Saviour's conception, by "the power of the Highest," but give 
no intimation whatever that Mary was born out of the ordinary 
course. A more unnecessary and shameful heresy was never in- 
vented by the daring dogmatism of Antichrist. 

The influence of this new papal decree, in promoting Madonnaism, 
is apparent. Mary has already been the object of idolatrous 
honours in the Romish Church. Practically exalted as the papal 
Queen of Heaven, she has long been prayed to, and worshipped by 
the deluded people, who add to the things written in God's book. 
It is obvious that the authoritative enunciation of her immaculate 
conception, by the infallible head of Romanism, will but confirm 
her growing claims to divine worship and honour. The ecclesias- 
tical decree, notwithstanding the symptoms of the Dominical diso- 
bedience, will nevertheless gain sway with the great majority of 
official dignitaries, and with the besotted, servile, and superstitious 
masses. Hence Mary will become more God than ever, in papal 
theology and practice. Although the Romish Church has now 
virtually two gods — a woman-god in heaven, and a man-god on 
earth — the whole tendency of its deluding doctrines and observances 
is atheism, so far as the divine nature and glory are concerned. 



(Continued from page 69.) 

The incidents in Abraham's history, which we have considered, 
were extraordinary, having occurred but once in the life even of 
such a man as he. It is therefore important, in illustrating his 
friendship with God, to notice his spirit and conduct from day to 
day. Our friendship with each other is usually strengthened and 
perpetuated, not by extraordinary acts of kindness, performed 

104 "Friend of God" or, the Excellency of [March. 

occasionally and at long intervals, but by a regular and uniform 
course of kind and friendly deportment. In like manner must one 
feel and act, who would maintain unimpaired his friendship with 
God. And here the character of Abraham was no less illustrious 
than in the exhibition of a strong and heroic faith. He was a 
model man, as well as a model believer, — a shining example of 
those graces and virtues which adorn the character, and reflect the 
honour and glory of their divine Author. 

Abraham's faith producing the other graces and virtues. 

An amiable and benevolent disposition, fostered by parental in- 
struction and example, or by other favourable influences, may 
make a man so unblamable and excellent, without faith in Christ, 
as to call forth the praise and admiration of his fellow-men. Even 
our blessed Lord manifested particular regard towards such an 
one: "he loved him" (Mark 10 : 21), i. e., he felt an affection for 
him, in view of his excellent disposition, and his irreproachable 
character ; though in a very different sense from that expressed in 
the words, " having loved his own, which were in the world, he 
loved them unto the end." (John 13 : 1.) The subsequent con- 
duct of the young ruler shows that Christ, who knew his heart, did 
not love him in the sense of complacency or delight. He went 
away sorrowful, being unwilling to renounce the world, and become 
a disciple of Jesus. The others were his friends ; they believed on 
his name, they had forsaken all for him. Evangelical faith is the 
germ of all truly gracious and holy affections ; and where it exists 
in the heart, it will produce moral excellences far superior in their 
character to the highest natural endowments. 

Abraham was a good man, because he was a believer ; good in 
the best sense, holy, upright, moral, just, benevolent. God, who 
revealed himself to his faith, and gave him grace to believe, en- 
joined upon him in the most solemn manner to live a holy life. 
" Walk before me, and be thou perfect" (Gen. 17 : 1) ; as much 
as to say, take my character as your model, my precepts as your 
rule, and my Spirit as your helper ; the first as the high and holy 
end to be aimed at, the second as the sure and unerring guide to 
direct you in your pious efforts, and the third to promote, increase, 
and perfect your sanctification. Abraham's life shows that he 
conscientiously endeavoured to follow this injunction. Though he 
was not perfect, in the sense of being sinless, and in two instances, 
when his faith became weak, he committed an egregious fault 
(Gen. 12 : 11, and 22 : 2), yet as a whole, his character was 
remarkably pure and holy. Few, if any, whose names are recorded 
in Scripture, possessed and practised in so eminent a degree, and 
in so exact and lovely proportions, those sterling qualities which 
beautify and ennoble human nature. Though an Old Testament 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 105 

saint, he would have been distinguished, in this respect, among 
]Sew Testament believers. Though not a Christian by name, his 
gracious accomplishments may be properly styled Christian graces. 
If that admirable description of the Christian character, given by 
Peter, had been penned with this patriarch in view, the portrait 
would not have been more exact. Having represented faith as the 
prince of Christian graces, the apostle teaches us that it must not 
stand alone, but be accompanied by the whole retinue of kindred 
graces. " Giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue, and to 
virtue knowledge, and to knowledge temperance, and to temperance 
patience, and to patience godliness, and to godliness brotherly- 
kindness, and to brotherly-kindness charity." (2 Pet. 1 : 5-7.) The 
Apostle James has also drawn his likeness in the following com- 
prehensive language : " The wisdom that is from above, is first 
pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be entreated, full of 
mercy and good fruits, without partiality and without hypocrisy." 
(Jas. 3 : 17.) To these may be added that beautiful exhortation 
of Paul : " Whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are 
honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, 
whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report, 
if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these 
things." (Phil. 4 : 8.) 

Such a man was Abraham. He was not holy without being 
pious, but holy because he was pious. He was pure in heart and 
life, as the fruit of his " believing in the Lord," and of a desire to 
be conformed to his will. His religion was practical, consistent, 
and habitual. It extended to the ordinary social duties and civili- 
ties of life, to his business transactions, and his alliances for mutual 
defence with the princes of Canaan. Though he made no ostenta- 
tion of his religion, he made no attempt to conceal it. He was 
"called" the friend of God, not only by God himself, but also (as 
the language appears to imply) by his fellow-men. Like Enoch, 
he " had this testimony, that he pleased God." So pure were his 
principles, so excellent his virtues, and so lovely and exalted his 
spirit, that those who associated with him very justly inferred that 
he was under a divine influence, and had received his extraordinary 
moral qualities from a divine source. 

Reader, do you appreciate moral excellence ? and is it your de- 
sire to possess or improve it ? Here is one of the finest human 
models for your imitation. Abraham was perhaps an honourable, 
generous, and benevolent man, as these terms are often understood, 
before " the God of glory appeared to him." Possibly he was re- 
garded as one of nature's noblemen. We have no disposition to 
disparage or undervalue his natural endowments. If you possess 
the same, be grateful to Divine Providence for bestowing upon you 
such valuable traits of character ; and if you do not possess them, 
let all the appliances which you can command be employed to aid 
you in acquiring his virtues. 

106 " Friend of God" or, the Excellency of [March. 

But do not fall into the fatal error of supposing that his natural 
qualities made him a " friend of God," or formed the germ of that 
moral excellence which rendered him so famous in sacred history. 
As already noticed, his friendship with God had for its foundation 
faith in Christ, and gracious, heaven-born affections were its con- 
stituent elements. And it was by the culture of these, and not of 
his native, amiable qualities alone, that he became so eminently 
virtuous and holy. He belonged to the nobility of grace ; and if 
you would become like him, in the highest and best sense, you must 
become a subject of the same grace. Though the cultivation of 
your natural endowments will accomplish something for you that 
is valuable, both to yourself and to others ; this process will not 
subdue the native corruption of the heart, nor produce those graces 
and virtues which are regarded with favour and delight by the 
eye of Infinite Purity. These are the fruit of the Holy Spirit ; and 
must be sought by yielding your heart to his gracious influence. 
God makes his own moral perfections our primary model ; and we 
are to follow human models so far only as they are cast in this 
divine mould. " Be ye followers of me," says an inspired apostle, 
" even as I also am of Christ." And in order to follow Christ in the 
sense here intended, you must first believe on him ; and then culti- 
vate diligently, prayerfully, and practically, those moral excellen- 
cies which appear in his life. With such a standard before you, 
and with such a course of procedure, you may equal the most dis- 
tinguished examples of virtue known in the world. 

And is not this object worthy of your constant pursuit ? What 
can be more important than to increase and perpetuate your friend- 
ship with God ? And in order to do this, remember that works of 
morality and virtue, of benevolence and mercy, are as much 
enjoined in Scripture as piety ; and when performed from pure 
motives, they contribute as much to the promotion of God's 
glory ; and hence are as pleasing in his sight. The Hebrew word 
for the pupil of the eye, is little man of the eye ; from the fact that 
when one looks into another's eye, it becomes a mirror in •which 
he sees his own, and that from the convex form of the pupil, the 
image is small. In like manner God beholds in the graces and 
virtues of holy men, a miniature likeness of his own moral charac- 
ter; and he accordingly views them with delight. Let us endea- 
vour to become such a mirror ; reflecting through our holy lives, 
the honour of our heavenly Father. 


Abraham's faithfulness to God in discharging his ordinary du- 
ties, appears nowhere else in a more interesting light, than in his 
religious fidelity to his children and household. And in no other 
position was it more important in its consequences, or more expres- 
sive of his vigorous and far-reaching faith. " I know Abraham," 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 107 

says God, " that he will command his children and his household 
after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord, to do justice 
and judgment, that the Lord may bring upon Abraham that which 
he hath spoken of him" (Gen. 18 : 19). It is here asserted that 
Abraham would be faithful in the religious nurture of his family ; 
and that the grand and leading motive influencing him thereto was 
his faith in God's promise, and further that his performance of 
parental duty and the faith which prompted it, were regarded by 
God with special approbation. 

1. The kind of training described in these words is religious. 
To keep the way of the Lord, is to worship and serve God, as this 
stands opposed to Atheism, Deism, or Idolatry. The same reli- 
gion which Abraham believed in and practised himself, he enjoined 
on his family. He also taught them moral duties ; such as are in- 
cluded in doing justice and judgment. These were the legitimate 
fruits of his religious faith. They were indeed essential parts of 
it, embracing that practical morality and integrity, without which 
our religion is spurious. "To do justly, to love mercy, and to 
walk humbly with God," are set down by the prophet, as the sum 
of the divine requirements ; and all these Abraham required of his 
children and household. 

In order to accomplish this object he employed instruction, per- 
suasion, and authority ; which are included in the single word 
"command," as used in this passage. He resorted to one or the 
other, according to the ages of the different members of his house- 
hold, and such other circumstances as rendered these different 
modes of treatment adapted to the end he had in view. And 
sometimes he doubtless blended them all together, that by the 
united force of parental affection, counsel, and restraint, their 
hearts might be won to the practice of virtue and religion. He 
commanded them. The word expresses on the part of Abraham, 
earnestness, energy, perseverance. It does not denote here the 
sternness of a ruler, but the tender fidelity of a father. With a 
father's love, and yet with a fixed and determined purpose, tem- 
pered and quickened by earnest and daily prayer, he employed 
whatever means he deemed requisite, and which his obligations to 
his family and to God demanded, to guard them against vice and 
idolatry, and to make them truly pious and holy. He had come 
under a solemn engagement to do this, by the rite of circumcision 
(Gen. 17 : 10-27), and he faithfully performed his promise. He 
did not remit his care for them even after they had passed out of 
their minority ; and particularly for Isaac, the child of promise, 
and the special heir of its blessings, in whose behalf he manifested 
a pious solicitude, and took much pains to prevent his taking a 
wife from among the idolatrous Canaanites, and to obtain for him 
such a connection as would secure the religious nurture of his chil- 
dren ; and thus form a second link of communication between him- 
self and that promised seed of whom Isaac was a type. 

" Friend of God" etc. [March. 

2. Abraham did these things in order that the Lord might bring 
upon him that which he had spoken of him. These were (5 : 18) 
that he should " become a great and mighty nation," and that 
" all the nations of the earth should be blessed in him." The first 
was not fulfilled, nor did he expect its fulfilment, for at least 400 
years (see Gen. 15 : 13-16), and the second not till after the lapse 
of as many thousands. And yet his faith connected these remote 
and future events with his own conduct towards his children and 
household. God's promise to confer these blessings had been 
uttered and repeated in the most solemn manner. It had been 
confirmed by an oath ; and that promise and oath the apostle as- 
serts (Heb. 6 : 13-18) were the revelation of his immutable 
counsel or purpose. Abraham doubtless believed as firmly that it 
would be fulfilled in due time, as he had before believed that he 
should have a son ; or that the offering up of that son for a burnt 
offering would not prevent the fulfilment of that promise with 
which the life of Isaac was so intimately connected. But he was 
now in different circumstances ; and the same faith which in the 
first instance showed itself in patient waiting, and in the second, 
by the most extraordinary act of self-denying obedience, is here 
seen in the diligent use of those means which God had appointed 
for transmitting the true religion from one generation to another, 
until those glorious results contemplated in the divine promise 
should be accomplished. Abraham was doubtless a believer in the 
divine decrees. Such a faith as he manifested is not possible, on 
any other assumption. But he was not a fatalist. His faith was 
a living, working faith ; and it led him to act in a rational, consis- 
tent, and scriptural manner. It contemplated means as well as 
ends. Though when God communicated his will, he could believe, 
(as in the sacrifice of Isaac) even though the chain of connection 
between means and ends seemed to be broken, yet in the ordinary 
dispensation of his mercy, this connection he knew to be as firm 
and immutable as the divine promise itself; and his belief in this 
connection, made him as diligent in duty as though the perpetuity 
and future glory of the Church depended on his fidelity. 

3. Abraham's faithfulness towards his household, and the faith 
which prompted it, were pleasing to God. This is clearly expressed 
in his own language, " I know Abraham." The word is emphatic, 
denoting strong approbation. " The Lord knoweth the way of the 
righteous" (Ps. 1:6), i.e., he approves of their way. "The 
Lord knoweth them that are his" (2 Tim. 2 : 19), i.e., he distin- 
guishes them as the objects of his peculiar regard. In like man- 
ner, God here expresses a special affection for Abraham, a delight 
in his character and conduct. " I know him ;" as though he had 
said, " I have tested his faith and fidelity, and he has always 
proved himself to be my firm and faithful friend, one upon whom 
my grace has not been bestowed in vain ; who is not forgetful or 
negligent of his covenant engagements, but who is trustworthy, 

1855.] On Denominational Divisions. 109 

and will act for me with the spirit of true loyalty, in the religious 
nurture of his household." 

Fathers and mothers, you may learn from God's declaration 
concerning Abraham, what he requires of you, with regard to 
your families ; and also the favourable notice he will take of you, if 
you are faithful. Next to your own souls, there are none on earth 
for whose principles and conduct you are so highly responsible, as 
for those of your children ; and nowhere else will your influence 
be felt so powerfully, for the weal or woe of society. This influence 
may be as silent as the dew, but it is constant and effective. Under 
the domestic roof, the momentous question is usually settled, whe- 
ther its youthful inmates are to become pillars in the church and 
state, or a dishonour and reproach to their species. The young 
men who surrounded Lot's dwelling, for the base purpose of in- 
sulting his angelic guests, had been trained to vice. On the other 
hand, those children who sang hosanna to our blessed Lord in the 
temple, were doubtless the sons and daughters of pious parents, 
who had taught their infant lips the songs of Zion. 

Dear parents, does God "know" you, in that precious and de- 
lightful sense that he did Abraham ? — know you with an approving 
and complacent regard, on account of your faithfulness in the reli- 
gious education of your children and household ? To be able to 
answer this question in the affirmative, is above all price. But 
who can anticipate without trembling, " the revelation of God's 
righteous judgment," against such parents as suffer these lambs 
which Divine Providence has committed to their care, to wander 
unrestrained from the fold of the Good Shepherd ! Having first 
devoted yourselves to the Lord, employ, we entreat you, every 
Scriptural means to influence each member of your family to imi- 
tate your example. If you are successful in your pious efforts, 
you will exhibit to the world and to angels, the pleasing spectacle 
of being a "household of Cfod." He knowing and loving you, and 
you offering up to him a united sacrifice of warm and devout affec- 
tion. J. W. 

(To be continued.) 


As so many distinctions and divisions prevail in the Christian 
world, you may require from me a few words concerning our reli- 
gious denominations and parties. 

I never viewed these so aversely and fearfully as some have 
done. Several things pertaining to them I would remark. 

First. I do not consider them as incompatible with Christian 
unity. God promised to give his people one heart and one way ; 

110 On Denominational Divisions. [March. 

and our Saviour prayed that all his followers may be one. Can 
we suppose the promise and the prayer have never yet been ac- 
complished ? But if they have been fulfilled, we may reason back 
from that fulfilment, and see what was the oneness intended. We 
perceive that it was not a oneness of opinion, or a ritual oneness ; 
but a oneness of principle, and affection, and dependence, and pur- 
suit, and co-operation. For this has taken place among the real 
followers of the Lamb, and among them only. 

Secondly. Denominational divisions are not inconsistent with 
the support and spread of the Christian cause ; yea, I consider 
them, by the excitements they favour, and the mutual zeal they 
kindle, and the tempers they require and exercise, as far more 
useful than would be the stagnancy of cold and dull uniformity, 
the idol of every bigot, and which must always be not so much 
real as professed, and held in hypocrisy where there are numbers ; 
and where persons with so many sources of diversity in their 
structure, their education, and opportunities, think for themselves. 

Tldrdly. I do not, therefore, conclude that prophecy authorizes 
us to look for their entire suppression, but for their correction and 
improvement only. In what is called " the latter-day glory," they 
will indeed see eye to eye, but this will regard the clearer and 
closer perceptions of the great objects of vision, and not the 
minuter appendages ; and they will perfectly accord, and see eye 
to eye in one sentiment, viz., "Let every one be fully persuaded 
in his own mind." Judah and Ephraim shall remain, so to speak, 
distinct tribes ; but " Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah 
shall not vex Ephraim." 

The creatures figuratively mentioned by the prophet Isaiah will 
not be transformed into each other, but the wolf also shall dwell 
with the lamb ; and the leopard shall lie down with the kid ; and 
the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little 
child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed ; their 
young ones shall lie down together ; and the lion shall eat straw 
like the ox ; and the sucking child shall play on the hole of the 
asp ; and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' 
den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain ; 
for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the 
waters cover the sea." 

Fourthly. We may view denominations as we do individual 
Christians. None of them are absolutely perfect ; and none of 
them are entirely defective. Neither is possessed, and neither is 
destitute, of every truth and every excellency. All the members 
of the body have not the same quality, or the same office, yet they 
are alike parts; and though they may be compared, they are not 
to be opposed ; and though one may be more admired, another is 
not to be depreciated. One denomination may excel in diligence 
and zeal ; another in -discipline and simplicity of worship ; another 
in contention for purity of doctrine; another for intelligence and 

1855.] The Offer of the Gospel 111 

liberality ; and thus they not only stand in the same relation to 
Christ, but are members one of another ; — checking each other's 
extremes, and supplying each other's defects, and sharing each 
other's advantages ; and so by mutuality to produce a comparative 
perfection in the whole. 

Fifthly. In consequence of this, I could never regard the diffe- 
rences of the truly godly as essential ; and though I have had my 
convictions and preferences, they were never anathematizing or 
exclusive. And I could have communed with any of their churches, 
and should not have been sorry if circumstances had enabled me 
to say I had done so. — Jay's Autobiography. 


On this subject the mistakes which are often made by parties 
who profess to act as ambassadors of God are of so serious a cha- 
racter and lead to consequences so momentous, that a few observa- 
tions may not be out of place in the pages of the Presbyterian 

It is customary to hear persons who, from their examination of 
God's word, are led to believe that the object of Christ in giving 
himself as a sacrifice was to save the Church, and that the atone- 
ment of Christ, according to the purpose of God was made to 
secure this end, acknowledge that they have to encounter a great 
difficulty in making a universal offer of the Gospel. They are per- 
suaded that a universal offer should be made to sinners ; but how 
to do this, on their schemes of an atonement, limited in its objects, 
seems a mystery. Some imagine, that the difficulty is removed 
by falling back on the fact that, while the atonement is limited in 
the divine intention to the salvation of the elect only, yet, as it is 
infinite in value, and as they know not who shall be saved, it is 
lawful to point all men to this work of Christ, and command them, 
because of their danger and the value of Christ redemption work, 
to believe on him. We apprehend, however, that those who adopt 
this expedient, very generally feel that, in their own mind, they 
are not satisfied with their system, which seems to be destitute of 
symmetry and coherency. 

Another class feel, that unless they can approach sinners, and 
assure them that Christ died for them, they have no warrant or 
authority to enjoin them to believe in him, or to flee to him for 
eternal life. In other words, unless they are aware of the secret 
purpose of God in relation to individuals, they have no authority 
to approach men, and hold out to them any prospect of pardon or 
mercy. Such preachers of the Gospel would lay down as a warrant 
for faith, the knowledge of the fact, that to each individual ad- 

112 The Offer of the Gospel [March. 

dressed by the Gospel, God had entertained a purpose of mercy, 
and accordingly, in the work of atonement, there must have been 
an aspect, in which the Saviour contemplated the salvation of all 
men. Although such reasoners read that Christ laid down his life 
for his sheep ; " that he loved the Church, and gave himself for 
it," yet they prefer rejecting the obvious meaning of such clear 
declarations; because they are elsewhere taught, that the servants 
of Christ are to go into all the world and preach the Gospel to 
every creature. If, then, they comply with this injunction, and 
go forth among perishing sinners throughout all the nations of the 
earth, what good news — what Gospel can they carry with them, 
unless they can say to every man that Christ died for him, and 
that, therefore, he may believe and be saved ? 

It is true, that some thoughtful persons among this class have so 
much clearness of conception and logical acuteness, as to see, that 
if Christ died for all men, and really made an atonement in their 
stead, consisting of obedience and suffering, it would seem to 
follow, that the salvation of all men is a necessary consequence, if 
God be a God of absolute justice ; seeing that it would be incon- 
sistent with equity, to constrain a Saviour to exhaust the penalty 
due by all mankind for a broken law, and again to consign a 
number of these sinners, for whose disobedience a plenary atone- 
ment had been made, to the suffering of the lost in hell ; thus ex- 
acting a double penalty for the violation of the law. It is true, 
that some shallow minds, just capable of feeling this difficulty, but 
either unable or afraid to meet it, satisfy themselves that they 
escape all charge of inconsistency or absurdity, when they affirm, 
that though Christ died to save all men, yet all men are not saved, 
because all men do not believe. But the fault and the difficulty 
do not lie with Christ, or with our merciful Father in heaven, but 
with hard-hearted, unbelieving sinners, who reject him, notwith- 
standing all that he has done for their souls. Others have the 
perspicuity to see, that this is really no answer to the objection 
which lies at their door ; for if Christ died to save all mankind from 
their sins, then the unbelief of men is their sin ; and if all men 
were to die in unbelief, as their sins are all atoned for, then all 
men, although dying as unbelievers, would necessarily be saved. 
Such a conclusion is felt to be monstrous, and to involve conse« 
quences so horrible, that another solution of this embarrassment is 
adopted by this class, as a satisfactory expedient. 

It is contended, that in the work of atonement, the Lord Jesus 
Christ did not contemplate or secure the salvation of any of the 
children of men. That his death was not a vicarious substitu- 
tionary work, of such a character as to secure, in the way of justice 
and certainty, the ultimate salvation of any number of sinners, in 
whose law place — to use the language of the older divines — he stood. 
According to this theory, which represents the atonement of Christ 
to be a work of such a character that souls are not necessarily 

1855.] The Offer of the Gospel. 113 

saved thereby, there was nothing more contemplated by God, the 
Father, or by Christ, the Mediator, in the transactions of Calvary, 
than a public spectacle, in which there should be presented a de- 
monstration of the great evil which God recognizes in sin ; and 
that, before mercy could safely be extended to transgressors, it 
was needful, that by the suffering of a personage so exalted as the 
Messiah, the hatred of Jehovah to sin should be declared and a suf- 
ficient guarantee provided for perpetuating the interests of morality 
in the government of the universe.* 

It is easy to see, that a system of salvation so general and in- 
distinct in its character, as that which we have just stated, is 
capable of almost indefinite modification. Containing no idea of 
sacrifice, and no provision for bearing the penalty of the law, as 
inflicted by an offended lawgiver, it leaves every one to decide for 
himself, whether an angel or archangel, or a being superior to 
the angelic race, yet inferior to the Father, may not be able to 
accomplish all that the system demands. One man may retain the 
idea, that this transaction was really accomplished by the eternal 
Son of God. Another, seeing no need for the interposition of such a 
personage, and being persuaded that an angelic nature, dwelling 
in humanity, might accomplish all that the requirements of this 
system demands, adopts the creed of the high Arian ; another, 
whose views of the divine government are less elevated, will be 
contented with the lower forms of Arianism ; while some may boldly 
carry out the principle, and settle down in the chilly regions of 
mere humanitarianism.^ In fact, there is no stopping-place at 
which a reasoning mind can rest, when once the idea of a vicarious 
atonement, strictly substitutionary in its character, is surrendered, 
until it reaches the frozen territory of Socinianism: just as on the 
other hand, an atonement, involving the elements of obedience 
and substitutionary suffering, if rendered for all mankind, must 
land the believer of such a creed in Universalism. 

It is not affirmed, that all who have descended on this sliding 

* The principle stated above is modified indefinitely by different minds, as may be 
seen in the writings of our New School brethren; by the modern Congregationalists 
of New England, and by all those who in England follow the views of Dr. Jenkyn 
in denying that Christ bore the penalty of a holy, violated law, and that in suffering 
he occupied the place of the sinner's substitute. 

The controversy respecting the nature of the atonement turns on the fact whether 
or not God is bound to inflict punishment for sin, because of his nature, or from cir- 
cumstances of an extraneous character. Does his holy and just nature lead him to 
show his abhorrence of sin, or does he merely for reasons of state and government 
show by a public display of one who bears pain and suffering, that he is opposed to 
sin in the administration of the world? 

See "Old and New Theology, pp. 118, 119, by Dr. Wood," Board of Publication, 
260 Chestnut Street. 

f "According to this theory, sin goes unpunished, and dreadful sufferings are in- 
flicted on the innocent, to whom no sin is imputed. This scheme as really subverts 
the true doctrine of atonement, as that of Socinus ; and no reason appears why it was 
necessary that the person making this exhibition should be a divine person.'' — Dr. 
Archibald Alexander, vid. " Treatise on Justification." 

tol. v. — no. 3. 8 

114 The Offer of the Gospel. [March. 

scale, from a belief in the higher views of the atonement to the 
rejection of that doctrine, and the adoption of the lower forms of 
Arminianism or Arianism, have been influenced only by the fact, 
that they felt a discrepancy between their theory of a limited 
atonement, and the statements which they felt called on to use, 
when they made what they believed to be a universal offer of the 
Gospel. In many cases, different influences have conspired to 
produce the result ; but it is beyond all controversy true, that the 
confusion and mystery which envelope many minds on the subject 
of making a free offer of the Gospel to all men, have largely acted 
as a force to drive such cloudy thinkers into the adoption of theo- 
logical views, which at one time they would have dreaded to main- 
tain. In fact, we have, even in our own day, satisfactory but 
melancholy evidence to show us, that views of the most fantastic 
and yet dangerous character are promulgated on the atonement, 
simply because their propounders desire to harmonize what they 
believe to be a general offer of the Gospel, with the idea that 
Christ died to reconcile men to God, and save sinners from their 
sins, while yet in the end all men shall not be saved. 

Passing on to the subject in question, we ask, is the preacher of 
the Gospel at liberty to make the extent of the atonement a war- 
rant for faith ? Provided we are assured that Christ died for sin- 
ners, and that whosoever believeth in him shall be saved, is any 
sinner to whom this message comes, at liberty still to hesitate, and 
to excuse himself on the ground that there is a difficulty yet to be 
removed ; and that until the secret purpose of God concerning him 
is made known, until he ascertains whether Christ actually died 
in his room and stead, and thus removed all danger out of his way, 
he has no ground or encouragement for believing. In other words, 
provided men are assured of the fact of a completed atonement, 
and of the fact that all who believe in the Lord, and trust in him 
for eternal life, shall not come into condemnation, provided these 
things are affirmed on the truthfulness and faithfulness of God, 
who knoweth all things, and who cannot deceive, are men guiltless 
who still hesitate, and ask for any additional ground and warrant 
for faith ? One doubting objector may say : " True, Christ has 
died, and made an atonement, but yet all shall not be saved. Now 
if Christ really died for me, did I know this fact, then I would 
hopefully and confidingly believe." Another, in the same spirit, 
may urge, that as the death of Christ is connected with the elect- 
ing purpose of God the Father, all whose purposes shall stand, 
his cause of doubt arises from the fact, that he does not know 
whether or not his name is in the everlasting covenant, in the 
Lamb's book of life, and among the number given to Christ, for 
whom he was to die. Did he know the extent and particularity 
of election, he would then believe. Now all such anti-believing 
objectors, although they are not aware of the fact, even while they 
are rejecting the only warrant or authority for any sinner exerjis- 

1855.] TJie Offer of the Gospel 115 

ing saving faith which God has given, are still demanding an 
authority to enable them to believe, of the very same kind as that 
which they reject, and which even did they possess, it would not 
bring them into the condition of the saved. The sinner, who is 
told of his sin and danger, and then of the fact of Christ's atone- 
ment, and further, that all who believe in him are saved, in receiv- 
ing and believing accordingly, rests in the truthfulness and faith- 
fulness of God ; or rather, he believes and confides in Christ as 
offered, because he does not doubt the veracity and faithfulness of 
Him who makes the offer, and who cannot lie. In the case of 
objectors, who wish to get beyond the region of the revealed into 
that which is unknown, and to learn the number of the elect, or 
the actual personages whom Christ contemplated as his sheep, and 
for whom he died, it is easy to see that such facts, if known at all, 
can only be discovered in virtue of a revelation on that subject ; 
but the worth of a revelation is measured by the faithfulness of 
the revealer ; and if it be not safe to trust Jehovah, in telling 
us that whosoever believes in his Son is saved, it cannot be safer or 
more satisfactory to trust Him, were he to tell any inquirer that 
his name was among the elect, and written in the Lamb's book of 
life. All who deal with sinners in this manner, and who would 
find reasons for believing beyond the fact that Christ will receive all 
who come to him, are really deceiving them, and encouraging them 
to dishonour God. Surely it is obvious, that if God in mercy and 
grace assure any man that whosoever cometh to the Son, shall not 
be rejected, and if that man delay or refuse to come, until he fur- 
ther learn what God's provisions for other men are, he casts con- 
tempt on the arrangements of the Lord. Surely, if God's message 
of grace convey to any sinner the intelligence, that in fleeing to 
Christ he shall not be rejected, and that whosoever will, may take 
of the waters of life freely, and yet if the sinner thus assured shall 
delay in coming, or hesitate until he further know whether God 
has really made provision which will enable him to keep his word 
of promise to him in coming, and render it safe for the sinner to 
trust the Divine statement, that all who really come shall be saved, 
surely this is the consummation of arrogance, and the rebellious- 
ness of unbelief. 

The faith that believes on any testimony that certain sinners 
are elected, is not saving faith ; the faith in the testimony that 
Christ died for me, is not saving faith ; but the faith, which em- 
braces Christ as he is offered to me, on the faithfulness of God, 
for my salvation, — this is saving faith. The perishing seaman may 
know all about the capacity of a life-boat, and believe that it would 
hold and save himself and all the crew, if they were safely in it ; 
yet in believing this he is not saved. Apart altogether from the 
condition and prospects of others, the question for him is, whether 
or not he is called and invited to the boat, in the season of storm 
and danger, with an assurance that in coming and being seated 

116 The Offer of the Gospel. [March. 

there, he shall not be lost. It is in his belief of this testimony, 
and his acting out the convictions of this credence, that he is found 
fleeing to the life-boat, and is accordingly saved. His belief of 
the testimony, and his consequent reliance and trust, will be mea- 
sured by his estimate of the faithfulness of the testifier, and if the 
veracity of the promiser or testifier be lawfully questioned on one 
point, he would not be consistently believed, if he were to give 
forth a declaration on any other. 

Two questions may now be answered. 

1. On the supposition that the work of Christ, though infinite 
in value, was not rendered for the salvation of all men, but con- 
templated the safety and glorification of the elect, the church, — is 
there any inconsistency between such a theory, and an offer of the 
Gospel, such as we have already intimated ? Assuredly not. The 
ambassador of Christ, who believes the tenets of our standards on 
the subject of particular redemption, may go to every human being 
under heaven, and proclaim that " God so loved the world, that 
he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him 
should not perish, but have everlasting life." He may go to every 
man, and tell him that he is a sinner, guilty, lost, and helpless; 
that with God there is mercy, that he hath given his only begotten 
and well beloved Son to die for sinners ; that in Christ, and in him 
only, is there life and safety ; and he may assure him that all who 
come to Christ shall be accepted, that whosoever will may come, 
and take of the water of life freely ; and in all ages and countries, 
and among all classes of men, this Gospel message shall be found 
to be true. No sinner shall ever go to Christ, and find himself 
rejected ; or lean on him, and discover that the foundation of his 
hopes has failed ; or look to him, and perceive that the face of the 
gracious Redeemer is averted. Nay, further, there is not an ele- 
ment of gracious provision, essential to the believer's hope, or 
peace, or strength, which is not contained in the announcement 
now before us. The Gospel, as preached by Christ himself, is, 
that in coming to him, and in believing on him, we have eternal life ; 
not in hearing of him, or in the mere crediting of doctrines about 
him, and his work, which may be true ; but that the soul is saved 
in believing. It is thus that the believer and Christ are united ; 
and they are united, in order to the completion of the work which 
is thus begun, in the vital act of union, which is the commence- 
ment of spiritual life in the soul. Throughout the whole life of 
the believer, every advance is made in connection with faith ; the 
promises are the channels through which Divine grace flows to the 
soul. In the belief of the promises which apply to us, in our states 
of fear, doubt, or danger, the grace promised is realized ; and thus 
the divine life is nourished. As there is no life apart from believ- 
ing, so the continuation and invigoration of that life are inseparably 
connected with the trustful reception of the testimony of God. 

Now that many, who hold the doctrine of particular redemption, 

1855.] The Offer of the Gospel 117 

may involve themselves in contradictions, from not always keeping 
before their minds the simple propositions here enumerated, is 
readily admitted ; and in all such cases it is to be expected that 
statements may be urged as motives to induce men to believe, 
■which are incompatible with the integrity and symmetry of an 
accurate theological system. Such contradictions are to be traced 
to the erroneous conceptions of those whose minds are clouded, 
instead of being considered inseparable from the theological system 
which is set forth in the standards of our church. 

On the point of freeness, it will be observed, that a proclama- 
tion more free than that which we have set forth, cannot be ima- 
gined; and as to universality, what could be more comprehensive ? 
The servant of Christ can go forth, and tell every man that, with- 
out money and without price, he may receive the precious treasure 
of the Gospel, and so comprehensive is the commission, that he 
may announce this joyful message to all the children of Adam, and 
it shall be found that, in believing this assurance, the trustful 
shall find it true. 

2. A second question may be pressed in this connection, and 
the answer is at hand, namely : Is the mere announcement of the 
fact to sinners, that as many as come to Christ and trust in him, 
shall be saved, a sufficient warrant for the exercise of faith ? To 
this we are obliged to reply, that, on the principle which would 
sanction any sinner to remain in unbelief, to whom this proclama- 
tion was made, until additional information respecting the Divine 
character and procedure may be procured, the doubting and hesi- 
tating inquirer may lawfully challenge every succeeding testimony 
which shall be produced. For all such statements emanating from 
Jehovah, must be equally true and authoritative ; and if one of 
them could be suspected as unlikely to be fulfilled, uncertainty is 
necessarily thrown over them all. When Jehovah speaks, it is the 
duty of all created intelligences to hearken ; when he promises, 
they are bound to believe. Not only is the declaration which we 
have enunciated, a sufficient warrant for the acting of faith, but it 
is the only warrant which can be consistently given in connection 
with the Christian system, and which will suit all classes of sinners, 
and meet the demands and overcome the difficulties of convinced and 
trembling sinners. Is one man alarmed by a sight of the enormity 
of his sins, and another filled with terror, because of the corruption 
of soul which he now sees and laments ? To each of these alarmed 
ones, the same message is applicable, and no other message can 
bring peace. What they need to hear, is the fact that " whoso- 
ever cometh to Christ shall in no wise be cast out." Does one 
man dread that his name is not among the elect, and another fear 
lest Christ may not have died for him ? In these, and in all the 
varied cases of awakened sinners, who may severally be filled with 
alarm, on account of what they see in themselves, or fear to expe- 
rience from the hand of a righteous God, the spiritual physician 

118 Fifty Years a Pastor. [March. 

who would heal their disease, must insist that they shall keep their 
minds directed to this one point, namely, the declaration to the 
lost, the guilty, the undeserving, that as Christ died to save sinners, 
so he is both " able and willing to save to the uttermost, all who 
come unto God by him." In fact, every convinced sinner, to 
whom Christ is set forth in his saving ability, and who yet hesi- 
tates to believe, questions the veracity of God ; and no step can 
be taken in advance, in his spiritual healing, until this point be 
decided. Just as soon as he believes in the absolute truthfulness 
of all the promises of Jehovah, will he believe that in coming to 
Christ, he, guilty and lost as he is, will be accepted and saved; 
because he is so assured by Him who cannot lie. And when the 
mind of the alarmed inquirer is thus enlightened, there will be felt, 
in the simple gospel offer of peace and pardon to all who believe 
in Jesus, a power and a sweetness that fills the soul with heavenly 

Thus it appears that there is no incompatibility between a belief 
in the doctrine of particular redemption, and a full and free offer 
of the Gospel. The only point on which to be guarded is, that the 
statement made shall be such as Christ himself has proclaimed. 
According to the views here expounded, there is no withdrawal of 
any argument from the hands of the Gospel messenger, which 
should be lawfully used, either in attempting to convince of sin, or 
in striving to fill the convinced soul with peace in believing. The 
powers of a Paul or a Whitfield may be displayed in shutting men 
up to the conviction that they are lost ; and after this feeling is 
implanted in the soul, then all their eloquence and earnestness may 
be displayed in persuading men that, vile and guilty as they feel 
themselves to be, they shall find it universally true, that all who 
rest on the Divine faithfulness, and flee to Christ, as offered in the 
Gospel, shall be saved. W. B. 


[Tiir results of Dr. John M'Dowell's ministry of fifty years are so interesting, thnt 
vve make copious extracts from liis Semi-centenary Discourse, recently published by 
Mr. Joseph M. Wilson, of this city. — Ed.] 


" My labours in this congregation were many and great. The 
congregation covered a territory of at least five miles square. I 
preached regularly in the church edifice, twice in the day, on the 
Sabbath ; and then attended a meeting in the lecture-room, or some 
other place, in the evening. On Friday evening I uniformly 
preached in the lecture-room. On Wednesday evening, statedly, I 

1855.] Fifty Years a Pastor. 119 

attended a large Bible class in the town. And as a standing rule, 
I spent every Thursday afternoon in some one of the country 
neighbourhoods of the widely extended congregation, and cate- 
chized the children ; and then in the evening preached in the same 
neighbourhood. My funeral services were many, and required 
much labour, and took much time. In addition to these duties, re- 
gular pastoral visiting was attended to, during the whole of my 
ministry in that congregation. Besides visiting the sick and af- 
flicted and inquiring, every family in the congregation was, in. 
course, visited by the pastor, accompanied by an elder, several 
times during my ministry; and every family was conversed with 
on religious subjects, and prayer was offered in every house. This 
pastoral visiting was productive of great good. In addition to 
these duties in my congregation, I have, during the whole of my 
ministry, had much public duty to perform in relation to the 
Church at large. 

" The period of my ministry in Elizabethtown was a period of 
frequent, powerful, and genuine revivals of religion, especially in 
that region of the Church. In these revivals the congregation of 
Elizabethtown largely shared. The first revival under my ministry 
commenced in August, 1807. I had never seen a revival before ; 
and was therefore placed in a peculiarly solemn and trying situa- 
tion. The revival continued with unabated interest about eighteen 
months, and the number added to the communion of the church, as 
its fruits, was about 120. In this, and the other revivals in that 
church, — of which I will give a brief account, — at some of the com j 
munions, large additions were made, which it may be interesting 
particularly to notice. In the revival just mentioned, which com- 
menced in August, 1807, there were admitted on examination, at 
the communion in the following March, 16; in June, 52; and in 
September, 32. The second revival under my ministry commenced 
in December, 1812. It continued about a year, and as its 
fruits, there were added to the church about 110. Of these there 
were added at the communion in March, 16 ; in June, 52 ; and in 
September, 21. A third revival visibly commenced in February, 
1817, and continued about a year, and the number added to the 
church, as its fruits, was about 180. Of these there were received 
at the communion in June, 77 ; and in September, 79. At one of 
these communions, I baptized at the same time 52 adults. About 
the close of the year 1819, God again visited that church with the 
special influences of his Spirit ; and in the course of a year, about 
60 were added to the communion of the church. Of these, 43 were 
received at the communion in June. In the years 1824 and 1825, 
there was a more than ordinary attention to religion, and during 
these two years about 60 were added to the communion of the 
church. But the special work did not terminate with this ingather- 
ing. The influence of these two years was but as the drops before 
a copious shower. In December, 1825, the work was greatly in- 

120 Fifty Years a Pastor. [March. 

creased, and continued through the year 1826 ; and as its fruits, 
about 130 were that year added to the communion of the church. 
Of these, 97 were received at the communion in June, and 26 in 
September. In the winter and spring of 1829, a partial season of 
refreshing was experienced ; as the fruits of which about 25 were 
added to the communion of the church. The same was the case 
through the winter and spring of 1831, the fruits of which were 
the addition of about 40 to the communion of the church. Not 
long after this, my ministry in that highly favoured part of God's 
heritage terminated.* 

" Between these seasons of special refreshing, the church was 
not without additions. There was some at almost every commu- 
nion. And with regard to the revivals, I would remark, as far as 
means were concerned, they were not the result of any extraordi- 
nary efforts, such as protracted meetings, the visits and labours of 
revival evangelists, and the adoption of what has since been called 
new measures ; but of the ordinary means of grace. Great care 
was taken by the Session, in the admission of new members. Sel- 
dom were the subjects of the revivals admitted to the communion 
of the church, in less than six months after their seriousness com- 
menced. As to the genuineness of the work, time has tested it ; 
and it has been abundantly shown that it was of God. Among 
other fruits of these revivals, as many as tiventy of the young men 
who were subjects of them became ministers of the Gospel. 

"The whole number of communicants, at the time of my settle- 
ment in that church, was 207. In 1820, they numbered 660. At 
that time, on account of the largeness of the First Church, a 
colony from it was organized into a Second Presbyterian Church. 
The act of organization I had the pleasure of performing. Of that 
church, the Rev. Dr. David Magie, a native of the town, and a 
subject of the revival of 1813, in the First Church, became the 
first pastor. Dr. Magie is still the highly respected and useful 
pastor. Under him that church has become large, and among the 
most important churches in our connection. 

"My ministry in Elizabethtown lasted 28^ years. During this 
time the number of members added to the communion of that 
church, on examination, was 921 ; and on certificate from other 
churches, 223 ; making a total of members added to that church, 
during my ministry there, of 1,144. During the same time the bap- 
tisms in that church were 282 adults, and 1216 children ; making 
a total of 1498 baptisms, while I was pastor of that church. 

* It seems that the tot:il number of persons added during Dr. M'Dowell's ministry 
to the Eliaabethtown Church, in seasons ol nricul, was 7J.'>. The number added) 
when there was no special outpouring of the Spirit, was l'Jo. These facts furnish ■ 
strong argument in favour of revivals. — Ed. 

1855.] Fifty Years a Pastor. 121 


" The Central Church had then been organized about a year, 
and worshipped in what was called the Whitefield Academy, or 
Chapel, situated in Fourth below Arch Street. (That congrega- 
tion laid the corner-stone of their church edifice, at the corner of 
Eighth and Cherry Streets, on the same day they called me, which 
was April 22d, 1833.) My installation as pastor of the Central 
Church, by the Presbytery of Philadelphia, was June 6, 1833. 
The installation took place in the Whitefield Chapel, in Fourth 
below Arch Street. 

" On the 23d of February, 1834, the Central Church edifice was 
opened for public worship, and dedicated to the service of God. 
On that occasion, the pastor preached in the morning, the Rev. 
Dr. Samuel Miller in the afternoon, and the Rev. Dr. William 
Neil in the evening. That congregation became large, and among 
the most efficient in our city, in promoting plans of benevolence ; 
which they still continue to be. Among other acts of benevolence 
during my ministry among them was planting a missionary in 
Cohocksink, then a very destitute neighbourhood, in the northern 
suburbs of the city, and sustaining him for a time, which resulted 
in the organization of the Church of Cohocksink. To the building 
of their church edifice, the Central Church largely contributed. 
The Cohocksink Church, now large and self-sustaining, is a stand- 
ing monument of their efficient benevolence. My ministry in the 
Central Church lasted twelve and a half years. During this 
ministry, my labours were not attended with the signal blessing 
which accompanied them in Elizabethtown. 

" It may be proper to remark, that this was a period of the ab- 
sence of revivals in the church generally ; and it has, in a great 
degree continued so, down to the present time. The second quarter 
of the present century has been, in this respect, very different from 
the first. But still, my labours in the Central Church were, 
through the blessing of God, not without considerable success. At 
one time, which was in the year 1840, there was a degree of spe- 
cial seriousness, and there were added to that church, on examina- 
tion, at two successive communions united, 38; and it is worthy of 
remark, that this special seriousness was while they were engaged 
in the Cohocksink enterprise ; according to the declaration of God's 
word, ' He that watereth shall be watered also himself.' 

" The whole number added to the Central Church during my 
ministry among them, on examination, was 218. During the same 
time, there were added on certificate from other churches, 312 ; 
making a total of members added to the Central Church, during my 
ministry there, of 530. With regard to the baptisms administered 
in that church during my ministry, they amounted to 66 adults, 
and 286 children ; total, 352. 

" Towards the close of my ministry among that people, a state 

122 Fifty Years a Pastor. [March. 

of things occurred which led me to believe that it was my duty to 
resign my charge. I accordingly asked of the Presbytery to dis- 
solve the pastoral relation, which was done. This took place 
November 20th, 1845. At that time, I had no plans for the 
future. I knew not but my work in the ministry, especially as a 
pastor, was done. In these circumstances, I endeavoured to com- 
mit myself to Providence, and calmly await the indications of his 


" Very soon, and unexpectedly, a door was opened, which time 
has abundantly shown was a door of usefulness. A great, and im- 
portant, and arduous work was presented ; and I was called to be a 
leading instrument in endeavouring to accomplish it. It has been 
accomplished, as this noble house of worship, and the respectable 
congregation regularly meeting here every Sabbath, and the large 
Sabbath-schools taught in the basement, abundantly testify. Un- 
worthy as I am, I have often as a minister been graciously ho- 
noured of God. But of all the honours God has conferred on me 
as a minister, I have sometimes viewed the part he called me to 
act in gathering this congregation and rearing this house of 
worship, the greatest. Shortly after this house was opened for 
public worship, that good, and great, and wise man, Dr. Archibald 
Alexander, preached for me ; and as he came out of the house re- 
marked to me, 'You have been useful in the ministry in former 
days, but, in my opinion, you have probably done more for the cause 
of Christ, in the last two years, than in all your previous life.' 

" Soon after I left the Central Church, a petition, signed by one 
hundred and ten names of the people belonging to that congrega- 
tion, was unexpectedly presented to me, requesting that I would 
preach to them, with a view of becoming their pastor. To this 
request, after due consideration, I consented. The Whitefield 
Chapel, in Fourth Street below Arch, was obtained; and in that 
we first met on Sabbath, the 14th of December, 1845, — three weeks 
after the dissolution of my pastoral relation to the Central Church. 
The day was very stormy, but the attendance was good ; and there 
was an unusual seriousness manifested. Encouraged by the atten- 
dance and interest that appeared, the people met on the evening 
of December 31st, and unanimously resolved to apply to the Pres- 
bytery for organization as a church ; and for this purpose drew up 
a petition, addressed to the Presbytery, and appointed a com- 
mittee to present it. This petition was signed by one hundred and 
thirty-six persons of my then late charge ; ninety of them commu- 
nicants. It was presented to the Presbytery the next week, 
January Gth. 

" On the 18th of January, 1846, the church was organized with 
eighty-seven communicants ; and two of them were ordained ruling 
elders. The church took the name of the Spring Garden Prcsby- 

1855.] Fifty Years a Pastor. 123 

terian Church. January 21st, the congregation met and voted a 
call for the speaker. This call was accepted ; and February 3d, 
1846, I was installed pastor of this congregation. This installa- 
tion took place in the Whitefield Chapel, where I had before been 
installed pastor of the Central Church. 

" Soon after this, measures were taken to provide the means for 
procuring a lot, and erecting a house of worship. 

" The lot on which this house now stands was purchased ; and 
June 6th, 1846, the corner-stone of this church edifice was laid 
with religious solemnity. And here it may be proper to remark 
on the very great change which has since taken place in this part 
of the city. Then, there was not a house on this whole square, or 
the adjoining square north of it. And the same was the case with 
several squares in the immediate vicinity ; while the buildings on 
many others in the neighbourhood were few and scattered. The 
change in the eight and a half years which have elapsed since, as 
will be acknowledged by all who knew the district then, and know 
it now, has been very great. How much influence the location of 
this church has had, I cannot say. The change commenced with 
the commencement of this edifice ; and many think it had an im- 
portant influence. And if this be so, it is a strong argument in 
favour of church extension. Not to speak of the importance in a 
spiritual respect, the temporal interests of a neighbourhood are 
vitally concerned in the establishment of an evangelical church, in 
the midst of them. 

" On the 16th day of May, 1847, this house was opened for the 
worship of God, and dedicated to his service. After this, the con- 
gregation continued to increase and prosper, until a heavy 
calamity, attended with great mercy, befell it. 

" On the 18th of March, 1851, about five o'clock in the morn- 
ing, after a very heavy and wet snow-storm, which commenced the 
previous afternoon, and continued through the night, the building 
fell. The side walls fell out each way, nearly to the floor ; and the 
roof came down on the pews, and crushed many of them. 

" By means of the great liberality of the public, with what we 
did ourselves, a sufficiency was soon raised fully to meet all the ex- 
pense of rebuilding the house, with greatly increased strength, and 
more beautiful than it was at first. The restoration cost about 
$10,000. The work of rebuilding was commenced immediately 
after the fall, and while it was progressing, the congregation wor- 
shipped in the Spring Garden Commissioners' Hall. 

" On the 5th of October, 1851, the church edifice was re-opened, 
and re-dedicated to the worship and service of God. On that oc- 
casion, the pastor preached in the morning ; the Rev. Dr. Nicholas 
Murray, of Elizabethtown, N. J., in the afternoon ; and the Rev. 
Dr. Henry A. Boardman, of this city, in the evening. 

" The present number of communicants in this church is 237. 
The whole number added to this church during my ministry here 

124 Ministers Sons and the Ministry. [March. 

of nine years, exclusive of the 87 members with which the church 
was organized, has been, on examination, 68, and on certificate 
196 ; making a total of admissions to church membership, in this 
church, during my ministry, of 264. The baptisms in this church 
during my ministry have been 12 adults and 100 children, total 

" The whole number of members added to the communion of the 
three churches during my ministry among them, has been, on ex- 
amination, 1207, and on certificate 731 ; making a total of mem- 
bers added under my ministry of 1938. And the whole number 
of baptisms, in the same churches, during my ministry among them, 
has been, adults, 360, children, 1602 ; making a total of baptisms 
of 1962. 

' ; The number of sermons which I have written in full is 1796 ; 
of these, 107 were intended to be a system of Theology in the 
order of our Westminster Shorter Catechism ; and have been pub- 
lished. Several others of my sermons have been published, in the 
National Preacher, the New Jersey Preacher, and similar collec- 
tions of sermons, by different contributors, and also several on 
funeral occasions ; and in addition to these publications, it may not 
be improper to mention, a system of Bible Questions, on the histo- 
rical parts of Scripture, prepared and published in the year 1816. 
This, I believe, was the first book of Bible questions published in 
this country. They had an extensive circulation ; and I hope and 
believe, under the blessing of God, were productive of much good. 
About 250,000 copies were published and circulated, when they 
were, in a great measure, superseded by the Union Questions of 
the American Sunday School Union." 

Jton«|ffll& <£jjong[it0* 


A southern correspondent writes, "that the sons of ministers 
are the most hopeful class from which the ministry comes. In 
Concord Presbytery, N. C, there are five Morrisons, six Pharrs, 
and three Penieks. In Lexington, Va., and adjoining Presbyte- 
ries, are four Browns, sons of Rev. Mr. Brown, two Morrisons, 
&c. The Rev. John B. Davies, who was forty-four years pastor 
of Fishing Creek Church, S. C, has two sons now preaching in 
Bethel Presbytery, and their two sons are in Columbia Theologi- 
cal Seminary." 

1855.] Ministers' Sons and the Ministry. 125 

The above facts, though not singular, are very suggestive. God 
has not confined the succession of the ministerial office to the fami- 
lies of ministers, as he did that of the priestly office to the Levites ; 
and yet the history of the Church shows, that he has drawn largely 
from such families in proportion to the whole number of those called 
to this office. The Rev. Drs. Alexander and Miller (nomina clara) 
furnished five sons for the sacred office, the former three, the 
latter two. The Rev. Dr. Hodge has two sons in the Gospel 
ministry, and the Rev. Dr. George Junhin has also two. The 
venerable Dr. Matthews, Professor in the New Albany Theological 
Seminary, left at his decease two sons already engaged in the 
ministry, and a third a candidate, who is now a preacher of the 
Gospel. The Rev. Francis Monfort, for many years a useful 
pastor in the West, has four sons in the ministry. Two missionaries 
in China, sent out by the Presbyterian Board, Messrs. S. N. & W. 
P. Martin, are sons of the Rev. William W. Martin (deceased), 
whose long and useful ministry is remembered by thousands in the 
West with lively gratitude ; and a third son has lately been licensed 
to preach ; to say nothing of family connections, some eight or ten 
of whom belong to the clerical profession. Many other facts of a 
similar kind might be adduced. We call attention to them, in 
order to make a few remarks. 

1. Ministers of the Gospel generally, more than most Chris- 
tian parents, direct the minds of their sons to a serious and 
prayerful consideration of their own duty, with reference to the 
sacred office. Whether the children of ministers are trained more 
carefully than those of other parents, is not now the question. 
We may assume that the general religious influence exerted upon 
both classes, is substantially alike. All we mean to assert is, that 
Christians in secular business do not, to the same extent with 
ministers, bring this subject to the favourable consideration of their 
sons, even after the latter become pious, and that this fact alone is 
generally sufficient to account for the difference in the results. A 
call to the Gospel ministry is not miraculous, nor by immediate 
revelation, but by the concurrence of God's providence and grace. 
The work of grace may be genuine, and with it there may be a 
desire for this office. Providence may also favour the purpose, and 
it may be almost formed, but for the want of proper encouragement 
from parents and other relatives, or, as sometimes happens, from 
strong counter influences positively exerted upon them from those 
quarters, young men are induced to change their purpose, and 
engage in some secular avocation. 

Now suppose, in these cases, or even in cases where their minds 
are merely in an inquiring mood, without having approximated to 
a decision, the early counsels of friends had been in favour of their 
becoming preachers, or at least their attention had been called to 
the subject, and they had been asked to decide for themselves in 
a serious and prayerful manner, and no advice given, or influence 

126 Ministers' Sons and the Ministry. [March. 

exerted, to bring them to an opposite choice. Can any doubt, 
that many now in business would, under God, have become minis- 
ters of the Gospel ? Let those business men answer, who have at 
times been rendered unhappy, for years past, by the compunctious 
visitings of conscience, owing to a conviction of having neglected 
their duty in this particular. And, again, let those answer (we 
believe there are many such), who, though not rendered unhappy, 
like the former, by a consciousness of having disobeyed a Divine 
call, yet can look back with a distinct recollection that the influ- 
ences brought to bear upon them by their parents and friends, 
had much to do in forming their plans for future life, and that 
those influences were unfavourable to their making choice of the 
ministerial office. 

2. A further object which we have in view, in inviting attention 
to the above facts is, to remark that ministers' sons who have a 
good opportunity to learn the pecuniary pressures and trials inci- 
dent to this office, are not deterred by these considerations from 
becoming preachers themselves. There are " shady sides" in the 
life of a minister, and these recur, in many cases, very often. 
Doubtless the people are too frequently in fault, in permitting 
those who "sow to them in spiritual things," to share with them 
so sparingly in "their carnal things." Yet these "shady sides" 
are greatly relieved of their gloomy aspect by the " sunny sides" 
with which ministers of the Gospel are favoured, consisting first of 
"food and raiment," with which a prince among the apostles de- 
clared we "ought to be content;" and secondly, of that "meat" 
which was so luscious to the spiritual taste of our Divine Lord, 
that his appetite for food was quite gone, so absorbed was he with 
the delightful prospect of reaping a rich harvest of souls. The 
office of the Gospel ministry offers little to tempt the avarice or 
ambition of an unsanctified aspirant for wealth or fame; and we 
are glad that it does not. It would be a great calamity to the 
Church, if this office became so lucrative as to be sought as a mere 
profession, for the purpose of acquiring an easy and honourable 
living. Even with the small incentives which now exist, instances 
occur occasionally of men's entering this office " for the sake of 
filthy lucre." 

But though, as a profession, its duties are laborious and self- 
denying, and its pecuniary reward small and scanty, yet with 
moderate desires, and the provision which the law of Christ con- 
cerning ministerial support secures, as a general thing, from the 
churches, the faith of a pious young man need not be unduly taxed, 
in deciding to become a minister of the Gospel ; especially if a part 
of his domestic training has been to be satisfied with the neces- 
saries, or at most the comforts of life, without seeking its luxuries. 
And we know of no school in which this salutary and important 
lesson can be learned more effectually, than in a well-ordered and 
well-conducted minister's family. This may be an additional 

1855.] What shall I Ask? 127 

reason why such families furnish so many candidates for the sacred 
office. He who is thus taught in early life to be contented with a 
competence, and is made to feel happy in its possession, will not 
be averse to entering this profession on account of its small pecu- 
niary income. 

3. A third remark is also in point, in view of the above facts, 
viz., that if all pious parents should direct the minds of their sons 
to a serious and devout consideration of this question, and express 
their willingness and desire to have them become, by the blessing 
and will of God, ministers of the Gospel, it is highly probable that 
such families would furnish as many candidates for the sacred 
office, in proportion to the number of their sons, as the families of 
ministers. Though the Lord sometimes, in the exercise of his 
gracious sovereignty, calls into the ministry, as well as into his 
kingdom, men whose family connections are such as to render this 
result very unexpected, and even surprising to those around them, 
yet the history of his proceedings, with reference to this matter, 
shows that his ordinary method is to call his ministers from those 
households where it is regarded as an honour and privilege to 
have one of their number become an ambassador of Christ, and to 
pass by those where this office is undervalued, or considered infe- 
rior to other pursuits, or where it is felt to be an act of condescen- 
sion for persons of their social standing and high worldly prospects 
to engage in it. We should be glad to believe there are few 
Christian families who entertain these low and unworthy views 
concerning the Gospel ministry. If we estimate, as we ought, the 
worth of souls, and the important and dignified employment of 
those whose official duty is daily directed towards their conversion 
and salvation, we should not only consent without reluctance to 
have our sons called to engage in such a work, but feel grateful* to 
God for conferring upon us and them this signal favour. 

J. W. 



What blessing shall I ask for thee, 

In the sweet dawn of infancy? — 

That which our Saviour at his birth 

Brought down with him from heaven to earth. 

What next, in childhood's April years, 
Of sunbeam smiles and rainbow tears? — 
That which in Him all eyes might trace, 
To grow in wisdom and in grace. 

What in the wayward path of youth, 
When falsehood walks abroad as truth ? — 
By that good Spirit to be led, 
Which John saw resting on His head. 

128 The Great Revival in Kentucky. [March. 

What in temptation's wilderness, 
When wants assail and fears oppress ? — 
To wield like him the Scripture-sword, 
And vanquish Satan by " the word." 

What, in the labour, pain, and strife, 
Combats and cares of daily life ? — 
In His cross-bearing steps to tread, 
Who had not where to lay his head. 

What in the agony of heart, 

When foes rush in and friends depart? — 

To pray like Him, the Holy One, 

" Father, thy will, not mine, be done." 

What, in the bitterness of death, 
When the last sigh cuts the last breath? — 
Like Him your spirit to commend, 
And up to paradise ascend. 

What, in the grave, and in that hour, 

When even the grave shall lose its power? — 

Like Him, your rest awhile to take ; 

Then at the trumpet's sound awake, 

Him as He is in heaven to see, 

And as He is, yourself to be. 

James Montgomery. 

IMMorual anb 36 i g r a p tj i c a L 



A valued correspondent has sent for publication in the pages of the Presbyterian 
Magazine, the following letter about the Great Revival in Kentucky, from Dr. 
Baxter to Dr. Alexander ; which letter originally appeared in the Connecticut 
Evangelical Magazine, vol. ii. p. 354, March, 1802. The Editor of the Magazine 
prefaced Dr. Alexanders letter by saying : — 

"The following is an extract of a letter from the Rev. ARCHIBALD Alexander, 
President of Hampden Sidney College, in Virginia, to the Rev. Nathan Strong, 
Hartford. Mr. Alexander is a gentleman of eminent science and judicious piety, 
and by his late tour through New England, became known and beloved by many 
of our Christian readers." 

Dr. Alexander's letter to Dr. Strong is first given. — Ed. Prcsb. Mag. 
dr. Alexander's letter to dr. strong. 

Piunce Edward, Jan. 25, 1802. 
Hev. and dear Sir: — 

I have deferred writing until this time, that I might have it in my 
power to communicate some authentic intelligence of the extraordinary 

1855.] The Q-reat Revival in Kentucky. 129 

revival of religion which has lately taken place in Kentucky. The en- 
closed letter was written to me, by the President of Washington Academy, 
in this state, who visited Kentucky for the very purpose of examining 
into the nature of the remarkable appearances which existed there. In 
this inquiry he obtained complete satisfaction, and now entertains no 
doubt of its being a glorious work of God, as you will see by the contents 
of this letter. I scarcely know a man on whose judgment, in a matter 
of this kind, I could more confidently rely than upon his. Possessing a 
clear, discriminating mind, and rational piety, he was in as little danger 
of being deceived by delusive appearances, as any other person with whom 
I am acquainted. You will, however, judge of the narrative for yourself, 
and may make what use of it you think proper. I have sent it, with a 
view of its publication in the Evangelical Magazine, if the editor think it 
would be useful to the public. 

In North Carolina, a revival attended with similar appearances has 
lately taken place, chiefly amongst the Presbyterians. I am not able to 
furnish you with the names of the counties or congregations, but I am 
informed it has extended over a tract of country about twenty miles 
square. The congregations are nearly as large, and instances of falling 
down as common as in Kentucky. 

In this state, religious appearances are something better than when I 
left it. At Christmas, a number of ministers of different denominations 
met together, in the county of Bedford, to consult upon the best measures 
for uniting their efforts in defence of Christianity, against the torrent of 
vice and infidelity which threatened to overflow the land. Their meeting 
was remarkably harmonious ; prejudice and party spirit seemed to have 
no place amongst them, but with one accord they consented to a scheme 
of friendly intercourse, and general union. Whilst they were together, 
many sermons were delivered, and the effect was great. An uncommon 
awakening has taken place amongst the people in that neighbourhood, 
and it is hoped a revival of true religion has commenced, &c. 

A. A. 

dr. Baxter's letter to dr. Alexander. 

Washington Academy, Jan. 1st, 1802. 
Rev. and dear Sir : — 

I now sit down, agreeably to my promise, to give you some account of 
the late revival of religion in the State of Kentucky. You have no doubt 
been informed already, respecting the Green River and Cumberland 
revivals. I will just observe, that the last is the fourth summer since 
the revival commenced in those places, and that it has been more re- 
markable than any of the preceding, not only for lively and fervent devo- 
tion among Christians, but also for awakenings and conversions among 
the careless. And it is worthy of notice, that very few instances of 
apostacy have hitherto appeared. As I was not in the Cumberland 
country myself, all I can say about it, depends on the testimony of others ; 
but I was uniformly told, by those who had been there, their religious 
assemblies were more solemn, and the appearance of the work much 
greater, than what had been in Kentucky. Any enthusiastic symptoms, 
which might at first have attended the revival, were greatly subsided, 
whilst the serious concern and engagedness of the people were visibly 

vol. v. — no. 3. 9 

130 The Great Revival in Kentucky. [March. 

In the older settlements of Kentucky, the revival made its first appear- 
ance among the Presbyterians last spring. The whole of that country, 
about a year before was remarkable for vice and dissipation ; and I have 
been credibly informed, that a decided majority of the people were pro- 
fessed infidels. During the last winter, appearauces were favourable 
among the Baptists, and great numbers were added to their churches. 
Early in the spring, the ministrations of the Presbyterian clergy began 
to be better attended than they had been for many years before. Their 
worshipping assemblies became more solemn, and the people, after they 
were dismissed, showed a strange reluctance about leaving the place. 
They generally continued some time in the meeting-houses, and employed 
themselves in singing, or religious conversation. Perhaps about the last 
of May, or the first of June, the awakenings became general in some 
congregations, and spread through the country in every direction with 
amazing rapidity. I left that country about the first of November, at 
which time this revival, in connection with the one in Cumberland, had 
covered the whole State of Kentucky, excepting a small settlement which 
borders on the waters of Green River, in which no Presbyterian ministers 
are settled, and I believe very few of any denomination. 

The power with which this revival has spread, and its influence in 
moralizing the people, are difficult for you to conceive, and more for me 
to describe. I had heard many accounts, and seen many letters re- 
specting it, before I went to that country; but my expectations, though 
greatly raised, were much below the reality of the work. Their congrega- 
tions, when engaged in worship, presented scenes of solemnity superior 
to what I had ever seen before. And in private houses, it was no un- 
common thing to hear parents relate to strangers, the wonderful things 
which God had done in their neighbourhoods, while a large family of 
young people, collected around them, would be in tears. On my way to 
Kentucky, I was informed by settlers on the road, that the character of 
Kentucky travellers was entirely changed ; and that they were now as 
remarkable for sobriety, as they had formerly been for dissoluteness and 
immorality. And, indeed, I found Kentucky, to appearance, the most 
moral place I had ever seen. A profane expression was hardly ever 
heard. A religious awe seemed to pervade the country; and some deisti- 
cal characters had confessed, that from whatever cause the revival might 
proceed, it made the people better. 

Its influence was not less visible in promoting a friendly temper among 
the people. Nothing could appear more amiable, than that undissembled 
benevolence which governs the subjects of this work. I have often 
wished, that the mere politician or the deist could observe with impar- 
tiality their peaceful and amicable spirit. lie would certainly see, that 
nothing could equal the religion of Jesus for promoting even the temporal 
happiness of society. Some neighbourhoods, visited by the revival, were 
formerly notorious for private animosities and contentious ; and many 
petty lawsuits had commenced on that ground. When the parties in 
these quarrels were impressed with religion, the first thing was to send 
for their antagonists, and it was often very affecting to see their meeting. 
They had both seen their faults, and both contended they ought to make 
the acknowledgments, till at last they were obliged to request one another 
to forbear all mention of the past, and to receive each other as friends 
and brothers for the future. Now, sir, let modern philosophists talk of 

1855.] The G-reat Revival in Kentucky. 131 

reforming the world by banishing Christianity, and introducing their 
licentious systems; the blessed Gospel of our God and Saviour is showing 
what it can do. 

Some circumstances have concurred to distinguish the revival in Ken- 
tucky, from almost any other of which we have any account. I mean the 
largeness of their assemblies on sacramental occasions, the length of time 
they continued on the ground in the exercise of public or private devo- 
tion, and the great number who have fallen down under religious impres- 
sions. On each of these particulars I shall give you some account. 

With respect to the largeness of their assemblies, it is generally sup- 
posed that at many places there were not less than eight or ten, or twelve 
thousand people. At one place, called Cane Ridge meeting-house, many 
are of opinion there were not less than twenty thousand. There were an 
hundred and forty wagons, which came loaded with people, besides other 
wheel-carriages; and some persons attended who had come the distance 
of two hundred miles. The largeness of these congregations was a con- 
siderable inconvenience. They were too numerous to be addressed by 
any one speaker. Different ministers were obliged to officiate at the 
same time at different stands. This afforded an opportunity to those 
who were but slightly impressed with religion, to wander backwards and 
forwards between the different places of worship, which created an appear- 
ance of confusion, and gave ground, to such as were unfriendly to the 
work, to charge it with disorder. There was also another cause which 
conduced to the same effect. About this time the people began to fall 
down in great numbers, under serious impressions. This was a new 
thing among Presbyterians. It excited universal astonishment, and 
created a degree of curiosity which could not be restrained. When 
people fell down, even in the most solemn parts of divine service, those 
who stood near were so extremely anxious to see how they were affected, 
that they frequently crowded about them, in such a manner as to disturb 
the worship. But these causes of disorder were soon removed. Different 
sacraments were appointed on the same Sabbath, which divided the 
people; and the falling down soon became so familiar, as to excite no 
disturbance. I was in the country during the month of October. I 
attended three sacraments. The number of people at each, was sup- 
posed to be about four or five thousand ; and everything was conducted 
with the strictest propriety. When persons fell down, those who hap- 
pened to be near took care of them, and everything continued quiet till 
the worship was concluded. 

The length of time the people continued on the ground was another cir- 
cumstance of the Kentucky revival. At Cane Ridge the people met on 
Friday morning, and continued till Wednesday evening, night and day, 
without intermission, either in the public or private exercises of devotion; 
and with such a degree of earnestness, that heavy showers of rain were 
not sufficient to disperse them. On another sacramental occasion, they 
generally continued on the ground till Monday or Tuesday evening. And 
had not the ministers been exhausted and obliged to retire, or had they 
chosen to prolong the worship, they might have kept the people any length 
of time they pleased. And all this was, or might have been done in a 
country where not a twelvemonth before, the clergy found it a difficult 
matter to detain the people during the common exercises of the Sabbath. 
The practice of camping on the ground was introduced, partly by necessity, 
and partly by inclination. The assemblies were generally too large to 

132 The Great Revival in Kentucky. [March. 

be received by any common neighbourhood. Everything indeed was done 
which hospitality and brotherly kindness could do, to accommodate the 
people. Public and private houses were both opened, and free invitations 
given to all persons who wished to retire. Farmers gave up their mea- 
dows before they were mown, to supply the horses. But notwithstanding 
all this liberality, it would in many cases have been impossible to have 
accommodated the whole assembly with private lodgings. But besides, 
the people were unwilling to suffer any interruption in their devotion, and 
they formed an attachment for the place, where they were continually see- 
ing so many careless sinners receiving their first impressions, and so many 
deists constrained to call on the formerly despised name of Jesus. They 
conceived a sentiment like what Jacob felt at Bethel, when he said, 
" Surely the Lord is in this place ; this is none other but the house of 
God, and this is the gate of heaven." 

The number of persons who had fallen down in this revival, is an- 
other of the matters worthy of special attention. And in this I shall 
be more particular, as it seems to be the principal cause, why this 
work should be more suspected of enthusiasm, than some other revivals. 
At Cane Ridge sacrament, it is generally supposed that not less than 
1000 persons fell prostrate to the ground, and among them were many 
infidels. At one sacrament which I attended in that country, the 
number that fell was thought to be upwards of 300. Persons who fall 
are generally such as have manifested symptoms of the deepest impression 
for some time previous to that event. It is common to see them shed 
tears plentifully for about an hour. Immediately before they become 
utterly powerless, they are seized with a general tremor ; and sometimes, 
though not frequently, in the moment of falling, they utter one or two 
piercing shrieks. Persons in this state are affected in many different de- 
grees. Sometimes when unable to stand or sit, they have the use of their 
hands and can converse with perfect composure. In other cases they are 
unable to speak, their pulse grows weak, and they draw a hard breath 
about once a minute ; and in some instances their hands and feet become 
cold, and their pulse and breath, and all the symptoms of life, forsake 
them for nearly an hour. Persons who have been in this situation have 
uniformly avowed that they suffered no bodily pain, and that they had 
the entire command of their reason and reflection; and when recovered they 
could relate everything which was said or done, near them, and which 
could possibly fall within their observation. From this it appears that 
their falling is neither the common faintiug nor the nervous affection. 
Indeed this strange phenomenon appears to have taken every turn it pos- 
sibly could to baffle the conjectures of those who are not willing to con- 
sider it a supernatural work. Persons have sometimes fallen on their way 
home from public worship, and sometimes after their arrival. In some 
cases they have fallen when pursuing their common business on their 
farms, or when they had retired for private devotiou. I observed above, 
that persons are generally seriously affected for some time previous to fall- 
ing. In many cases, however, it is otherwise ; many careless persons have 
fallen as suddenly as if struck with a flash of lightning. Many professed 
infidels and other vicious characters have been arrested in this way ; and 
sometimes at the very moment when they were utteriug their blasphe- 
mies against the work. At the beginning of the revival in Shelby Couuty, 
the appearances, as related to me by eye-witucsses, were very surprising 
indeed. The revival had previously spread with irresistible power 

1855.] The Great Revival in Kentucky. 133 

through the adjacent counties; and many of the religious people had at- 
tended different sacraments, and were greatly benefitted. They were 
much engaged, and felt unusual freedom in their addresses at the throne 
of grace, for the outpouring of the Divine Spirit, at the approaching 
sacrament at Sbelby. The sacrament came on in September. The people 
as usual met on Friday, but they were all languid and the exercises went 
on heavily. On Saturday and Sunday morning it was no better. At length 
the communion service commenced, and everything was still lifeless. The 
minister of the place was speaking at one of the tables without any un- 
usual liberty. All at once there were several shrieks from different parts 
of the assembly. Persons fell instantly in every direction. The feelings 
of the pious were suddenly revived ; and the work went on with extraor- 
dinary power, from that time till the conclusion of the solemnity. 

These phenomena of falling are common to all ages and sexes, and to 
all sorts of characters ; and when they fall they are differently exercised. 
Some pious people have fallen under a sense of ingratitude and hardness 
of heart ; and others under affecting manifestations of the love and good- 
ness of God. Many careless persons have fallen under legal convictions, 
and obtained comfort before they arose. But perhaps the most numerous 
class of all, are those who fall under distressing views of their guilt, who 
arise with the same fearful apprehensions, and continue in that state for 
some days, perhaps weeks, before they obtain comfort. I have conversed 
with many who fell under the influence of comfortable feelings, and the 
account which they gave of their exercises, while they lay entranced, was 
very surprising. I know not how to give you a better idea of them, than 
by saying, that they appeared in many cases to surpass the dying exer- 
cises of Doctor Finley. Their minds appeared wholly swallowed up in 
contemplating the perfections of Deity as illustrated in the plan of salva- 
tion. And while they lay in all appearance senseless, and almost desti- 
tute of life, their minds were more vigorous and active, and their memo- 
ries more retentive and accurate than they had ever been before. I have 
heard respectable characters assert, that their manifestations of Gospel 
truth were so clear as to require some caution when they began to speak, 
lest they should use language which might induce their hearers to sup- 
pose they had seen those things with their natural eyes. But at the same 
time, they had seen no image or sensible representation, nor indeed any- 
thing besides the old truths contained in the Bible. Among those whose 
minds were filled with the most delightful communications of Divine love, 
I but seldom observed anything exstatic. Their expressions were just and 
natural ; they conversed with calmness and composure ; and on first re- 
covering the use of speech, they appeared like persons just recovering from 
a violent fit of sickness, which had left them on the borders of the grave. 

I have sometimes been present when persons who fell under the influ- 
ence of convictions, obtained relief before they rose. On these occasions 
it was impossible not to observe how strongly the chaDge of their minds 
was depicted in their countenances. From a face of horror and despair, 
they assumed one which was open, luminous, and serene, and expressive 
of all the comfortable feelings of religion. As to those who fall down 
under legal convictions and continue in that state, they are not different 
from those who receive convictions in other revivals, excepting, that their 
distress is more severe. Indeed, extraordinary power is the leading cha- 
racteristic of this revival. Both saints and sinners have more striking 
discoveries of the realities of another world, than I have ever known on 

134 The Great Revival in Kentucky. [March. 

any other occasion. I trust I have said enough on this subject, to enable 
you to judge how far the charge of enthusiasm is applicable to it. Lord 
Littleton in his letter ou the conversion of St. Paul observes (and I think 
very justly) that " Enthusiasm is a vain, self-righteous spirit, swelled with 
self-sufficiency, and disposed to glory in its religious attainments." If 
this definition be a good one, there is perhaps as little enthusiasm in 
Kentucky, as in any other revival. Never in my life have I seen more 
genuine marks of that humility, which disclaims the merit of its own 
duties, and looks to the Lord Jesus Christ as the only way of acceptance 
with God. I was indeed highly pleased to find that Christ was all and 
in all in their religion, as well as in the religion of the Gospel. Chris- 
tians in their highest attainments, were most sensible of their entire de- 
pendence on Divine grace; and it was truly affecting to hear with what 
agonizing anxiety awakened sinners inquired for Christ, as the only 
physician who could give them any help. Those who call these things 
enthusiasm ought to tell us what they understand by the Spirit of Chris- 
tianity. In fact, sir, this revival operates, as our Saviour promised the 
Holy Spirit should, when sent into the world. It convinces of sin, of 
righteousness, and of judgment, — a strong confirmation to my mind, both 
that the promise is divine, and this is a remarkable fulfilment of it. 

It would be of little avail to object to all this, that perhaps the pro- 
fessions of many of the people were counterfeited. Such an objection would 
rather establish what it meant to destroy. For where there is no reality, 
there can be no counterfeit ) and besides, when the general tenor of a work 
is such, as to dispose the more insincere professors to counterfeit what is 
right, the work itself must be genuine. But as an eye-witness in the case, 
I may be permitted to declare, that the professions of those under re- 
ligious convictions, were generally marked with such a degree of engaged- 
ness and feeling, as wilful hypocrisy could hardly assume. The language 
of the heart when deeply impressed is easily distinguished from the 
language of affectation. 

Upon the whole, sir, I think the revival in Kentucky among the most 
extraordinary that have ever visited the Church of Christ. And all things 
considered it was peculiarly adapted to the circumstances of the country 
into which it came. Infidelity was triumphant, and religion at the point of 
expiring. Something of an extraordinary nature appeared necessary to 
arrest the attention of a giddy people, who were ready to conclude that 
Christianity was a fable, and futurity a dream. This revival has done it. 
It has confounded infidelity, awed vice into silence, and brought numbers 
beyond calculation under serious impressions. 

Whilst the blessed Saviour was calling home his people and building 
up his Church in this remarkable way, opposition could not be silent. At 
this I have hinted above. But it is proper I should observe here, that 
the clamorous opposition which assailed the work at its first appearance 
has been in a great measure borne down before it. A large proportion of 
those who have fallen, were at first opposers ; and their example has 
taught others to be cautious, if it has not taught them to be wise. 

I have written on this subject to a greater length than I first iutended. 
But if this account should give you any satisfaction, and be of any benefit 
to the common cause, I shall be fully gratified. 

Yours, with tho highest esteem, 

Geo. A. Baxter. 
Rev. Akcuihald Alexander. 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 135 

%nlik anb Criticism. 

Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie, Missionary to China. Edited by his 
father. Philadelphia : Presbyterian Board of Publication. Pp. 404. 

These interesting and useful Memoirs " are made up of a selection of 
letters and journals printed in the larger editions of the same work." 
Many of our readers will recollect that Mr. Lowrie, son of the Hon. 
Walter Lowrie, one of the secretaries of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign 
Missions, after having been in China a little over five years, came to his 
death, at the early age of less than twenty-nine years, by the hands of 
pirates, who boarded the boat in which he was passing from Shanghai to 
Ningpo, and after plundering the vessel and its passengers of whatever 
they chose to take, threw him into the sea, fearing, as was supposed, 
that if he were permitted to live, their villany would be detected and 

Why God permitted this sore bereavement to occur, is among the in- 
scrutable mysteries of his providence. Mr. L. was eminently qualified 
for his work, and had acquired a degree of influence among his missionary 
associates, unusual for so young a man. But the Divine plan required 
his removal to another world, and it is ours to say with Christian submis- 
sion, " The will of the Lord be done." These Memoirs are a valuable 
memento, both of intellectual and moral worth, and especially of the 
latter, on which account principally, no doubt, they have been published. 
If Christians throughout our land, and particularly candidates for the 
Gospel ministry, will peruse them and catch their spirit, the result will 
be highly beneficial to the Church and the cause of missions. Our young 
brother " being dead, yet speaketh ;" and he exhorts us in one part of the 
volume, with reference to the spread of the Gospel among the heathen, 
" to do, and to act." And does not Christ require the same ? His com- 
mand, " Go into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature/' 
will never cease to be obligatory, so long as a single nation, or tribe, or 
people on the globe are ignorant of the way of salvation. 

Revival Sermons : First Series. By the Rev. Daniel Baker, D.D., President of 
Austin College, Texas, &c. Third edition, with additions. Philadelphia : William 
S. Martien. Pp. 391. 

The reason why these discourses are called Revival Sermons is, as the 
author states in the preface, " not only that they were designed to be of 
an awakening character, but were preached (in substance) in numerous 
revivals, and were blessed to the hopeful conversion of many precious 
souls, of whom some fifty or more have become ministers of the Gospel." 
It is further stated, that since the publication of the previous editions, 
" the author has heard of a number of persons to whom the reading of 
the work has been blessed in their hopeful conversion." These facts con- 

136 Review and Criticism. [March. 

tain a stronger recommendation of the book than can be bestowed by any 
language of ours. The " broad seal of Divine approbation put upou the 
truth herein exhibited," renders the volume more than usually attractive, 
both to Christian families for Sabbath-day reading, and to ministers of 
the Gospel, who would learn what form of presenting God's "Word he has 
so remarkably owned and blessed. 

Genuine revivals of religion are the divinely appointed means for per- 
petuating and enlarging the Church. The Bible instructs us to pray, "0 
Lord, revive thy work," and its doctrines, warnings, and exhortations are 
designed and adapted to enlighten, convince, and convert sinners, and to 
" edify the body of Christ." With those unscriptural measures which 
have sometimes been resorted to, in order to produce religious excite- 
ment, we have no sympathy. But the employment by some, of improper 
means, is no good reason for viewing revivals themselves with suspicion. 
They are associated with the history of the Church in her earliest, purest, 
and most palmy days. They are essential to her life and strength; and 
we should hope, pray, and labour for them, not only periodically and at 
distant intervals, but with a faith that never falters, a zeal that never 
grows cold, and efforts that never tire. 

Dr. Stearns' Discourses on the History of the First Church in Newark, N. J. 

The materials were worthy of a master's hand, and the workmanship is worthy 
of the materials. Few books contain so few errors, amidst such vast stores of 
information, gathered from sources remote and obscure. Seldom are the results 
of antiquarian research arranged in such lucid order, and in such striking and 
attractive forms. 

For the preparation of this volume, no better time could have been found than 
the present, when access is given to the early records of our church, and when 
scarcely any topic relating to Newark or to East Jersey has been left uninves- 
tigated by competent and indefatigable inquirers. Dr. Stearns has profited by 
these and many other aids, and has found the most cheerful readiness on all 
hands, to facilitate his researches. He brought to the task a mind loving the 
work, and accustomed to dwell on the men and days of other times. 

The Independents magnified the office of Ruling Elder, differing from the 
Presbyterians of that day, in having only one in a congregation, also in refusing to 
admit to the communion except upon a satisfactory relation of religious experi- 
ence, and in restricting baptism to the children of communicants. The venerable 
Pierson was an Independent, and left Southampton, L. I., in 1644, for Branford, 
which was settled by opponents of the Presbyterian way, but on the uniting of 
the colonies of New Haven and Connecticut under one royal charter, his aversion 
to the lax system led him to seek a new home, and begin a " xewe wokke." 
The church of Branford is supposed, by Dr. Stearns, to have removed with its 
minister to the banks of the Passaic. The Rev. Chandler Robbins, in his diffi- 
culties arising from his attempt to lead his church, in Plymouth, Mass., to adopt 
the views- of Edwards, in his Forms of Communion, said : "He had been used to 
the other way in his father's church at Branford, and did not scruple it on being 
settled, but having read the treatises of Edwards and Bellamy, he had examined 
the point, and was char that the ancient Independent mode was the true one."* 

That the first church in Newark was strictly Independent in every iota, IS most 
certain. Dr. Stearns thinks they had no ruling elder ; probably they could find 
no man suitable for that difficult and arduous post, it being lofty and lonely as an 
eagle's nestl 

The persecutions in Scotland made strange changes in men. George Scott, of 
Pitlochie,f with all his kindred, were fined, imprisoned, and denounced as traitors 

• Bellamy Papers. t Wodrow. 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 137 

almost to the close of "the killing time." Then Pitlochie was released from the 
Bass, on condition of removing to East Jersey; his brethren in suffering, in pri- 
son, in exile, he petitioned to have given him for servants, and out of regard to 
the service rendered to the crown by his father, his request was granted. He 
sailed with his brethren, but never reached our shores. His excellent wife, her 
brother's widow, and many others, died at sea. The ship reached its destination 
in the winter; the people on the coast showed them no kindness, but "a town a 
little way up the country" sent horses for those who could not travel on foot, 
and lodged all the luckless Scots till spring. Was that town Newark? The 
governor summoned a jury, who judged that the Scots owed neither service nor 
money to Pitlochie ; some went to New England and New York, others settled at 
Woodbridge and Freehold ; those who had property, returned to their native 

The younger Pierson was educated at Harvard, and became the colleague of 
his father, and was sole pastor for about fourteen years. He had imbibed those 
views of church discipline, which gradually had become well-nigh universal in 
New England. Dr. Macwhorter records the tradition that through the influence 
of the few Scotsmen in Newark, he endeavoured to introduce the Presbyterian 
way. Doubtless, the movement was to admit to baptism the children of baptized 
persons, not being communicants ; not of " irreligious persons," as Mr. A. B. 
Davenport, of Brooklyn, says, in his History of the Davenport Family. Difficul- 
ties arose; according to Jonathan Dickinson, on account of his Presbyterian 
principles, some of the people were culpable in their behaviour to him, and he 
removed from their abuses to Killingworth, in Connecticut. Those principles 
were no way offensive there ; and be was placed at the head of Yale College, and 
doubtless trained up his pupils in that way. 

When the Presbyterian system, as to terms of communion, was introduced in 
Newark, Dr. Stearns has not learned. Was it not about 1718 ? and did it not 
result in the formation of the Mountain Society, long known as the Newark 
Mountains, and now called Orange ? This congregation, described by Andrews,* 
of Philadelphia, in 1727, as a small congregation back of Newark, refused to be 
called Presbyterian. Jonathan Edwards tells us, that at " a place called the 
Mountains, back of Newark," there was a great revival in 1734, under Mr. John 
Cross. In the great land riots, the minister there, Mr. Daniel Taylor, f is de- 
scribed as "the Independent minister," who, with Mr. Cross, counselled the people 
to resist the writs of ejectment, seeing they had bought the county of Essex for 
" a five shilling bill and a bottle of rum." No intimation is made by Dr. Stearns 
of the way in which the Mountain Society separated. However, it was (to use 
the phrase of the Presb. Qu. Rev.), a " crisis period." Dickinson joined the Pres- 
bytery of Philadelphia in 1717, and it is most likely that the Mountain men with- 
drew from the Newark church, during the difficulties after the death of Bowers, 
about calling Buckingham, and from under the care of the ministers in Fairfield 
County, under whose auspices the Church in East Jersey had settled their pas- 
tors and guided their affairs. It was no sundering of any ties, no violation of any 
cherished principles for the church in Newark, and the churches round, to follow 
the example of the church in Woodbridge, and under the guidance of "the 
great Mr. Dickinson," to promise subjection in the Lord to the Presbytery. This 
step was not taken hastily, but two or three years after the death of Mr. Bowers; 
and Mr. Webb was ordained by the Presbytery of Philadelphia, Oct. 22, 1719 ; 
Dickinson, Morgan, of Freehold, Pierson, of Woodbridge, and On', of Hopewell, 
being present. How far this event was owing to " the zeal and piety" of the four 
Scotsmen, Young, Nesbit, Clisby, and Douglas, honourably remembered among 
the people in Dr. Macwhorter's day, must be guessed at. The church at Orange 
remained Independent till the settlement of Caleb Smith, in 1745. 

The line of New England pastors was broken in 1759, in the settlement of 
Alexander Macwhorter. Born in Ireland, his parents brought him in childhood 
to Delaware. After the removal of his widowed mother, with her family, to North 
Carolina, he was led to the Saviour. On entering Nassau Hall, he seems to have 

* Quoted by Dr. Hodge. "j" New York newspapers of that day. 

138 The Religious World. * [March. 

had his way prepared by a letter from Davies to Burr, enclosed unsealed in one 
to Cowell,'of Trenton. Having studied divinity with Tennent, of Freehold, he 
married, soon after his settlement at Newark, the sister of Mr. Cumming, pastor 
first at New York, and then at the Old South, in Boston. It was probably through 
the influence of Cumming, that Caldwell and Maewhorter, both of Irish extraction 
were led to adopt the views of discipline advanced by Edwards, and sustained by 
Bellamy and Hopkins. As early as 1764,* they were labouring with conscientious 
scruples about the terms of communion. Dickinson and Burr had left their 
impress strongly on the people. The Rev. Jacob Green, of Hanover, had been 
led by them into their views, and in 1764, he took his stand on the Edwardean 
platform. Caldwell saw it would be vain for him to do so, but waited ; " revivals 
are preparing the way." Maewhorter waited till the war was over, and then, with 
no small struggle, carried his people back to the Independent system, in relation 
to admission to the privileges of the church, in the case of infants and adults. 

K. H. 

$fje Jhligtou* Wnxlh 

New Church in Sax Francisco. — The " Calvary Presbyterian Church" was 
commenced about the 15th of September last, is of brick and stone covered with 
mastic, iron window shutters, thus rendering it a fire-proof building. The house 
and lot, including marble pulpit, carpets, cushions, &c, to all the pews up stairs 
and down, will not exceed the sum of $60,000. The size of the church is 100 by 
63 ; the lot 137i and 68| ; there is also in the basement a large and commodious 
lecture room and two Sabbath School rooms, and in the rear and attached to the 
main building is a fire-proof study and library room, each story communicating 
with the pulpit above and below. 

The building in its interior as well as exterior arrangement is in the Corinthian 
style of architecture, with everything in keeping. The house is lighted with gas. 
The galleries are wide and roomy, and furnished with an organ ; the gallery pews 
are all cushioned, in order to make them attractive to young men and strangers. 

The house can seat in the pews 1500, but can on a " pinch" accommodate 
2,000 persons. The pews are in a semicircle. The Rev. Dr. Scott preached the 
dedication sermon, from Exodus, 15th chapter and 2d verse. 

The Rev. \Vm. Speer, of the Chinese Mission, and Rev. Frederick Buel, agent 
of the American Bible Society, took part in the morning services, which were at 
the usual hour of 11 o'clock, yet the house both morning and evening was densely 
crowded ; hundreds went away, not being able to gain admittance. The Rev. 
Dr. Scott preached in the evening, " To strangers, — their state and feelings," on 
Genesis 23d chapter and 4th verse, " I am a stranger and a sojourner with you." 
The truth was spoken with power, and I trust went home to many, who were 
made to feel that, though strangers and away from home, they had a conscience 
within to reprove ; a God to see them in all their wanderings. The preacher 
warned them to remember the pious admonitions and advice of their mothers at 
parting; of their venerated fathers; and never to forget their mothers' Bible, 
tears, and prayers. — New York Observer. 

Dr. Bushnell, and his Books. — The Congregational Pastoral Union of Con- 
necticut have protested unanimously against the teachings of Dr. Bushnell in his 

* See their letters in Bellamy Paper*. 

1855.] The Religious World. 139 

two famous books, " God in Christ," and " Christ in Theology." The contents of 
the books so far as they relate to the Divine nature, the incarnation, the Holy 
Spirit, and the atonement, are analyzed and set forth systematically ; and the per- 
fect irreconcilableness of them with the orthodox faith is shown. This analysis 
and statement is followed by the following declaration, which was unanimously 
adopted by the Union : — 

" Whereas, action has been had upon these doctrines, which may be deemed 
and has been declared judicial; 

"And whereas, this action may be, and in some cases undoubtedly is, regarded 
as tolerating, if not even justifying, these doctrines ; 

"And whereas, the ministers and churches of Connecticut are on this account 
liable generally to a suspicion of indifference or unfaithfulness to the cardinal 
truths of Revelation ; 

u Therefore, we, the members of this Pastoral Union of Connecticut here con- 
vened, to clear ourselves from all possible participation in such acts and errors, 
do publicly and unanimously declare, to all whom it may concern, that we regard 
the aforesaid book, and statements herewith extracted and set forth from that 
book, as openly and unequivocally denying the doctrines of a trinity of persons 
in the Godhead, and a vicarious atonement for sin in the obedience and death of 
our Saviour, Jesus Christ. 

" We also declare that the views herewith set forth on the aforesaid questions, 
are in our judgment so radically repugnant to the fundamental facts of Revela- 
tion, that they can never be reconciled to the common creed of Christianity, or 
held in the same symbol with the doctrines on which our churches are founded." 

Intemperance and the Maine Law. — Mr. C. C. Leigh recently made the fol- 
lowing condensed statements, in the New York Legislature, on the evils of in- 
temperance, in a speech advocating the Maine Law. 

" With your permission, Mr. Speaker, I will take the affirmative of the ques- 
tion, and briefly give my reasons : — 

"1st. The use of the article as a luxury is the direct and indirect cause of four- 
fifths of all the crimes that are committed in the community ; in proof of which I 
refer you to the reports of the wardens of our prisons and penitentiaries, and the 
records of the criminal courts. 

"If then the assaults upon the persons of our citizens, endangering their lives, 
if nearly all the cases of stabbing, if almost all the murders that have been com- 
mitted in the State, are done by persons under the influence of this exciting be- 
verage, used by such persons as a luxury only, is it not the right and the duty of 
Government to interpose and protect the weak and inoffending citizen from the 
cruelties inflicted upon their persons by those using the article, and say unto 
them, ' the lives of our citizens are too precious to be sacrificed on the altar of 
your traffic ; therefore you must be restrained from the sale of the article.' 

" 2. My second reason is that the use of alcohol as a beverage is the 
cause of four-fifths of all the pauperism, depriving thereby the State of the pro- 
ductive industry of a large number of her citizens, and reducing them to beg- 
gary ; thus taxing honest industry with their support, by which the State is the 
loser of millions annually. 

" 3. The use of alcohol as a beverage produces idleness and debauchery to an 
extent fifty fold more than all other causes put together. 

"4. The use of alcohol as a beverage undermines and destroys the morals of our 
citizens to an extent that is fearful, and if continued, threatens to overthrow the 
government itself; for the history of nations shows that no republic can stand 
upon any other foundation than a virtuous, intelligent, and industrious people. 

" 5. The use of alcohol as a beverage shortens the lives of the citizens, depriving 
the State thereby of their labour and intelligence at a time when their maturity 
should make them most useful and important to the State. 

" 6. The use of alcohol is the direct cause of the destruction of that beautiful, in- 
comprehensible, and godlike attribute of man, — the human intellect. Under its 

140 The Religious World. [March. 

influence our constantly enlarging asylums are filled, and many, whose minds 
are not totally wrecked, wander about our State with eufeebled intellects, minds 
debased, genius prostrate ; and thousands of our educated and most promising 
young men, who once bid fair to give lustre and glory to the State, sink below 
mediocrity into mental feebleness. This bill seeks to prevent this destruction of 
intellect. Sir, enact and put into execution this law, and you will rescue from 
vice and mental degradation, and bring forth to the service of our State, men who 
will shine in her future history as poets, orators, philosophers, and in mechanic 
arts, with a lustre equal to a Shakspeare, Milton, Webster, Newton, Franklin, or 
Fulton ; for what man has done, the indomitable perseverance of our youth can 
and will do again. If to save from wilful destruction the property of the citizen, 
is apart of the duty of the Government, surely none can doubt the course Govern- 
ment should take in saving that which is of more value to the State than property 
itself, — the intellects of her children ; for it is by the creative genius of man that 
that which to-day is of little or no value, is converted into property, real and valua- 
ble, enriching thereby the State. Again, the State spends millions in educating her 
children, it being a part of her policy to mature and develope the intellect of all 
her citizens. Who can say it is not the duty of Government to foster and protect 
that which she has, at so great an expense, matured, educated, and develojted ?" 

The Crisis in China. — A Baptist Missionary, in giving an account of the revo- 
lution, and maintaining that the hope of China is iu the success of the Tae Ping 
Rebellion, states : — 

1. It is a fact that Tae Ping Wang is so firmly established at Nanking that no 
Tartar force will ever be able to expel him. 

2. It is a fact that the revolutionary spirit is so universally diffused through 
China that no foreign power, if directed against the patriots (and God forbid that 
such should be allowed), could extinguish it; if driven out of Nanking, it would 
come to consummation elsewhere. 

3. It is a fact that Tae Ping Wang destroys idols and publishes the Scriptures 
without note or comment; hence, that his revolution gives greater promise for 
China's renovation and advancement than anything we had ever dreamt of 

4. It is a fact that he and his party have solicited the aiding co-operation of 
wise counsellors, skilful physicians, surgeons, and missionaries; and offered a 
large money inducement. 

The American Board slandered in England. — Parker Pillsbury, of Boston, 
made some statements about the American Board, at a public meeting in 
England, to which the Independent thus alludes : " It is not always easy to draw 
the line exactly between knavery and insanity; nor is it always necessarv. When 
Mr. Parker Pillsbury affirms that the American Board of Foreign Missions 'is a 
slave-holding body ;' that ' its treasury is constantly replenished by the price of 
the bodies and the souls of men ; sold like beasts in the market ;' that ' its mis- 
sions to Africa are sustained by the money raised from the sale of Africa's 
daughters sold in the American shambles to grace the seraglios of southern de- 
bauchees' — that 'if he were a slave to Theodore Frelinghuysen, and should be- 
come the most eminent saint in the world, his sanctity would only enhance his 
price in the slave-market' — and that the religious bodies in America have ' fur- 
nished the means of sending delegates to the churches in Great Britain by the 
sale of babes in the market' — we have no occasion to judge whether he speaks 
under the hallucination of frenzy or with a lull consciousness that he is lying. 
We have never troubled ourselves to consider what Mr. Parker Pillsbury says or 
why hi 1 says it. But we confess that we are grieved for our common Christianity, 
and for our consanguinity with the British Churches, when we find men like 
.lames Sherman ami Howard llinton ready to believe, without a moment's doubt 
or pause, the foulest and most sweeping vituperation against the churches of this 
country ; and we can not refrain from asking whether this is the sense in which 
their Christian charity ' believeth all things.'" 

1855.] Statistics. 141 

German Emigrants. — At the late meeting in Germany, Dr. Schaff proposed 
the following measures for the benefit of German emigrants, which were referred 
to the Central Committee, with instructions to carry them out, as far as pos- 
sible : — 

1. The introduction of a farewell service for emigrants, with suitable exhorta- 
tions to virtue and piety, accompanied, if possible, with presents of the Bible and 
useful books. 

2. The appointment of missionaries and book agents for emigrants in places 
of embarkation, especially Bremen, Hamburg, Havre, and Antwerp; also in the 
cities of landing, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans. 

3. The sending out of pious and well-educated ministers to the new German 
settlements and large cities of North America. 

4. The special training of promising young men for the service of the German 
Church in America, either in particular theological schools, to be founded for the 
purpose in some seaport, like Bremen or Hamburg; or in connection with foreign 
missionary institutions, like those of Basle and Barmen ; or finally, by endowing 
and supporting German professorships and scholarships in the American German 
Colleges and Seminaries. 

5. Occasional collections in all the churches for the raising of the necessary 

6. A more intimate connection between the churches of Europe and their 
German and Anglo-German daughters in America, by correspondence and occa- 
sional exchange of delegates. 


Hazards and Fluctuations of Mercantile Life. — From an article in Hunt's 
Magazine, we copy the following interesting statements. They afford a melan- 
choly illustration of the hazards and fluctuations of mercantile life : — 

" It is asserted that but one eminent merchant (and his death is still x'ecent and 
lamented) has ever continued in active business in the city of New York, to the 
close of a long life, without undergoing bankruptcy, or a suspension of payments, 
in some one of the various crises through which the country has necessarily 
passed. I have no means of determining the truth of this assertion, but it must 
have some foundation, and I think it would be difficult for either of us to add to 
the number. 

" It is also asserted, by reliable authority, from records kept during periods of 
twenty to forty years, that of every hundred persons who commence business in 
Boston, ninety-five, at least, die poor; that of the same number in New York, not 
two ultimately acquire wealth, after passing through the intermediate process of 
bankruptcy ; while in Philadelphia the proportion is still smaller. 

" By the statistics of bankruptcy, as collected under the uniform bankrupt law 
of 1841 :— 

The number of applicants for relief under that law were . 33,739 

The number of creditors returned, .... 1,049,603 

The amount of debts stated, $440,934,615 

The valuation of property surrendered, .... $43,697,307 

" If this valuation were correct, nearly ten cents would have been paid on every 
dollar due ; but what was the fact? 

" In the southern district of New York, one cent was paid, on an average, for 
each dollar due ; in the northern district, 13| cents, being by far the largest divi- 
dend. In Connecticut, the average dividend was somewhat over half a cent on 
each dollar. 

142 Statistics. [March. 

In Mississippi it was 6 cents to $1,000 

In Maine, ....... £ " 100 

In Michigan and Iowa, i " 100 

In Massachusetts, 4 " 100 

In New Jersey, 1 " 100 

In Tennessee, U " 100 

In Maryland, 1 dollar to 100 

In Kentucky, 8 " 1,000 

In Illinois, 1 " 1,500 

In Pennsylvania, East Virginia, So. Alabama, 

Washington, Nothing. 

(Palmer's Jllmanac, 1848.) 

After making every possible allowance for the enhancement of this enormous 
amount of debt by inflation of values, speculative prices, &c, the proportion of the 
$400,000,000 lost by those of the 1,049,603 creditors who were engaged in proper 
and legitimate business, must still have been immense, and may justly be charged 
against the profits of our regular commerce. 

Educational Statistics in U. S. — To understand the amount of education 

in the United States, the better way will be to take the whole number of those in 

course of education in the several great divisions of the country. The result is 

as follows, viz. : — 

Whole number P ,. llion . Prop ortion. 
in education. ' r 

New England States, 701,312 2,730,116 1 to 36 

North Middle, viz.: New York, New Jersey, 

Pennsylvania, Delaware, .... 1,303,935 5,990,277 1 to 4-6 

Southern States, viz.: Virginia, Maryland, N. 

Carolina. Georgia, S. Carolina, Florida, . 388,847 2,709,139 1 to 7* 

Northwestern States, viz.: Ohio, Indiana, 

Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, . 1,105,927 4,669,946 1 to 42 

Southwestern States, viz.: Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, . . . 575,541 3,453,590 1 to 6- 

It is a singular fact, that the largest number of colleges and academies of the 
higher order are not found in New England, but in the Middle and Western 
States. I give the following as an example of colleges: — 

Massachusetts, .... 

New York, 



In Ohio, there is a much larger proportion of pupils receiving collegiate instruc- 
tion than in Massachusetts or New York ; and in Tennessee it is threefold that of 
Massachusetts. So much for number. I am aware that many persons in the 
East will claim that the courses of study in the AVest are not complete, and, in 
reality, that they arc not colleges. The greatest difference is, that the Western 
Colleges have not large endowments, and have not age to give them reputation. 
Here, I may say, it is very questionable how far large endowments have Been use- 
ful to any college. In wealthy colleges, the Professors generally realize what 
GlBBOB said of his : "They remembered that they had salaries to receive, but 
forgot they had thi/ics to perform*" 

Of academies and private schools, I give the following example*: — 

Massachusetts, .... 

New York, 


Kentucky, ..... 

Tennessee, ..... 


































1855.] Miscellaneous Thoughts. 143 

Here the largest proportion is in New York, and next in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee. In New York there is a State provision for academies, which has done 
much to raise them up. In Ohio there is none. In the slave states, academies 
are precisely the kind of institution they require. It is very pleasant to see the 
academies in the country towns of Tennessee. They are mostly female acade- 
mies, and are well supported. 

From the great number of colleges in our country, it might be inferred that 
we are getting to be a learned people. But I fear not. There are very few 
of our collegiate institutions that teach either thoroughly or deeply. The class 
of really learned men are not honoured in this country. I do not know certainly 
that they are anywhere. The scholar is treated with cold respect. Like the 
humble-minded Christian, he must be contented to walk in the shade while pur- 
suing higher and nobler objects. The wealth of the Republic is cast away 
upon its worthless fashions, and its honours upon empty politics. — N. Y. Times. 

yfc\m\\mm Cfmigfifc 


u I was but a boy, and lived in the city of Richmond, Virginia, when the 
theatre was destroyed by fire in December, 1811, and seventy-five persons 
perished. I had a brother older than myself, who resided there at the same time. 
During the day which preceded the fire he approached me, handing me a dollar, 
and saying he supposed I wanted to attend the theatre in the evening. On my 
leaving home to reside in the city, my mother had charged me not to go to the 
theatre : this I told him, adding, I can't disobey my mother. Upon this, he took 
back the dollar he had given me, expressing much contempt for my course. I 
was willing, indeed, and even anxious to retain the dollar, but not as the means 
of violating my mother's command. 

" Night came, and my brother attended the theatre, accompanied by a young 
lady of the city, to whom he was shortly to be married. I retired to bed at an 
early hour, and knew nothing of the fire until after sunrise. Then I learned that 
the young lady had perished in the flames, and that my brother, in his efforts to 
save her, had narrowly escaped death. This bereavement was to him a source 
of overwhelming grief, and he kept his room closely for nearly a month after- 
wards. He never subsequently said aught to me in reference to the theatre, or as 
to my course in refusing to attend." 

The above was related to me by Dr. F , now an esteemed minister of the 

Gospel in North Carolina. Notice, 1. The theatre was new to him, and he might 
have made this a plea for going. 2. It would have cost him nothing, the price 
of admission being proffered him as a gift. 3. The example of an older brother 
was before him, and presented a strong inducement to go. 4. His mother was at 
some distance from the place, and it was very likely that she would never have 
heard of her son's disobedience. But the noble boy firmly adhered to his resolu- 
tion, " I can't disobey my mother." The voice of God seems to have blended with 
the mother's charge, thus restraining the footsteps of her son, and in all proba- 
bility saving his soul as well as body from death. — Am. Messenger. 


Do not, my dear sir, be offended with this plain and homely advice, till you 
hear what reasons I have to state for giving it. To say the very least, I will 

144 Miscellaneous Thoughts. [March. 

endeavour to be courteous, and if you do not ask my counsel, you shall not be 
required to give a fee for it. 

First, it is quite an offensive habit. No lady allows her parlour to be occu- 
pied with smokers ; it is prohibited in railroad cars, and in the saloons and after- 
decks of our steamboats; and some of our cities even enact laws against smoking 
tobacco in the public streets. 

Secondly, it is an intemperate habit. It is an improper stimulant. As a 
stimulant only is its use ever attempted to be justified ; and the man who uses it 
is so far under the influence of intoxication. 

Thirdly, it is a wasteful expenditure of your property. More money is spent 
in many of our large cities in tobacco than in bread. The amount so expended 
is enormous and almost incredible. Your own expenditure, sir, would do much 
to relieve the poor and to educate the children of your neighbourhood. 

Fourthly, smoking and — I am ashamed to write the word — chewing, — and 
again that other word — snuffing, — are scarcely consistent with your character as a 
Christian. Millions of Christians are daily proving to the world that they are 
not disposed to exercise self-denial, — not even in things injurious to themselves 
and to others, — not even though millions of the heathen might be blessed by the 
money thus wasted being expended in the support of missionaries to preach to 
them the Gospel of salvation. 

I have much more I could say, but a word to the icise is enough. — Watchman 
& Reflector. 


We are permitted by the author of the article in a late number of the Biblio- 
theca Sacra, entitled " The Certainty of Success in Preaching," to publish the fol- 
lowing interesting extract from a letter received by him, suggested by the article 
alluded to. 

Four winters ago, a protracted meeting was held in "W. E., in which I was in- 
vited to preach. As the congregation was assembling one evening, a member of 
the church, whose zeal had been aroused by the occasion, went into the house 
and took a seat beside an unconverted man named R. Seeing his opportunity, 
he availed himself of the few moments before the services began, and turned to 
his impenitent friend and spoke to him of the neglected interests of his soul. R., 
being perhaps somewhat ill at ease before, was vexed at this appeal, and testily 
replied, "That is my own business." This answer cut off all further words. And 
besides, the preacher the next moment came in and commenced the exercises. 
The hymn before sermon being concluded, he arose and announced his text, — " If 
thou l)e wise, thou shalt be wise for thyself; but if thou scornest, thou alone shalt 
bear it." His first remark was in these words, " There are some, but not many, 
who, when privately addressed on the subject of religion, make reply that ' this is 
their own business.' And in one respect, — though in one very different from what 
they intend — they speak most important truth." Had a thunderbolt struck the 
house, our unconverted friend would not have been more startled; and the effect 
on his Christian monitor was equally great. The latter, at the close of the service, 
came running to the preacher to tell what had taken place in private, and he 
observed that his friend could never be convinced but that there was some col- 
lusion between him and the preacher, had he not seen that this was plainly im- 
possible. R. was found on the next day among the inquirers; and he has now 
for years been a consistent member of the church. The coincidence this story 
affords, ] cannot but refer to the sovereignty of God. It would be profane to 
refer it to chance. — CunyreyationnHxt. 



APRIL, 1855. 

MirollamotiB MidiB. 


(Continued from page 109.) 

In our previous discussion, we have seen that Abraham became 
the friend of God by faith in Christ, and that his friendship was 
maintained and strengthened by a life of faith and obedience. As 
examples of the latter, we noticed those illustrious acts, which 
were only occasional and extraordinary, and those graces and 
virtues, -which were daily and habitual, and which were manifested 
by the faithful performance of every social duty, and more espe- 
cially his duty as the head of a family. It remains for us to con- 
sider two other fruits of his faith, not less interesting or important 
than the preceding, viz., the habit of devout and earnest prayer, 
and his spiritual and heavenly frame of mind. These two things 
are closely related, and yet sufficiently distinct to require a sepa- 
rate consideration. 


That Abraham was a devout man, is evident, from the most 
cursory perusal of the Holy Scriptures. And, it is no less mani- 
fest, that his devotions were not the offspring of ignorance and 
superstition, like the senseless worship of idolaters ; but of a 
rational and genuine faith in God. His understanding was en- 
lightened and convinced. Yet we must look farther than this for 
the source of his devotional feelings. The faith he possessed, 
though agreeable to reason and founded partly upon it, consisted 
essentially in the communication to his soul of that divine life, 
which, proceeding from God, carried back his affections towards 

VOL. v. — NO. 4. 10 

146 "Friend of God," or, the Excellency of [April. 

hira, and produced a desire to hold communion with him, to pay 
him the homage due to his adorable character, and to seek by 
prayer and supplication those blessings which God alone can 

His devotions (like his faith) were evangelical, i. e., they had 
respect to Christ as their object, or were offered to God the Father 
in his name. This was signified, as we have before noticed, by 
the erection of altars and the offering of sacrifices. Thus, it is 
repeatedly recorded that he " built an altar, and called on the 
name of the Lord." These words, omitting the first clause, are 
employed in the New Testament to describe the worship paid by 
the Primitive Church to the Son of God ; (Acts 9 : 14, and Rom. 
10 : 13), which proves that the prayers of God's people before and 
after Christ's advent, were substantially alike, both having regard 
to the same Saviour, and being rendered acceptable by faith in 
him. The various symbols of worship employed in the tabernacle 
and temple indicated the same thing ; and the several parts of the 
service connected with the offering of sacrifices, especially those 
on the great Day of Atonement, such as the sprinkling of blood, 
and the burning of incense before the mercy-seat, were a striking 
exhibition of this great and fundamental Gospel truth, that "no 
man cometh unto the Father, but by Christ." 

The times and circumstances of his devotions are worthy of 
notice. There can be no doubt that he frequently prayed in 
secret. Such freedom of intercourse with God, as is described in 
a few recorded examples, clearly indicates that he was no stranger 
at the throne of grace. The gift of prayer may be acquired with- 
out a devout spirit ; but it is otherwise with the spirit of prayer, 
which is essentially the same as the spirit of devotion, and the 
latter cannot be maintained without frequent retirement for prayer 
and meditation. It is, therefore, a just inference from the habi- 
tual fervour of Abraham's pious and devout affections, that his 
seasons for private intercourse with God were as frequent and 
regular as the supply of his daily physical wants. 

He prayed also in his family. From the conversation which 
passed between him and Isaac, as they were ascending Mount 
Moriah, it is evident that his son had often witnessed his father's 
devotions, and was familiar with his mode of offering them. And 
from the prayer of his servant Eliezer, as he drew near to Padan- 
aram, it is equally manifest that he had been trained to this duty 
by the precepts and example of a pious and praying master. As 
before intimated, the religious nurture of his children and house- 
hold involved the practice of family devotion, which imparted a 
kind of sacrcdness to his instructions and restraints, and con- 
tributed much towards rendering them salutary and effective. 
Wherever his tent was pitched as a dwelling for his household, 
there ho erected an altar to his God, and offered upon it in their 
presenfee ;nnl for their benefit as well as his own, a sacrifice of 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 147 

prayer and praise. And here his worship was not a mere form, 
as the two cases just alluded to sufficiently prove. In connection 
with the fat of lambs, which sent up its fragrance from his altar, 
the fire of devotion was kept alive on the altar of his heart, and 
his pious aspirations ascending up to God, pleaded successfully for 
the bestowment of covenant blessings on that domestic circle by 
which he was surrounded, and of which he was the head. 

Abraham's offering sacrifices in connection with prayer, rendered 
the service to some extent a public transaction ; and by thus main- 
taining the true religion in the midst of his heathen neighbours, 
he conveyed to them a constant lesson of instruction and admo- 
nition concerning the folly of their worship. And when he 
removed from one place to another, his altar was left standing, as 
a testimony to the inhabitants of the land that he was a wor- 
shipper of Jehovah, and as expressive of his purpose to use it 
again upon his return. Thus his family devotions were adapted 
to promulgate the knowledge of God among the Canaanites, and 
produce a favourable impression on their minds of its value and 
importance ; while his altars left standing, like so many churches, 
in different parts of the country, were silent but significant and 
powerful calls upon them to forsake their idols and engage in the 
service of the Lord. 

He likewise prayed for others, besides his children and house- 
hold. God told Abimelech that he was a prophet and would pray 
for him that he might live. His intercession for Sodom (Gen. 
18 : 23-32) was very remarkable : the consideration of which 
will teach us the import of that pregnant passage in the New 
Testament (Jas. 5 : 16), "the effectual, fervent prayer of a right- 
eous man availeth much." The substance of his prayer, the idea 
which formed its main argument, was that God would exercise 
mercy from a regard to his justice. Assuming that there were 
righteous men in Sodom, whom it would be unjust to destroy, he 
besought God to spare the city for their sake. The logical 
sequence of the plea would seem to have been, not that the wicked 
city should be preserved from destruction, but that before destroy- 
ing it, God would provide a way for the righteous to escape. But, 
instead of this, he employed that circumstance as a reason for 
asking him to spare the guilty. Who can avoid perceiving that 
his mind had been imbued with the precious gospel doctrine of 
vicarious obedience and imputed righteousness ? the grand prin- 
ciple of which, though in an inferior sense, he embodied in this 
prayer. Indeed, he was then addressing, as is generally believed, 
the second person in the adorable Trinity, who appeared to him 
on that occasion, and whose future advent and mediatorial work, 
were then, as in all his other devotions distinctly before his mind. 
He knew that in the scheme of salvation, through the Messiah (a 
scheme he heartily approved and rejoiced in), mercy would be 
exercised in harmony with justice, and that this fact would form 

148 '■'■Friend of God,'" or, the Excellency of [April. 

the prevailing plea of our glorious Intercessor, in behalf of those 
■who should come unto God by him. Hence, in interceding for 
Sodom, though it was only for its deliverance from temporal ruin, 
he did not ask God to spare the city, except in so doing, he would 
make his justice appear as well as his mercy, and that these two 
attributes should harmonize with each other. His pious concern 
which he thus manifested for the honour of God's character was 
pleasing to him, and contributed much towards rendering his inter- 
cession so acceptable and successful. 

In addition to this, the spirit of his prayer was that of profound 
humility and reverence, of great earnestness and importunity, and 
a free and holy boldness. He was humbled and filled with awe in 
view of God's infinite majesty and his own unworthiness ; feelings 
which sinful creatures ought always to possess when they approach 
the throne of Divine grace. He was earnest and importunate 
from his pity and benevolence for wicked men exposed to ruin ; 
and in this he sympathized with the compassion of his heavenly 
Father, who pities sinners even in the act of inflicting judgment. 
He was bold, not as the fruit of self-righteousness, or presumptuous 
confidence, but of that assurance which was produced by the Holy 
Spirit, who encouraged, strengthened, and energized his faith, in- 
dited his petitions, and enabled him to offer them with the freedom 
of a child approaching his parents, or of a friend approaching a 
friend; according to that scripture, " We have not received the 
spirit of bondage again unto fear, but we have received the spirit 
of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba Father !" All these feelings, 
though apparently opposite, are in perfect harmony with each 
other ; and when united together in our devotions, constitute the 
prayer of faith, that to which Chirist makes the promise (John 
14 : 14), " If ye shall ask anything in my name, I will do it ;" and 
again (John 16 : 23), " Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my 
name, he will give it you." We need no stronger proof that 
Abraham's intercession was pleasing to God, than the fact of his 
promising to grant his request, and continuing his promise as long 
as Abraham continued to ask. 

If we are believers in Christ, the God of Abraham is our God ; 
and we may enjoy the same freedom of access to him, and the same 
power to prevail with him in prayer and supplication, as Abraham 
did. In one respect we have the advantage. No altar is required 
but the heart, and no sacrifice but a "broken and contrite spirit." 
(Ps. 51 : 17.) The Lamb of God has been slain once for all, and 
its precious incense, mingled " with the prayers of all saints," is 
continually offered up by our living and interceding Lord before 
the mercy-seat. (Rev. 8 : 3, 4.) On this ground, the Apostle 
exhorts us (Heb. 4 : 14-10) to pray with freedom and confidence, 
assuring us (as his language implies) that we shall obtain the bless- 
ings which we need, or which are needed by others to whom we 
stand related. Here is a privilege of which we may all avail our- 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 149 

selves, whether rich or poor, learned or ignorant, conspicuous or 
obscure, with or without influence among men. The prevalency 
of Abraham's prayers was not owing to his high standing in society, 
but to his faith. The former is valuable on earth, but the latter 
alone has power with God. If we possess the faith of Abraham 
and exercise it in the way of earnest and importunate prayer, our 
desires will reach the heart of One who is " mighty to save," and 
who in answer to our supplications will dispense his favours with a 
"liberal" hand. (Jas. 1:5, 6.) 

If it be asked, how this spirit of prevailing prayer may be main- 
tained ? One requisite is that we pray often. The invitation to 
" come boldly to the throne of grace," is a virtual injunction not to 
make ourselves strangers there, but to come frequently. Concern- 
ing Abraham's practice, there can be no doubt. If he had prayed 
but seldom, he could not have prevailed with God in the manner he 
did. To seek him often does honour to his infinite benevolence, 
and is consequently pleasing to him. It also fits us, if we pray 
aright, for the reception of his favours, by inducing that state of 
mind to which he has promised his blessing. These remarks apply 
especially to our private devotions, but not exclusively. No Chris- 
tian parent can omit family worship (we mean habitually) without 
sin, and he therefore cannot, while neglecting this duty, enjoy the 
Divine favour. One of the most fearful imprecations recorded in 
the Bible, is uttered against the " families that call not on God's 
name ;" and by parity of reasoning the faithful and daily observ- 
ance of household religion, will secure his blessing — it will secure 
it to the family ; but what we mean now is, that the head, the offi- 
ciating priest in such a family, will be greatly aided thereby in 
keeping alive in his soul that spirit of 'prevailing prayer, which is 
one of the highest privileges conferred by God on any of his crea- 
tures in this world. He then, who would possess influence in heaven, 
must draw near to God in secret every day — nay, many times a 
day — either in acts of worship performed by the lips, or in the 
earnest, though unuttered desires of the heart. And if he be a 
parent, he must maintain the daily worship of God in his family ; 
to say nothing of social or public prayer, which, though not re- 
quired in all cases and under all circumstances, yet should be 
engaged in when duty demands, without fear or shame. 

Prayerless reader, be influenced by Abraham's example, to com- 
mence a devout and pious life. He did not feel and act like some 
now, who inquire doubtingly, " What profit shall we have if we 
pray unto him ?" or as some others, who say, since " God is of one 
mind, and none can turn him," what is the necessity or propriety 
of offering him our supplications ? Such sceptical reasoning does 
not proceed from a devout mind, but from one that desires to 
frame an excuse for neglecting religious worship. Unrepented 
sin drives the soul from God ; but when the heart is melted into 
penitence, and the resolution is formed, " I will arise and go to 

lv.O "Friend of God," or, the Excellency of [April. 

iny Father," objections and difficulties which had previously ap- 
peared to stand in the way, are no longer felt. The sinner, now 
" humble and contrite," hastens to make confession of his sins, 
and to seek that favour without which he must perish. "We exhort 
you to go and do likewise. Though your prayer should consist 
solely of the single petition, " God be merciful to me a sinner," if 
offered with a right spirit, it will form the most important era of 
your life. The declaration, "Behold he prayeth," marked the 
beginning of Paul's friendship with God, and of his subsequent 
career of usefulness to the Church. A similar privilege is offered 
to you. 

Abraham's heavenly frame of mind. 

This is indicated by Paul in the following words : " By faith he 
sojourned in the land of promise as in a strange country, dwelling 
in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the 
same promise. For he looked for a city which hath foundations, 
whose builder and maker is God." (Heb. 11 : 9, 10.) The import 
of this passage may be briefly expressed in the statement that 
Abraham did not go to Canaan, nor continue to abide there, for 
the sake of pecuniary gain, or any other worldly advantage ; but 
on account of those spiritual blessings which God promised to 
confer upon him and his descendants through the Messiah, by 
faith in whom he looked beyond and above all earthly possessions 
to that heavenly inheritance of which Canaan was a type. Hence 
he took no care to acquire a title to the country, either by con- 
quest, treaty, or purchase. He did not own a foot of its soil, ex- 
cept a small parcel which he purchased as a burying-place for his 
deceased wife. Nor does it appear that he aimed to gain a title 
for his posterity by right through him of prior possession, a right 
which they might plead at a subsequent time. They never at any 
period offered such a plea, nor did they need it. That land be- 
longed to the Lord, and he could dispose of it at his pleasure, 
either to give or take away. He promised it to Abraham and his 
seed, and his faith required no further security. This promise 
was preserved in the memories of his descendants ; and was occa- 
sionally repeated by God himself, particularly to Moses and 
Joshua, to whom the original grant was renewed, and who received 
a command to enter in and take possession. Abraham's faith, 
therefore, rested upon God from day to day to bestow upon him 
and continue to him the needful supplies of temporal good; but 
all with subordination to heavenly things, of which he had so high 
an appreciation in comparison with those of this world, that he re- 
sided in Canaan with the feelings of a stranger and pilgrim rather 
than a proprietor, looking by faith and directing his daily medita- 
tions and affections to his future and eternal home in heaven. 

Abraham's victory over the world illustrated the power and 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 151 

excellence of his faith, in a manner not less acceptable to God, 
than by any other of its acts. To subdue the worldly and grovel- 
ling tendencies of our fallen nature, and to exercise those elevated 
and ethereal affections which draw the soul habitually near to God 
and heavenly things, are no small attainments. They indicate 
not only the existence of a genuine faith, but its approach towards 
maturity. Says an inspired apostle, " This is the victory that 
overcometh the world, even our faith," implying both the magni- 
tude of the achievement, and the Divine efficacy of that faith by 
which it is accomplished. A mere philosopher may reason wisely 
concerning the vanity of the world, but cannot by this process 
alone gain the victory over it. He may also adopt correct notions 
concerning a future state, and even entertain in his own mind an 
expectation of immortality, and yet continue under the dominion 
of the world. This can be overcome by faith alone, — faith in the 
heart as well as in the understanding, — that faith which "is the 
substance of things hoped for," i. e., which makes the bliss pro- 
mised in God's word and expected by us a present reality ; not 
only by the assurance which faith gives us of its final possession, 
but by imbuing our affections so fully and completely with celes- 
tial objects, that we do not simply hope to enjoy them hereafter, 
but we enjoy them now. Such a faith as this will render every 
earthly attraction comparatively insignificant and worthless. And 
here was the secret of Abraham's heavenly frame of mind, and 
his deadness to worldly things. He " desired a better country, 
that is an heavenly," and under the influence of this desire he 
lived as a "stranger and pilgrim on the earth." "Wherefore, 
God was not ashamed to be called his God," nor to call him his 

Christian reader ! have you admired those acts of Abraham's 
faith which we have previously noticed, and felt an earnest desire 
to imitate him? Endeavour also to obtain that spirituality of 
mind, which was the ripe fruit, the crowning excellence of his 
faith. We do not ask you to imitate him literally in his procedure 
in Canaan with regard to property. There was a special reason 
for this, which does not apply to us. It is not wrong for Chris- 
tians to own real estate, or to secure it by a good and legal title. 
But the spirit of his example is binding upon believers, under all 
circumstances, and in all ages of the world. It was the same 
spirit which is so often enjoined in the New Testament. " Be not 
conformed to this world ; but be ye transformed by the renewing 
of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good and accep- 
table and perfect will of God." "If ye then be risen with Christ, 
seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the 
right hand of God. Set your affections on things above, not on 
things on the earth." When you first received the Lord Jesus 
by faith, and obtained "redemption through his blood, the for- 
giveness of sins," were not your thoughts directed so much towards 

152 The late Rev. Dr. Spencer. [April 

him, that you almost lost sight of other objects ? And why should 
you not have similar feelings now ? Are the Saviour's excellen- 
cies less than they were then ? Or, has your faith become so 
weak, and are you "following him so far off," that his charms are 
not as fully discerned as formerly ? Draw near to the place 
where he dwells, and "see the king in his beauty." And as you 
feast your admiring vision upon his wonderful glory, and the glo- 
rious retinue of saints and angels who surround his throne and 
minister in his temple, with the expectation too of becoming ere 
long one of that blessed company, tell me, whether it is not worse 
than foolish to be so constantly engrossed with this world, as to 
leave only a small space for heavenly contemplation. If such a 
sight as this does not cure a worldly spirit, the disease must be 
radical, and you have need to seek anew an interest in Christ and 
a hope of heaven. J. W. 

(To be continued.) 


A FEW words of tribute to departed worth, may not be without 
interest. Dr. Spencer sleeps in his grave, but his thoughts live 
with renovated life, — they have the life death gives. Truths that 
seemed shadowy, have now shape, colour, presence, — a life in 
them. His last obsequies deepen them. The solemn spectacle of 
the late Preacher, lying mute and cold, a corpse in his coffin, 
through the night, in the very church of which he was late the 
quickening voice, give emphasis to them. A spectator, looking in 
upon that scene, must have felt the contagion of the place, — its 
deep stillness, — its gloomy light, — its black drapery, — its deserted 
aisles, — the solitude and spell of midnight, under such circum- 
stances, and the mind open as never before, to the lessons of the 
living lip. The awe in the atmosphere seemed to dilate every 
sense and nerve, while you could imagine the very pillars looking 
instinct with life, under the enchantment. Here, proud Death, 
upon his throne, seemed to sit in state, over his spoil, and take 
the sacrifice ; and while you look on, amidst fits and flashes of 
painful thought, the spirit seems to flutter against the bars of its 
own doom, and soften to instruction. Truths, once spoken by 
him, are now the nectar of life out of the golden vessels of the 
sanctuary. Certainly, no hour amidst the ashes of the ancient 
dead — bard, patriot, and martyr, the grave of grandeur, — could 
yield a deeper experience. I may, therefore, be excused alluding 
to an event — so suggestive and historic an event. 

I will now venture a few thoughts on Dr. Spencer, as a 
Preacher, and select some one occasion. I will take that of 
the late inauguration of the Rev. Mr. Vandyke. It Mas on 

1855.] The late Rev. Dr. Spencer. 153 

a stormy night, but there was a large audience. Dr. Spencer 
sat in the midst of clergymen on either side, — the leading 
figure in the group. His face, expansive, pale, thoughtful, the 
opening of the lip, slightly now and then, chasing the melan- 
choly hue from the countenance, giving little presage of the bril- 
liant power that afterwards shone out, while his massive frame, 
and statue-like solitariness, except, now and then, a bend forward, 
as if in chase of a thought, gave no note of the cpaiver and life of 
which it was susceptible in every muscle, when this grave and 
solemn bust was agitated from the life within. The oblique rays 
of light gave a gloomy shade to the whole expression, but was 
an omen of an enemy to something — in ambush. Neither the 
music, or the voices, or the song, that swelled through the vault 
in harmonies affected him, or outside influences. But presently 
a change came over him, and that inert body began to move, from 
emotions and hidden energies ; that wan countenance to be lighted 
up, look radiant from the lustre of thought. The discourse was 
on the truth of Christianity. The Preacher rose to it in full pos- 
session of himself; and now even that sickly frame began to 
respond to the flux and wane of the higher and inner life, and the 
weight of the theme. As this opened, it took on a grandeur of 
breadth and depth that carried captive the mind. The scoffer 
must have been thrilled with his earnestness ; the infidel reasoners 
staggered with his argument, and struck with the majesty of 
manner, in speaking truth ; while the gay and thoughtless must 
have been lifted out of the coil of earthly entanglements, for the 
time, and drawn upward by the vision. Light is the law for the 
eye, and moral truth is as surely so for the soul, — a beautiful 
earnest of but one unique original for both. I should have loved 
to have watched its effect on leading minds, from various tribes of 
men, who had just embraced the Gospel, — a chief, from polar 
solitudes, an oriental priest, a subtle Brahmin, a king, from the 
wild forests of Africa, an Arab, from the depths of his desert, — 
if the thoughts could have reached them in their own tongue. 
They must hold their breath with wonder, when, for the first time, 
such truths are opened on them, or bow prostrate in adoration. 
There is a spirit in the storm, there is a spirit that speaks in the 
paintings of genius, and history, and the mute marble, but there 
is no breath so vital as that which comes out of divine truth, 
uttered under the pressure of its grandeur and responsibility. 
The scene of a soul, struggling to express the great thought of 
God, concerning him, laden with their weight, is the sublimest 
speech on earth. Dr. Spencer showed himself a master. He 
skilfully turned the light of reason on the dreary regions of infi- 
delity, that polar winter of the soul, and the huge avalanches 
against the Christian faith dissolved by their own law. 

Let me detail. You have before you the outline of a noble 
figure. You at once see he disregards the graces of action, and 

154 The late Rev. Dr. Spencer. [April. 

proudly disdains the artifices of rhetoric and the models of the 
schools. Even in repose, you see there is metal in the man, — a con- 
scious power. The lift of the eye, well-arched on you, and as sud- 
denly averted, reminds you of the look of the lion, loftily turned 
to you in snatched glances. His extreme paleness, for a moment, 
gives way to the kindling spirit and fever of glowing thoughts. The 
lines of the countenance vibrate like the chords of a harp, swept 
by invisible influence — the voice, full of tone, only reined in, like a 
swift courser, by a slight impediment of speech, — while a chaste en- 
thusiasm fuses and burnishes, as it were, the whole material vehicle. 

Now was the grapple with infidelity ; now power opens — each 
faculty plays its part. By turns philosophy, learning, logic, 
history unfold their treasures, and light streams from every de- 
partment. But the analytic, the sharp, keen, discriminating pro- 
perty, showed the great master of this art. Intricate and complex 
subtleties and sophisms are put to the test, solved to their ori- 
ginal elements by a beautiful analysis and certainty, showing his 
clear, acute, piercing perception of the true and the false. Error, 
like a poison in the cup, is held to view, in all its deadly nature 
and ghastly bearings ; and no artifice eludes the searching eye of 
his intellect. 

When assailing fraud and cheat, when the naked sword of truth 
is uplifted to strike down imposture, a gleam of irony is visible on 
the features, as if it was too weak for an enemy. Its gossamer 
webs are blown to the winds ; its fabric, a body of lies and illu- 
sions, is laid bare and reduced to a grim phantom of morbid minds. 
The edge of his instrument is never turned. He never fights with 
foils ; he glitters with weapons, not with words. Dr. Spencer is 
never out of sight, on stormy and cloudy heights. Shots and 
shafts of electric brightness and force, are not so much his ; he 
docs not overwhelm, but illuminate. The play or sparkle of wit 
or humour in the pulpit, I never saw. The path he travels leaves 
an odour and a light behind him. It is a level, not a rugged and 
adventurous steep. To explore and test the known, rather than the 
speculative. No sudden plunges into the dark. To shiver the base- 
less pillars of deceit, rather than to build. To meet known demands 
— robustness, growth, stature in virtues of character — to quicken 
the digestive forces of the mind, — to this end, rather than to try 
new experiments. His style, his diction — often elevated, never 
low ; his imagery chaste, simple, beautiful, and sometimes grand. 
The booming of sounds was not his ; the rhythism of the soul, and 
not the music of the instrument so much, was the aim. It was 
himself, his own beliefs, his own consciousness, as it were, that 
you saw wrought, ingrained, in everything ; and not a hired or 
venal eloquence, or even a profession. Office stood behind the 
work, to let truth stand by itself and shine by its own lustre. 
This is a proud point of eminence. Force, here, transmits its 
energy downwards through all degrees below. In religion it is a 

1855.] Philadelphia Merchants. 155 

law that reaches the profounclest depths of our moral being, — one 
being in sincere earnest for another, when all other means fail. 
It crushes the criticisms of infidel minds to dust, and often the 
best solution of hard problems. He sustained it ; he took his 
talents, and his learning, and his strength, and went down with 
them to the lower, and poor, and dark, to lift them up into a 
higher sphere of life — the poorest being he regarded, an atom or 
an orb, all alike to God. This is the stoop of greatness ; this is 
the supreme law of grandeur ; it will adorn the brightest annals. 
Dr. Spencer was deeply afflicted, but its strokes fell upon him not 
like the blow of lightning ; but strokes from the hands of the 
great Artist, to give shape, and colours, and lineaments to the 
soul for its final glory. It was a golden link in the chain of pur- 
poses, and he bowed submissive as a child; and became great, by 
being little ; high, by going low. Peace to his slumbers till the 
last morning wakes him to glory everlasting. 

J. W., Brooklyn. 


That the late extraordinary and protracted stringency in the 
financial world should have made so little impression upon the 
commercial interests of this city, can be explained only by a re- 
ference to the proverbial integrity of the Philadelphia merchants. 
This is no empty compliment, got up for the occasion. The high 
mercantile reputation of this city has long been established on an 
impregnable basis. If there be a witness among ourselves, who is 
competent to speak on this subject, it is that great Lawyer whose 
forensic abilities and private virtues have for half a century shed 
so much lustre on the Philadelphia Bar, and whose fame belongs, 
not to our city or commonwealth, but to the Union. This is his 
testimony : " In the course of an active professional life, I had 
constant opportunities to observe how vastly the cases of good 
faith among merchants and men of business in this city, outnum- 
bered the cases of an opposite description, where at the same time 
there was neither formal security, nor competent proof to insure 
fidelity. I should say, the proportion was greater than a thou- 
sand to one."f If it has fallen to the lot of any body of merchants, 
in any age or country, to have a loftier eulogy than this pronounced 
upon them, the case has escaped my observation. Nor is it by 

* These remarks on " Philadelphia Merchants," are taken from an interesting 
Address, recently delivered by the Rev. H. A. Boardman, DJ)., on the anniversary 
of "The Merchants' Fund.'" — Ed. 

t The Hon. Horace Binnet. 

156 Philadelphia Merchants. [April. 

any means a mere local and unsupported opinion. The sentiment 
here expressed, finds a cordial response among foreign manufactu- 
rers, and throughout those portions of our own country which have 
their trading relations with this city. The feeling all over the 
South and the West., is, that the merchants of Philadelphia, as a 
body, are upright and straightforward men — men who use words 
in their common signification, and whose goods answer to the 
labels. And this conviction it is, even more than your costly 
canals and railroads, which brings them here to make their pur- 
chases, and which secures your acknowledged control of the 
South-Western business. Let Philadelphia lose her hereditary 
character for old-fashioned honesty, and the bales and boxes 
which every spring and autumn make it so difficult for a pedes- 
trian to thread his way along Market Street, will gradually 
dwindle into very trivial obstructions. Your real strength lies in 
your integrity ; and of that, no rivalry can deprive you. 

There is, I am aware, one passage in our history, which is often 
cited by unfriendly writers, in derogation of these views : I refer 
to the failure of the " United States Bank." It may be presump- 
tuous to venture a passing remark upon a subject which it would 
require volumes to discuss. But there is one aspect of this 
question, which, though suggested, has perhaps never been dis- 
tinctly brought out, and which is too vital to the topic now under 
consideration, to be omitted. Disastrous as was the failure of the 
United States Bank, it differed in one most important particular 
from the greater part of these catastrophes of a more recent date. 
The mismanagement which destroyed this institution, originated 
in errors of judgment, not in motives of private cupidity. That 
its officers and directors committed fatal and censurable mistakes, 
is admitted on all hands ; but that they did what they honestly 
believed would promote the interests of the stockholders and the 
public convenience, has never been disproved, if, indeed, it has 
ever been called in question. Had they been swayed by mer- 
cenary motives, they had the amplest opportunity for enriching 
themselves. That they did not do this, affords the strongest pos- 
sible presumption that they did not mean to do it. The calm 
judgment of posterity may discredit their wisdom : is it unreason- 
able to presume that it will exonerate their intentions ? This is 
thrown out, with a view of repelling the imputations cast upon 
our city, in consequence of that failure. Whatever validity the 
plea may have, the injustice of holding the mercantile interest of 
this city responsible for the evils which grew out of this event, is 
palpable and flagrant. The commercial reputation of Philadelphia 
was neither made by the United States Bank, nor marred by its 
overthrow. It had grown to a vigorous maturity before that In- 
stitution was chartered, and the convulsions in which the Bank 
expired, did far more to illustrate its stability than to sully its 

1855.] Philadelphia Merchants. 157 

The commercial integrity of our metropolis, I have said, is not 
a thing of yesterday. A philosophic annalist will seek its origin 
in the character of the men who established this commonwealth. 
And he must be wilfully blind, who does not detect the germ of it, 
in that immortal transaction, which took place under the great 
Elm Tree in Kensington. "We meet," said William Penn to 
the Indian sachems, " on the broad pathway of good faith and 
good will ; no advantage shall be taken on either side, but all shall 
be openness and love. I will not call you children, for parents 
sometimes chide their children too severely; nor brothers only, for 
brothers differ. The friendship between me and you I will not 
compare to a chain, for that the rains might rust, or a falling tree 
might break. We are the same as if one man's body were to be 
divided into two parts ; we are all one flesh and blood." Thus 
was that famous Treaty made, of which Voltaire justly said, "It 
was never sworn to, and never broken." In his intercourse both 
with the natives and the colonists, Penn adhered to the apothegm 
he uttered, when that iniquitous trial was in progress, which 
ended in his being sent to Newgate : " I prefer the honestly 
simple, to the ingeniously wicked." And well did the red men 
requite his confidence ; for not a drop of Quaker blood was ever 
shed by an Indian. Our city, then, was born in righteousness. 
Thanks, under a benign Providence, to the primitive Quaker colo- 
nists, they laid its foundations in truth, and peace, and honesty. 
It must in candour be added, that their descendants have proved 
themselves worthy of such an ancestry. It has been their aim 
to make and keep Philadelphia what William Penn designed it 
should be. Like all other modern cities, it has experienced 
seasons of great financial perplexity and distress. And it would 
be going too far to say, that nothing has ever occurred at these 
crises, to awaken solicitude as to its commercial integrity. But I 
may say, that no class of men amongst us have been more jealous 
for the honour of the city, than our Quaker merchants ; and that 
whenever the maxims engraved upon our ancient walls have begun 
to rust, these descendants of the early builders have been among 
the first to brush away the mould, and, with pious care, retouch 
the sacred inscriptions. One of them, a patriarch of more than 
fourscore, has lately gone down to an honoured grave, amidst the 
regrets of this whole community. It is a great blessing, Gentle- 
men, to have had before you for perhaps the entire period of your 
business-lives, such an exemplar of the mercantile and social vir- 
tues, as Thomas P. Cope. It is no disparagement to the living 
to say, that his name was one which came spontaneously to every 
lip, when requisition was made for a genuine Philadelphia mer- 
chant. Will you indulge me in a little anecdote, which may illus- 
trate a single trait of his character. A person highly recom- 
mended, approached him one day, and invited him to embark in a 
certain joint-stock enterprise. In a careful exposition of the 

158 Lines for a Sabbath School Anniversary. [April. 

matter, he made it appear that the scheme was likely to succeed, 
and that the stock would instantly run up to a liberal premium, 
on being put into the market. " Well," said Mr. Cope, " I am 
satisfied on that point ; I believe it would be as thou sayest. But 
what will be the real value of the stock?" "Why, as to that," 
answered the speculator, " I cannot say (implying by his manner 
what he thought) ; but that is of no moment, for all we have to 
do, is to sell out and make our thirty or forty per cent, profit." 
" I'll have nothing to do with it : I'll have nothing to do with it !" 
was the prompt and indignant reply of this incorruptible mer- 
chant. "And from that day," he used to say, in relating the 
occurrence, " I marked that man, and shunned all transactions 
with him." This was the integrity of Thomas P. Cope. And to 
men of kindred principles with himself, both among the dead and 
the living, is Philadelphia mainly indebted, under God, for her 
enviable commercial reputation. 

H. A. B. 


Friend of Sinners ! Children's Friend I 

Low before thy throne we bend ; 

Fain our hearts would raise a song 

Which to angel harps belong : 

We would let hosannas ring, 

To our Saviour, Prince, and King : 

All the mercies of our days, 

Crowd our thoughts and hymn thy praise. 

Saviour ! thou hast taught our youth, 
In the oracles of truth ; 
Thou hast opened blinded eyes, 
To behold thee in the skies : 
Thine the power to change the heart ! 
Blessed Lord I thy love impart ; 
Lead us by constraining grace, 
In thy fear, to seek thy face. 

May the Scriptures of thy truth, 
Sanctify and save our youth ; 
May the precepts they afford, 
Bind us firmly to the Lord : 
Think we of thy life or death, 
Praise should swell our infant breath : 
Then our thankful hearts we raise, 
In adoring, grateful praise. 

In thy life, Ihy works of love, 
Teach us thou wert from above; 
In thy death, by faith we see, 
Saving mercy, full, and free. 
Having in these truths been taught, 
May we serve thee as we ought ; 

1855.] Dr. Green's Bible Class at Nassau Hall. 159 

Consecrate to thee our days, 
Live as records of thy praise. 

Oh, how many children bands, 
Still in distant, foreign lands, 
In the darkest night remain ; 
Love their darkness — hug their chain ; 
Gracious Lord ! wilt thou in love, 
Send thy message from above, 
Till the language of the skies, 
From earth's farthest regions rise. 

Father ! Son ! and Spirit ! three ! 
Undivided Trinity ! 
Hear our fervent prayers, and praise, 
Seal us thine through endless days. 



We have obtained, through the kindness of James S. Green, Esq., of Princeton, 
N. J., the following statements of his father on a very interesting topic. Mr. Green 
writes to us : — 

"I enclose a copy of a letter written by my father to the Rev. Dr. Carnahan in 
answer to one, inquiring as to the study of the Scriptures in the College of New Jersey. 
It has occurred to me, that it would be acceptable to some of the readers of the Pres- 
byterian Magazine. 

"Very respectfully and truly yours, 

"James S. Green." 

We are much indebted to Mr. Green for this, and other favours, conferred on the 
Presbyterian Magazine. Ed. 


Philadelphia, October 18th, 1830. 

Reverend and dear Sir : — 

Your communication of the 16th inst. was received this morning; 
and I believe that I can most readily and fully comply with your 
request, by writing a short narrative. 

It was the usage in my father's family, as long as I was a 
member of it, that a part of the duty of the elder branches, on the 
Sabbath, should consist of preparing for an examination in the 
evening by my father, of five chapters of the Bible. To this usage 
I was subject for a number of years. I became a tutor in the col- 
lege at Princeton in the fall of 1783, immediately after taking my 
first degree ; and in the month of December of that year, Dr. 
Witherspoon sailed for Britain, to solicit donations for the College, 
leaving the institution under the government and instruction of 
Dr. Smith, and two tutors, — a Mr. Beach and myself. Dr. Smith 
immediately organized a system of religious instruction for the 
College on the Lord's day ; or rather, he took the senior class to 

160 Dr. Green's Bible Class at Nassau Hall. [April. 

himself, and gave the other classes to the tutors, to instruct as they 
should think best, after consulting with him. My allotment was 
the charge of the two lower classes, — the Sophomore and Fresh- 
men. I immediately determined that I would subject them to the 
domestic usage with which I had been familiar ; and of which I 
then felt, as I feel to this hour, the beneficial effects. This I ac- 
cordingly did : — I required every member of my classes to commit 
accurately to memory a catechism ; leaving it to them, or their 
parents, to select their own, as they pleased : and the exercises of 
every Sabbath, after attending public worship in the morning, con- 
sisted of repeating the catechisms, and being examined on five 
chapters of the Bible, which were assigned a week before. This 
system I commenced in the winter of 1784, and continued it while I 
remained connected with the College, as tutor and professor. 

When I was called to the presidency of the College, in the 
autumn of 1812, one of my first cares was to devise a system of 
religious instruction for the whole Institution ; and I determined 
that a part of it should consist of the very course which I had 
pursued with the two lower classes, when I was a tutor, — other ad- 
ditional exercises being required of the two higher classes. I took 
the senior class to myself, assigned the junior to Mr. Slack, the 
Sophomore to Mr. Lindsly, and the Freshman to Mr. Clark. But 
it was soon rumoured that I added at the Bible recitations which 
I heard, expositions and illustrations by maps and drawings of 
which the classes inferior to the senior were deprived. It was Mr. 
Lindsly, I recollect, who first stated to me (what really had not 
occurred to me before), that there would be no more labour in 
hearing the whole College than in hearing a single class ; and that 
the students generally and the officers also, might be gratified or 
benefited, by hearing the expositions, illustrations, and applica- 
tions, which had hitherto been confined to the seniors. I yielded 
without hesitation to his suggestions, and before the end of the year 
1812, the whole College was examined by myself and addressed 
afterwards on the topics which were presented by the portion of 
the Sacred Scriptures previously recited. This system was con- 
tinued till I left the Institution in the autumm of 1822. My plan 
for the study of the Bible was as follows : 1. History. 2. Doc- 
trine. 3. Prophecy. 4. Devotion and morals. And it took four 
years to go over the whole, and in that space the whole was gone 
over. I took the entire historical part of the Bible, both of the Old 
and New Testaments, because this was easiest to remember and 
recite. For doctrine, I took only the Epistle to the Galatians ; for 
prophecy, only the book of Daniel ; and for devotion and morals, 
a part of the Psalms and Proverbs. In the ten years of my presi- 
dency, I went twice over this ground entirely, and about half over 
it in a third course. I made laborious preparation for the service; 
but it was a delightful one, and one from which I reaped benefit to 
myself, as well as imparted it to others. 

1855.] Dr. Green s Bible Glass at Nassau Hall. 161 

In the close of the year 1814, and beginning of 1815, we were 
favoured with a very remarkable and general revival of religion in 
the College. For some months, there was not, I believe, a prayer- 
less room or study in the whole college edifice. An account of this 
revival was drawn up by myself, and laid before the Board of 
Trustees, at their spring meeting in 1815. Contrary to my ex- 
pectation and wishes, they ordered it to be printed. It was ac- 
cordingly printed ; and by some means, I know not how, it found 
its way to Britain, and was reprinted in the Christian Observer, for 
the month of October, 1815. The editors of that work commended 
the measures which led to the revival, and even recommended them 
for imitation in the English Universities ; and yet, they pretty 
severely condemned the publication, as likely to be injurious to the 
young converts. In this they entirely accorded with my opinion. 
In my narrative of the revival, I assigned the apparent instru- 
mental causes, from which I extract the following sentences : 

" Its more immediate causes appear to have been these. First 
and chiefly, the study of the Holy Scriptures, accompanied with 
comments on the portion read, and a practical application of the 
leading truths contained in it. God has remarkably honoured 
and blessed his own word. Strange as it may seem, this study of 
the Bible has always been a favourite one among the youth of the 
College, not excepting the most gay and dissipated. Pains indeed 
have been taken to render it interesting ; but the degree in which 
it has been so, has been truly surprising," — and in a note it is said, 
"For more than two years the Holy Scriptures had been made 
the subject of as regular study and examination as the classics, the 
mathematics, or philosophy. The afternoon of the Lord's day was 
appropriated uniformly to the recitation of a certain number of 
students, taken promiscuously (for all were required to be pre- 
pared) on five chapters, assigned to them the preceding week. The 
recitation was always accompanied with expositions, critical re- 
marks, and a practical application. The exercise was concluded 
with prayer and singing, and was considered as the afternoon reli- 
gious exercise of College. In the morning, public worship in usual 
form was celebrated." 

I would have saved myself the trouble of making these extracts 
from the Christian Observer, by sending you a copy of the narrative 
as printed in this city, but I have lately lost the only copy I had. 
In my volume of printed Baccalaureate sermons, which my son 
James can let you have, at page 88, there is a short statement in 
regard to this subject, and reference to a long note at the end of 
the volume, in which I have discussed its importance. After all 
this publicity, I confess I was not a little surprised to find, in the 
Boston Recorder, about three years ago, if I rightly remember, a 
great puff in praise of some New England college, as having taken 
the lead in introducing the regular study of the Bible, — a thing 
never done before, but which it was hoped would be universally 

VOL. V. — NO. 4. 11 

162 A Layman 8 Brief Analysis of Calvinism. [April. 

imitated. I immediately wrote to the editors, and gave them the 
substance of the narrative which I have now given you, and re- 
quested that it might be published. It was accordingly published, 
with my name. A feeble attempt was afterwards made, to show 
that the New England plan was more systematic than mine. But 
nothing on the subject has appeared in the Recorder since, although 
communications relative to it were solicited by the editor. But 
some folks have a talent of "remembering to forget;" and I sup- 
pose from what your letter states, that my last publication in the 
Recorder, like all that had preceded it, has been forgotten. New 
England must be the radiating point of all that is excellent, both 
in religion and in science. If I had foreseen that my narrative 
would have extended to a third folio page, I would not have called 
it, at setting out, a short one. It is at your service, written, as it 
has truly been, currente calamo. 

Very respectfully yours, 

A. Green. 

P. S. I never heard a candidate for licensure before a presby- 
tery, who could answer questions on the Bible with as much readi- 
ness and propriety, as was done by the majority of my senior 
classes at all their examinations. I verily believe that the whole 
system of Bible class instruction, now so prevalent, may be traced 
to my father's family. I not only practised it while a tutor, but 
afterwards as a pastor ; and as far as I know, it was not practised 
beyond the College till some time after I introduced it there in 
1812. I believe it spread from Nassau Hall as its central point. 
I suppose, however, that New England will claim this among other 
good things. 

The Reverend Doctor James Carnahan, 
Princeton, New Jersey. 


The peculiar doctrines of the cross have ever been a stumbling- 
block to the Jew, and foolishness to the Greek. This fact is at- 
tested, not only by God himself, but by the actual history of man- 
kind. Its radical cause is to be sought in that unholy opposition 
of heart against God, which cleaves to fallen man, and that spiri- 
tual blindness, which renders him insensible to the excellence and 
glory of holiness. " The natural man recciveth not the things of 
the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him." That is, so 
long as man continues under the governing influence of his fallen 
nature, he can have no perception of the beauty, fitness, and excel- 
lency, in all its parts and relations, of the plan of salvation by 
Jesus Christ ; nor will he ever have till enlightened by the Holy 

1855.] A Layman s Brief Analysis of Calvinism. 163 

Spirit. While, therefore, the ambassador of Christ should avoid 
giving needless offence, in the delivery of his message, he will not 
be surprised that his faithful labours, even when actuated by love, 
should so often be the occasion of opposition and aspersion. It 
may also deserve a passing remark, that those doctrines, against 
which the human heart does not reluctate, cannot be the pure doc- 
trines of the cross. 

Though it always has been, and always will be, true, that the 
unregenerate man will dislike the humbling truths of the Gospel, it 
is also true that they have often met with opposition from the real, 
but imperfect followers of Christ. This is a cause for deep regret, 
which, if possible, should be removed. Doubtless the opposition of 
Christians to any of the true doctrines of the Gospel, arises princi- 
pally, if not wholly, from misconception of their nature ; and this 
arises from an imperfect study of first principles; the misleading 
influence of systems partially true; and sometimes, perhaps, from 
the obscurity or imperfection of terms in true systems ; or from 
the unhappy spirit manifested in their defence. So far as divi- 
sion and strife are due to any of the above causes, it is incumbent 
on the friends of truth to seek their removal by all proper means. 

It would seem, the principal doctrines of the Gospel may be 
stated in the form of consecutive propositions. By this means, the 
aid which analysis may afford, is applied to an important end ; 
that of simplifying divine truth, if the expression may be allowed. 
But there is another advantage attending this method, less obvious, 
indeed, but of no small consequence. I will endeavour to state it. 

In every system, whether of Theology, or of natural or moral 
science, each particular truth, each principle or element belonging 
to the system, may be contemplated by itself alone, or in con- 
nection with its associated truths; it may be regarded, isolated and 
apart from any other principle, or as, linked with its cognate and 
related principles, forming one complex and harmonious whole ; it 
may, in short, be viewed absolutely or relatively. Now it needs 
but little reflection to convince one of the importance of consider- 
ing great religious truths in their relations. A doctrine which, 
when regarded absolutely and apart from others, presents to the 
mind repulsive features, when put in its place, as related to some 
other truths, at once assumes a totally different aspect. Grand 
and sublime it will still appear, as everything does that relates to 
God, but the difficulties and objections in the mind of the observer, 
if he is a true disciple in the school of Christ, are relieved. 

Without further preface, I will proceed to state in order, a few 
propositions, fairly deducible from the sacred word. These points 
comprise the principal parts of the divine administration, in rela- 
tion to our race, viewed as fallen ; — and we must always bear 
in mind, that the Gospel regards man a9 fallen, helpless, con- 
demned. Christianity is a religion for none but sinners. 

164 A Layman's Brief Analysis of Calvinism. [April. 

Our first proposition is, — All mankind, since the fall, are guilty 
in the sight of God, and under condemnation by his holy law; 
from which, without some supernatural provision, they can never 

2. By the obedience and suffering of the Lord Jesus Christ, a 
provision has been made, infinite in value, and perfectly adapted 
to the wants of fallen man, which is to be freely offered to all, on 
condition of faith in Jesus Christ, and repentance toward God. 

3. Notwithstanding this gracious provision, such is the spiritual 
blindness of the natural man, and such his unholy opposition to 
God, that without the special work of the Holy Spirit, not one of 
the guilty race of Adam would ever avail himself of the offered 

4. God, who is infinite in knowledge and power, and "who hath 
mercy in whom he will have mercy," having promised that his 
eternal Son Jesus Christ our Saviour " should see of the travail of 
his soul and be satisfied," hath, in accordance therewith, eternally 
purposed, that a large part of mankind should accept the terms of 
the Gospel, and receive the full benefit of the atonement wrought 
by Christ, by its application to them through the agency of the 
Holy Spirit. 

5. In pursuance of God's eternal purpose, and his covenant en- 
gagement with his Son, the free Spirit, having intimate access 
to the soul of man, doth, in a way of mere favour, and in the 
exercise of holy sovereignty, and not at all on the ground of 
foreseen good works and faith, or either of them, remove the 
spiritual blindness, and subdue the unholy opposition, of those 
whom God hath chosen to salvation ; disposing them to embrace 
the Saviour in all his offices, as he is offered in the Gospel ; yet so 
that they act most freely, being made willing in the day of God's 
power ; and all to the praise of his glorious grace. 

6. Those of mankind whom the Holy Spirit effectually calls 
into the kingdom of grace on earth, He will infallibly keep to the 
kingdom of glory in heaven ; enabling them constantly to have 
faith in Jesus Christ, and as the fruit and evidence thereof, to pro- 
duce corresponding good works, yet not wholly perfect in this life ; 
and all to the praise of his glorious grace. 

7. The rest of mankind God was pleased, according to the 
counsel of his own will, to leave, as he might justly have left all, 
to pursue their own chosen way of sin and folly ; and to appoint 
them to dishonour and wrath, in a way of righteous retribution for 
their sin to the praise of his glorious justice. 

Such for substance are the doctrines of grace, otherwise Cal- 
vinism, — that ill-understood and much-abused system. We invite 
its opponents to come candidly to its examination. It challenges 
scrutiny. It fears no honest and manly inquisition. Apply the 
test. Scan it by the sacred word. He who pens these lines feels 
an undying conviction, that the system indicated in the above 
scries of propositions is fully within the verge of revealed truth. 

1855.] . The Experience of a Step-mother. 165 

Assailed, libelled, and caricatured, it has been, and may continue 
to be, but it will always find a lodgment in the hearts of God's 
people ; living, they will confess it, in the dungeon or at the stake, 
if need be ; dying, they will embrace it, as the solace of their souls, 
the stay and anchor of their hopes. 
I close with a few remarks : — 

1. What is called Calvinism, might as well have been called 
Paulism ; for the great apostle" first taught it logically and by 
system, as even learned Infidels have admitted, Gibbon, for in- 
stance. But we are not ashamed of its name. Calvin, of all the 
reformers, came nearest the sacred fount of truth, saw it with the 
clearest vision, and bowed before it most reverently. Let his 
name be ever linked with that system of doctrine he so clearly 
saw, so ardently loved, so ably defended, and so consistently 

2. Calvinism is not what its opponents have charged it to be. Its 
Christian Predestination is not heathen Fatalism ; it does not re- 
gard men as mere passive instruments, but as possessed of reason 
and conscience ; it does not make God an arbitrary despot, but a 
gracious and holy sovereign. 

3. Calvinism, while it bows to the deep mysteries that cluster 
around the cross, and would not irreverently seek to lift the veil 
from what God has hidden in the awful depths of his own nature, 
is beset with no difficulties, which do not press with equal weight 
against any other scheme ; with this singular advantage, that, 
whereas other systems fail when brought to the test of experience 
and the written word, this meets an affirmative response from 
both. In fact, Calvinism alone furnishes the key to all the lessons 
of God's word, harmonizes apparent contradictions ; and while it 
stains all human glory, and lays the pride of man at the foot of 
the cross, it brings the highest glory to God, and offers the only 
absolutely free salvation to the sinner. 

W. P. V. 

$touB*[ral& tfJjotigjjU- 



March 10, 18—. 

The March wind blows drearily down the street, and sighs and 
moans through the leafless branches of the trees. I have left the 

166 The Experience of a Step-mother. [April. 

merry circle in the parlour, to come to sit awhile in Elsie's room. 
Dear Elsie ! it is so hard to part from her ; she is always so pa- 
tient and wentle. For the thousandth time we have been speaking 
of my approaching marriage, and Elsie has striven to calm and 
cheer me with her wise, loving words. But as my wedding-day 
draws near, these thoughts will crowd upon me. If a mother 
needs so much patience and wisdom rightly to train her own off- 
spring — the little ones who have been cradled on her breast, how 
much more needs she, who, without these strong ties, seeks to fill 
a mother's place, and discharge a mother's duties ! And I — who 
am so young and inexperienced — how can 1 assume such respon- 
sibilities ? 

March 12. 

Yesterday I went to bid farewell to my aunt. She spoke of 
him who is to be my husband in such terms, that my heart glowed 
with joy and pride ; but her brow clouded as she alluded to his 
children, and my own heart sank too ; for she married a widower with 
children, and though she is a kind, well-meaning woman, there has 
never been harmony nor happiness in the family. There is not 
open discord, but a cold, unloving spirit pervades the house. She 
has never become identified with her husband's daughters, never 
succeeded in winning their affections ; so all her plans for their 
good lose half their efficacy. My children, for so I call them, 
must love me. I could not in name supply their mother's place, 
and be to them a stranger. 

Sometimes I feel such confidence in the mighty power of love, 
that I dread no difficulties. Love will conquer all ; but if I be- 
come impatient, because at first they look coldly upon me, even 
with distrust and prejudice, my Heavenly Father, for the sake of 
that mother thou didst take from them, help me to be to those 
bereaved little ones a light and joy ! 

May 20. 

I have been home two weeks. After we were married, we 
started immediately on our journey. It is strange, but even amid 
tie sorrow and excitement of parting from my home, my parents, 
sisters, and brothers, I thought more of the new home to which I 
was going, and the stranger little ones who awaited me there, 
than I did of those from whom I was about to be separated. 

We were always so happy and united in each other, and at the 
moment of separation all the joys of my childhood passed so 
vividly before my mind, that my heart ached when I thought of 
that home which was so early blighted. How much we owe to 
our mother ! Her sweetness and gentleness have smoothed all our 
difficulties, and insensibly fostered like dispositions in us ; and 
because we have been so blessed, I feel as if a solemn obligation 
rested upon me : " Freely ye have received, freely give." 

The weeks that wc were travelling I was so happy with my hus- 

1855.] The Experience of a Step-mother. 167 

band, that I almost dreaded the day which was to bring us home ; 
but it came at last. We did not arrive at W * * * until evening. 
We were tired from a long day's journey, and as we rode in the 
quiet moonlight, nearing every moment our home, I felt all my 
courage fail. I wanted to appear favourably at first, but I was so 
nervous that I could scarcely repress the tears. My husband did 
not notice my agitation, though he must have seen it; but tried to 
amuse .me with conversation, and occasionally pointed out some 
familiar place on the road. At length, the carriage stopped ; my 
husband assisted me to alight, and in a moment we stood in the 
large hall. The appearance of the house, the wide-spreading lawn, 
the noble trees which adorn it, had all been unseen by me. I 
had but one thought, — the children, my children I 

There was noise and confusion, rushing of servants, opening 
and shutting of doors ; and then I distinguished the patter of little 
feet, and "Papa! papa!" fell upon my ear. The blood rushed 
to my heart. I remember that I kissed the child my husband 
placed in my arms, and tried to speak pleasantly, but it would not 
do ; the tears which had been unshed all day would flow, and 
bending over the little curly head, I sobbed convulsively. The 
child seemed astonished, almost terrified; and my husband gently 
attracted my attention to the two older children, who stood cling- 
ing to his side. The eldest, little Alf, kissed me quietly and 
gravely, and his hand trembled as I took it in mine ; but Marian 
clasped both arms around my neck in an affectionate embrace. 
How much strength and comfort that embrace gave me ! It 
seemed to promise future love and confidence. 

The next day several of my husband's friends, and among them 
the sisters of his wife, dined with us. I feared they would think 
me very young and inexperienced, and would tremble for their 
sister's children. I longed to tell them how unworthy I felt my- 
self to supply her place, and entreat them not to look upon me 
with distrust and coldness. But the words died on my lips. 

I am astonished to find how carefully my husband's friends 
avoid any mention of Agnes's name in my presence. Can they 
think that it would be painful to me to hear her spoken of in terms 
of affection and admiration ? How little they know me, who sus- 
pect me of such unworthy feelings ! 

May 25. 
Last evening, little Marian came into my room, as I was sitting 
alone by the window. I called her to me, and took her on my 
lap. At first, she was quiet and shy ; but I passed my hand 
through her curls, and told her about my little sisters and brothers 
at home, and of my own dear mother whom I loved so much. The 
child listened, with her large brown eyes fixed upon me ; and when 
I stopped, she said, sorrowfully, " I remember my mamma." I 
was so glad that she had mentioned her mother's name, for I could 

168 The Experience of a Step-mother. [April. 

not bear her to feel that it was a subject upon which she could 
expect no sympathy from me ; and though I said not a word, I 
suppose my manner invited confidence, for she went on in her 
childlike way to tell me of her mother, — how she loved Alf so 
much, because he looked like papa ; how she taught them their 
lessons when she was well, and always came to kiss them after 
they had gone to bed at night ; and howj when she grew too weak 
to walk, papa used to carry her in his arms ; and how very, very 
quiet it was in the house when mamma was worse ; then, the day 
when they were so glad because mamma sat up, and looked so 
much better ; and the evening, oh, that evening ! when papa came 
home ! — and poor Marian's sobs told the rest. 

A child's sorrow has always been to me a sacred thing, and as 
I mingled my tears with Marian's, and thought of my own happy 
childhood, of my dear mother, who had been spared to me, I 
repeated my prayer for grace and strength to be to these little 
ones a mother indeed. 

May 28. 

In all the arrangements of the house, in the disposition of the 
furniture, in the many graceful trifles scattered around, which 
contribute so much to the pleasantness of a dwelling, I can trace 
the gentle influence of her who is gone. In the library, especially, 
I recognize the touches of her hand. 

Not the slightest alteration has been made in the arrangement 
of the room since her death. Even the writing-desk on the table 
remains as she was wont to use it, and the little china vase, which 
stands by its side, is daily filled by tender hands with the flowers 
which she loved the best. 

Her portrait hangs on the parlour wall, and as I gaze on " that 
forehead's calm expanse," and in the depths of those sweet hazel 
eyes, I can understand how well my husband loved her, and how 
worthy she was of his love. 

June 27. 

I find it more difficult to win Alf's confidence than I supposed. 
He is a fine manly boy, and resembles his father so much, that 
my heart was drawn towards the child at first ; but being older 
than the others, he has been more with his aunts, and from them 
has imbibed the almost unconscious feeling of distrust which it is 
not strange they should entertain towards me. But it will pass 
away in time : I must be patient. I interest myself in his sports 
and studies, and try to induce him to spfcak freely to me. Some- 
times, when he appears to shrink from my caresses, I feel disap- 
pointed, and almost disposed to murmur because my efforts are 
not immediately crowned with success. But then, his mother's 
eyes, so mournful, so beseeching in their tenderness, look down 
upon me, and implore me to love her child. 

1855.] The Experience of a Step-mother. 169 

September 5. 

Little Charlie has been very ill. His father was away from 
home, and I sat all night by the side of his crib. It was a long, 
long night. The fever made him so restless, that he continually 
wanted me to take him up, and hold him in my arms, and then 
he would beg me to sing, and pass his little hands over my face, 
and murmur, "Mamma! kiss Charlie." I expected my husband 
early the next morning, but he did not return until evening. 
When he came, I was almost exhausted with fatigue and anxiety. 
He tried to persuade me to leave the child, and take some rest, 
but I could not until the crisis was past, and Charlie's quiet 
breathing assured us that the danger was over. I was weary ; — 
but his own mother would have watched over him with untiring 
love and patience — and could I do less ? 

October 21. 

This morning, Alf was passionate, and struck his sister. I 
quieted poor Marian's sobs, and then called Alf to my side, and 
tried to show him how wrong he had been, and how unkindly he 
had treated Marian. For a few moments he stood«erect, the con- 
tracted brow and flashing eye indicating that the storm of passion 
had not passed away. Then I changed my tone, and told him all 
that I hoped he would become, all that his own dear mother would 
have wished him to be ; and as I spoke of her, a tear glistened in 
his eye, and he turned away to little Marian and asked her for- 
giveness. Slowly, silently, but surely, I feel that I am winning 
his confidence, and when it is once given, it will not be lightly 
withdrawn. His father has noticed, with pain, Alf's coldness 
towards me ; but I begged him not to interfere, not even to ask 
the child to call me "mother." For he will give me that name 
when I really fill to him a mother's place, and I would not wish it 

November 5. 

I think I can perceive from week to week a more cheerful spirit 
in the house. Even Ruth, the old nurse, has observed it. She 
told me the other day that " the children were happier-like, and 
more easy to take care of than they used to be." Poor Ruth has 
become quite reconciled to me, herself. Indeed, since Charlie, 
who is her favourite, was so ill, I think I have secured a place in 
her affections. She is devotedly attached to the children, and 
worships their mother's memory. 

May 14. 

It is a joyous, spring-like day. As I sit in the arm-chair by the 
window, I hear the voices of the children, who are playing in the 
warm sunshine, and see the shadow of the nurse, as she walks to 
and fro with the baby in her arms. It is joy unspeakable to me, to 
witness the love and tenderness with which the children caress their 

170 Early Training of a Faithful Pastor. [April. 

little sister. The fear that they might not love her perfectly, that 
she should be to them in any degree as a stranger, cast a cloud over 
my happiness, when I first clasped her in my arms. But my fears 
were groundless ; and the children have repaid me an hundred- 
fold for all that I have ever done for them, by their cordial adop- 
tion of their little sister. We call her Agnes — their mother's 
name. Marian suggested it, when the baby was only a few days 
old, and I gladly consented. I felt the name would be a new bond 
of union between them. It is curious to watch Alf 's devotion to 
his new sister. He fills her tiny hands with the brightest flowers 
he can find, and his happiness is complete when the nurse trusts 
her for a moment in his arms. Yesterday, Agnes's sisters came 
to see me. I had not dared to hope they would love my baby too, 
and I even feared that its name might pain them. But when the 
nurse brought her in the room, they took her in their arms, and 
kissed her so tenderly, that I felt we should be strangers no more. 
The other day, one of my friends expressed the fear that my 
love for my little Agnes should weaken that which I bear for my 
other children. But little Agnes in her helplessness, by the very 
strength of th#t love which I bear her, pleads more powerfully for 
them than aught beside. For should I be taken from her, and 
leave her motherless, how earnestly would I beseech one who at- 
tempted to supply my place, to bear patiently with her, to guide 
her, guard her, cherish her, be to her a mother ! And could I 
give my husband's children less of a mother's love than I would 
ask for Agnes ? * * 


[Dr. John McDowell, in his Semi-centenary Discourse, gives the following in- 
teresting particulars of his early life.] 

" I was born in Bedminster Township, Somerset County, State 
of New Jersey, September 10th, 1780. The parents of both my 
father and mother came to this country from the North of Ireland. 
Their ancestors were originally from Scotland ; having, as far as 
I have been able to ascertain, emigrated to Ireland, with many 
other Presbyterians, for the sake of religious liberty, to escape 
the operation of the oppressive Act of Uniformity, in the reign of 
Charles the Second, about between the years 1660 and 1670. My 
ancestors, as far as I have information respecting them, were 
"pious ; and from generation to generation, in visible covenant 
with God, which I conceive to be an invaluable blessing. 

" My pious parents early dedicated me to God in the ordinance 
of baptism, in the Presbyterian church of Lamington, New Jersey, 

1855.] Early Training of a Faithful Pastor. 171 

to which they belonged ; and agreeably to their baptismal vows, 
endeavoured to bring me up in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord. From my earliest years I was blessed with the important 
privilege of family worship ; and was brought up with a strict 
regard to the Sabbath, and to attendance on public worship. 
Sabbath evening, after the public worship of the day, was always 
devoted to religious family instruction, such as reciting the Cate- 
chism, by the children ; repeating the texts, and giving an account 
of the sermons we had heard ; and hearing remarks from our pa- 
rents calculated to instruct us, and impress divine truth upon our 

"And here allow me to remark, — if Sabbath evenings were now 
more generally spent in this way, by heads of families, I believe 
it would be a great blessing to their children, and to the Church, 
and the community. With regard to our invaluable Catechism, 
through the faithfulness and diligence of my pious mother, repeat- 
ing them to me, before I could read, I knew all the answers by 
the time I was five years old. For the instruction, and at the 
same time, the encouragement of pious parents, I would say, — to 
this early training, by the blessing of God upon it, I owe very 
much of what has been good, and useful, in a religious respect, in 
my life since. 

"At the early age of eleven years, my mind became deeply im- 
pressed with a sense of my sinfulness, guilt, and need of salvation ; 
and after a time of much distress and anxiety, the Saviour, as I 
fondly hope, was pleased to reveal himself to me as able and will- 
ing to save ; and I was enabled cordially to accept him, and put 
my trust in him, and devote myself to him. And here let me say 
to the youth of my audience, that, while I have great reason to 
be humbled, and mourn that I have not lived nearer to God, and 
done more for his glory, I have never regretted that I commenced 
a religious life so early. 

" Directly after I found peace in believing in Christ, and had a 
discovery of his loveliness, / earnestly desired to become a minister 
of the Gospel, that I might preach Christ to others, and tell them 
of his loveliness, and persuade them also to love him. The pro- 
spect of having my desires realized was small. There was no 
classical school near, where I could pursue the necessary studies. 
My father was unwilling to incur the expense of sending me from 
home ; and there were, at that day, no education societies from 
which I could obtain assistance. For several years, my daily, 
sincere, and earnest prayer was, that God would open a door for 
me to receive an education that I might become a minister of the 

" At length, when I was fifteen years old, a classical school was 
opened about two miles from my father's residence, and I became 
a scholar. This school continued until I had finished my course 
of study preparatory to entering College, and soon after closed. 

172 Dr. Alexander 8 Sketch of Dr. Robert Smith. [April. 

The opening and continuance of that school, as far as I was con- 
cerned, I have often viewed, with thankfulness, as a signal answer 
to prayer. 

" In the fall of 1799, 1 entered the junior class in Princeton Col- 
lege, then under the presidency of the Rev. Dr. Samuel Stanhope 
Smith, — a finished gentleman and accomplished scholar, highly 
esteemed as a preacher and writer, and of much prominence in the 
judicatories of the Presbyterian Church in his day. At the time 
I was in College, and for some years previous, open infidelity 
greatly prevailed in this country, especially among young men. 
It was the age of infidelity in revolutionary France, the poison of 
which was widely diffused in this country. A majority of the 
students of the College were avowed infidels, and scoffers at re- 
ligion ; and the number of pious students, or of those who made 
any pretensions to religion, was very small. In this respect there 
has been in our colleges, and indeed in our country generally, I 
believe, a great change for the better." 

JSistoririil nnb HtiiograpijicaL 


My dear Sir . — 

Among some biographical papers, which my father gave to me some months 
before hia death, I find the following sketch of the Rev. Robert Smith, D.D. It 
wn* not included in the " Log College," and I ilo not remember that it has been before 
published. If yon think it worth while, you can give it a place in your Magazine. 

Yours truly, 

Rev. Dr. Van Rensselaer. S. D. Alexander. 

Robert Smith, D.D., was born in Ireland, and was descended from a 
Scotch family which had taken refuge in that country, and had settled in 
Londonderry. About the year 1730, his parents emigrated to North 
America, and brought their son Robert, then a child, with them. His 
ancestors, both by his father's and mother's side, were substantial 
farmers, and had for several generations been distinguished for a vein of 
good sense, and for prudent deportmcut, and what is better still, for 
fervent piety. 

The residence of Dr. Smith's parents was on the head waters of the 
Brandywine, about forty miles from the city of Philadelphia, where he 
was brought up in the pursuits of agriculture. At the age of fifteen or 
sixteen, he became a subject of divine grace, uuder the preaching of Mr. 
Whitfield, who spent some time in his father's neighbourhood, on his 
first visit to America. As soon as young Mr. Smith had experienced 
the power of religion in his own soul, he felt a strong desire to become 

1855.] Dr. Alexander s Sketch of Dr. Robert Smith. 173 

a preacher, that he might make known the precious truths of the Gospel 
to his fellow-men. In this desire his pious parents readily concurred, 
and with their permission, he placed himself under the tuition of the 
Rev. Samuel Blair, who had established a useful and important semi- 
nary at Fag's Manor, in the County of Chester, Pennsylvania. Here, 
for several years, he pursued, first his classical, and then his theological 
studies, under a man, who was inferior to none in the soundness of his 
understanding, and the penetration of his mind ; who was a profound 
divine, and a most solemn and impressive preacher. In Mr. Blair, Mr. 
Smith enjoyed, not only the advantages of an able instructor, but had 
continually exhibited before him, an admirable example of Christian 
meekness, of ministerial diligence, and of that candour, liberality, and 
Catholicism of sentiment towards those who differed from him in opinion, 
without (dereliction ?) of principle, which are among the most amiable 
features of character, that can adorn a disciple, and especially a minister 
of Christ. Under such instruction, and with such an example, Mr. 
Smith made rapid and great improvement, both in classical and theolo- 
gical knowledge. By Mr. Blair he was much esteemed and beloved ; and 
in the year 1750, was licensed to preach the Gospel, and married to a 
younger sister of his venerated preceptor. This lady was distinguished 
by a sound understanding, uncommon sweetness of disposition, and sin- 
cere piety; and was an excellent assistant to him in the education of 
their common children. To these they both devoted much time, to cul- 
tivate in them the habits of virtue and religion, and to infuse into their 
minds, at the first opening of their powers, the principles of a warm and 
rational piety. In his absence, she always conducted the devotions of 
the family with a dignity which insured their respect, and with an unaf- 
fected fervour, which could not fail to touch their hearts. By this lady, 
Dr. Smith had seven children, two of whom died young, two embraced 
the profession of medicine, and three, at an early age, entered on the 
duties of the sacred ministry ; and have since filled some of the most 
important stations in the literary world, as well as in the Church. By a 
second marriage with the widow of the Rev. W. Ramsay, he left one 
daughter, who at his death was very young. 

In the year 1751, the next after his licensure, Dr. Smith was 
ordained and installed the pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Pequea, 
in the County of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in which situation he conti- 
nued to labour faithfully to the time of his death. He was ordained by 
the Presbytery of Newcastle, within the jurisdiction of which his church 
lay: the ordination sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Rodgers, then 
pastor of a church at St. George's, Delaware; and afterwards translated 
to the city of New York. At this time, Dr. Rodgers must have been a 
very young man ; but he was highly esteemed for his pulpit talents, and 
was therefore appointed to this service. 

In the year, 1784, Mr. Smith received from the College of New Jersey, 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity ; and seldom has that degree 
been more judiciously conferred, for Mr. Smith was a sound and well-in- 
formed theologian, of which he gave evidence in several productions of 
his pen, which, though not written in a polished style, are distinguished 
for sound and discriminating views. The most valuable of these, were 
three sermons on Faith, which are as clear and judicious as most dis- 
courses on that subject. But he excelled as a preacher. His dis- 

174 Br. Alexander '« Sketch of Dr. Robert Smith. [April. 

courses were instructive, evangelical, and deeply impressive. Though a 
man of remarkable modesty and diffidence, yet he has been heard to say, 
that in the pulpit he never feared the face of man. Indeed, he was so 
much occupied with the importance of the subjects of his ministry, that 
the opinions of men were forgotten, and he appeared to be absorbed in 
the feeling of the Divine presence and majesty. His preaching was not 
only solemn and fervent, but enriched with pertinent passages of Scrip- 
ture ; for the sacred volume appeared to be completely at his command ; 
and from this precious source, he not only drew texts in proof of his 
doctrine, but happy and forcible illustrations of his subject. Though 
sometimes Mr. Smith was forced into controversy, yet he was in dispo- 
sition and from principle, a man of peace ; and was of opinion, that 
Christians were often much more nearly agreed in sentiment, than they 
appeared to be when they expressed their opinions in words. On dis- 
puted points, he was accustomed to employ, as far as possible, the very 
words of Scripture, as this would give less offence than expressing the 
same truth in other language; and he believed that no words were so 
calculated to affect the heart and conscience, as the very words which the 
Holy Ghost teacheth. His ministry was not unfruitful, but under his 
faithful preaching sinners were convinced and converted, and believers 
were built up in their most holy faith. His labours were not confined to 
his own charge, but were extended through a wide surrounding district, 
where there arc people still living who remember, with gratitude to God, 
his faithful labours. 

Shortly after his settlement at Pequea, Mr. Smith established a school, 
with a special view to the Gospel ministry; where the Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew languages were taught. In this school, Mr. Smith was assisted 
by respectable and able teachers; and a large number of young meu were 
here prepared for entering the ministry, before any college existed within 
the limits of the Presbyterian Church ; and after the erection of the 
College of New Jersey, at Princeton, young men were fitted to enter 
that institution, of which Dr. Smith was one of the early and zealous 
friends, and at which all his sons, who lived to maturity, finished their 
academical education. In this school, it was not only an object kept con- 
stantly in view to make accurate scholars, but also to imbue the mind of 
the scholars with sound sentiments of religion ; and Dr. Smith often had 
the happiness of knowing that his efforts were not ineffectual. With 
very few exceptions, all who were trained under his tuition, have been 
the serious, steady, and uniform friends of religion ; and the Presbyterian 
Church is greatly indebted to him for the number of faithful pastors who 
were educated under his care, and who studied theology under his direc- 
tion ; and it was no small benefit to such to have so excellent a model of 
plain, evangelical, and impressive preaching, as was that of Dr. Smith. 

In his discourses, he was able in opening the sacred treasures which 
are hidden in the Scriptures ; but his chief excellency, was the power 
which he possessed of affecting the consciences of sinners by his solemn 
appeals, and faithful warnings ; and his skill in directing souls wounded 
by the law, to the only Physician. Yiee he ever reproved with fidelity, 
but he was careful to avoid austerity. The pleasures and the hopes of 
religion he recommended to believers, with that glow of warm feeling, 
wliieh was prompted by his own experience. u lie believed, and therefore 

1855.] Br. Alexander s Sketch of Dr. Robert Smith. 175 

Beloved and esteemed by all who knew him, he was held in high vene- 
ration through a large extent of country, and was looked up to as a father 
by the churches in Pennsylvania and the neighbouring States. In the 
year 1790, he was chosen the moderator of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church ; and in 1791 he was again a member, and preached 
before that body at the opening of its sessions, with uncommon ardour 
and elevation of mind. By reason of the loss of his teeth, however, his 
elocution was rendered so inarticulate, that his discourse was not dis- 
tinctly heard by most of the audience. His ardour in performing his 
duty, and especially in preaching the Gospel, was never diminished to the 
last; and under the influence of a warm zeal he often forgot his bodily 
infirmities, and exerted himself beyond his strength. 

The last public act of his life was that of attending a meeting of the 
Trustees of New Jersey College, at a distance of a hundred miles from 
home. At this time his bodily health was much reduced, and the effect 
of this fatiguing journey was to exhaust and debilitate him exceedingly. 
When he had nearly reached his home, he found it necessary to call at 
the house of a friend to obtain a little rest and refreshment. He met the 
family with his wonted benignity and affection, and requested the oppor- 
tunity of retiring for a short time to a private chamber ; and there in a 
few moments, without a struggle or a groan, " he calmly and sweetly 
breathed out his soul ;" and the same smile with which he entered his 
friend's house, seemed to be imprinted on his countenance after death. 
He died in the 68d year of his age. He left no memorials or journals to 
aid his biographer in exhibiting the rich experience which he had of the 
grace of God. 

Humility was the habitual temper of his mind ; and while his face 
shone brightly to others, like Moses, " he wist not that his face shone." 
He seemed to be unconscious of the eminence of his own piety. One 
thing which the writer distinctly recollects in the character of this good 
man, was his sweetness of temper, which mingled with his most ardent 
zeal, and his kind and indulgent condescension to the young. Of this 
last habit, the impression is deep in the memory of the writer, because in 
his youth he spent several days in the house of Dr. Smith, where he was 
a stranger in a strange land, an invalid, and peculiarly subject to dejec- 
tion of spirits. He cannot, therefore, readily forget the affectionate ten- 
derness with which he was treated by this venerable man ; and this was 
but a few weeks before his departure out of life. 

He was a faithful attendant on the judicatories of the Church, where 
he acted with a truly conscientious and pacific spirit. He devoted much 
time also to the destitute regions and vacant churches within his reach. 
He was a most laborious man. He slept little, rose early, and after 
spending some hours in devotion and study, he was found labouring in 
his school, or going from house to house among his people, comforting 
the afflicted, and exhorting and warning the people, as their characters re- 
quired. Part of the day was also spent with his theological students, 
whom he delighted to instruct and animate. But the pulpit was his 
throne. Here he was in his element, and preaching was as his meat and 
drink. One who knew him well has said, "When apparently exhausted, 
the evening devotions of the family exhilarated and refreshed him again. 
Devotion and the service of the Redeemer appeared to be to him the elixir 
of life. When he was weak, it evidently repaired his strength; when he 

176 Dr. Alexander s Sketch of Dr. Robert Smith. [April. 

was exhausted, it restored his spirits. The character of his devotion was 
at once fervent and rational, humble and serene. It mingled the deepest 
sense of human imperfection with the confidence of faith ; the humblest 
penitence with the cheerfulness of hope. Never through the course of a 
long ministry, was he withheld by sickness from entering the pulpit on 
the Sabbath, except once ; and then, though under the influence of fever, 
he sent for his neighbours, and the leading members of his church, and 
being placed in an easy chair, he spoke to them of the duties and the 
comforts of true religion." 

The same person gives it as his opinion, " that Dr. Smith was among 
the ablest theologians, the profoundest casuists, and the most convincing 
and successful preachers of the age. He died as he lived, beloved and 
revered of all who had the happiness intimately to know him, and his 
memory will long be precious in the American churches." 

Before the death of Dr. Smith, a great change had taken place in 
the spiritual and prosperous state of the churches in the Newcastle Pres- 
bytery. In the time of Whitfield, and the Blairs andTennents, the great 
revival which spread over North America was powerful in this region ; 
but after awhile a sad declension took place, and coldness and deadness 
for a long time prevailed. Moreover, by emigration to the West and 
South, many churches were left in a feeble state, for those who came in 
to supply the places of the emigrants were commonly of another persua- 
sion, aud added no strength to the congregations. On these accounts 
Pccjuca, which had for many years been the seat of lively piety, was re- 
duced in 1791 to a small aud feeble congregation, in which only a few of 
the relicts of the former numerous assemblies were to be seen. And for 
many years before Dr. Smith's decease, few were added to the communion 
of the church ; not as many as would make up for the losses by death and 
emigration. This state of things he greatly lamented ; and when his sou 
John, with several other eminent ministers from Virginia, stopped at 
Pefjuca on their way to the General Assembly, as they had just come from 
the midst of an extensive revival at home, and were warm with religious 
fervour, he manifested the deepest solicitude that their labours might be 
attended with a peculiar blessing. He seemed on this occasion to be 
much excited, and to manifest a longing desire for a shower of Divine in- 
fluence, that he might again witness such scenes as had now long passed 
away. On Monday, after the communion which had been celebrated, this 
aged minister was much encouraged by the fad that one man appeared 
to be cut to the heart, and came to his house, earnestly inquiring, " what 
he must do to be saved." But no general awakening took place, and that 
congregation remaius in a comparatively feeble state until this day. 

But though Dr. Smith in his latter days had no great comfort in his 
church, yet lie enjoyed the unspeakable happiness of seeing his sons in the 
highest stations in the Presbyterian Chuieh, and one of them, the Rev. 
John B. Smith, was made the instrument of saving benefit to many souls 
in Prince Edward, Va., where he resided, aud in all the surrouuding 
regions. He was also the first President of Union College, N. Y. And his 
eldest son, the Kev. Samukl S. Smith, after founding Hampden Sidney 
College, in Virginia, returned to take charge of the College of New JejBSJ ; 
first as Vice-President, aud after Dr. AVitherspoou's death, as President 
of the College. A. A. 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 177 

%m\m anfr Criticism* 

" The Hiding-Place ; or the Sinner found in Christ." By the Rev. John M'Faelane, 
LL.D. Published by Win, S. and Alfred Martien, Philadelphia, pp. 370. 

This is an inviting volume ; the opening of which excites the expecta- 
tion of enjoying a rich treat; especially to one who has felt the precious- 
ness of that prophecy, " A man shall be an hiding-place from the wind," 
&c. Nor will such be disappointed in the perusal. It is a book of ster- 
ling value. With the strong and evangelical discussion of Flavel, it 
combines the lively and earnest appeals of Baxter. Its general structure 
reminds us of Serle's " Horse Solitariae," and it possesses much of the 
sweet and elevating piety of that excellent work. After stating " the 
principles of the doctrine of Christ," in a short preliminary chapter, the 
writer proceeds to contemplate him as Jehovah ; as Jehovah Jesus ; as 
Jehovah Jireh, the Lord will provide ; as Jehovah Tsidkenu, the Lord 
our righteousness ; as Jehovah Rophi, the Lord my healer ; as Jehovah 
Shalom, the Lord our peace; as Jehovah Nissi, the Lord my banner; and 
as Jehovah Shammah, the Lord is there. As these titles indicate, the 
several chapters present, in systematic order, the consecutive steps of our 
recovery from the ruin of sin, and our restoration to those privileges and 
hopes, which are secured to believers by the Mediatorial work of Christ. 
We heartily commend it to those who are seeking for sound scriptural 
views on this momentous subject, and who desire to find true, biblical 
theology presented in glowing and impressive language. They cannot 
read it with attention without deriving spiritual benefit. 

"The Night Lamp. A Narrative of the means by which spiritual darkness was dis- 
pelled from the death-bed of Agnes Maxwell M'Farlane." By the Rev. John 
M'Farlane, LLD. Published by Wm. S. and Alfred Martien, Philadelphia, 
pp. 317. 

This book is a very suitable companion to the " Hiding-Place," bj the 
same author ; the one containing the principles of the Gospel method of 
salvation, and the other furnishing an interesting example for the illustra- 
tion of those principles ; the one exhibiting saving grace in the abstract 
form, and the other in the concrete. Miss M'Farlane was the daughter, 
granddaughter, and sister of ministers of the Gospel. Her brother is the 
writer of the present Memoir; which, however, as the title imports, is 
not designed to narrate in detail the incidents of her life, but chiefly her 
religious experience, and even this mainly, as it was developed during a 
painful and protracted illness which preceded her death. 

The book commences with a thrilling death-bed scene of her mother, 
who in joyful and triumphant hope, and a strong and vigorous faith, com- 
mended her little Agnes, a child of five or six years of age, to the care 
and grace of her covenant God. Her earlier education was superintended 
by her father, who survived her mother six or seven years ; after which 

vol. v. — no. 4. 12 

178 Review and Criticism. [April. 

she was left to the guardianship of other friends. Her religious impres- 
sions, though early felt, were slow in their development ; being retarded, 
as the author thinks, by the perusal of Scott's novels. It was not till she 
began her passage through the valley and shadow of death, that she 
attained that peace of mind, which made her departure from the world 
like that of her mother's, happy and triumphant. The volume will be 
found a valuable " night lamp," to cheer the chamber of sickness. The 
title page is embellished by Miss M'Farlane's likeness, which gives some 
additional interest to the narrative. 

" Monitory Letters to Chcrch Members." Published by the Presbyterian Board of 
Publication, Philadelphia, pp. 101. 

These letters are anonymous ; but as we happen to know, were penned 
by one of our most gifted and popular writers. For reasons unknown to 
us, his name is not given ; concerning which we feel at liberty to remark, 
that the author's name on the title page, would, if permitted to be placed 
there, contribute to the circulation of the book ; though doubtless there 
are good reasons for withholding it. But the intrinsic value of the Letters 
ought to secure for them an extensive perusal. They are twenty-two in 
number, and on twenty different topics, all of which are not only useful 
and important, but called for by the existing state of things in many of 
our churches. As the title indicates, they are " monitory," but their 
spirit is so Christian, and their language so courteous, that we can assure 
the reader, he will take no offence, even where he may find himself re- 
proved. Kind and fraternal admonitions, such as are found in this volume, 
are highly beneficial to Christians, to " stir up their pure minds by way 
of remembrance," and excite them to greater fidelity in the duties of 
practical religion. "We hope all our church members will procure the book 
and read it with care. 

" Travels in Europe and the East. — A Year in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, 
France, Belgium, Holland. Germany, Austria, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, 
and Egypt" Hy Samuel Ihkn.uus Prime. With engravings: in two volumes. Pub- 
lished by Harper & Brothers, New York, and for sale by Jos. M. Wilson, corner of 
Ninth and Arch Streets, Philadelphia. 

The name of Ircnocus is familiar to the readers of several of our weekly 
periodicals, and particularly to those of the New York Observer, to whose 
columns he has been a contributor for many years. His popularity as a 
writer of travels is equalled by few, and perhaps excelled by none. He 
is a close observer of incidents, possesses the faculty of pleasing descrip- 
tion, and composes in a style well adapted to carry along the mind of a 
reader with continued, if not increasing interest to the end of the 

The sixty-three chapters which compose these volumes, were published 
(or a large part of them) in a series of articles in the New York Observer 
during the author's absence, and soon after his return. They were read 
with much zest by the readers of that paper, many of whom manifested 
their interest by perusing them the moment the paper came into their 
hands. Those who admired them then, will be glad to see them repro- 
duced in this beautiful and permanent form, with the attractive appendage 
of fifty or more engravings, illustrative of various objects seen by the 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 179 

author in his travels. And to such as did not read them in the Observer, 
we may be permitted to say, that among the numerous books of foreign 
travel which have issued from the press within a few years, we know of 
none more readable than these two volumes. As a specimen of the 
author's style, and as an example of American genius in a distant land, 
we furnish an extract from the chapter describing his visit to the studio 
of our countryman Powers at Florence. We doubt not, it will be read 
with honest pride by every true hearted American. We commend it to 
the special attention of our young men, who may learn from it the im- 
portance of high aims and persevering exertions. 

"Among the pleasant memories of a month in Florence, are the hours I spent 
with the great American artist, whose reputation is now the common property of 
the world. His studio is in Via la Fornace, and just over the way from Casa del 
Bello, the house of Mr. Kinney, my home while there. His history is to be studied 
by every young American. 

u The most remarkable work in the studio is the man himself. At the age of fifteen 
he was an emigrant from Vermont, his native State, to Ohio, and there, at the age of 
twenty-six, he made his first bust, a head in wax. It gives little promise of what has 
since appeared. Twenty years ago Mr. Powers went to Washington, and while pur- 
suing his labours as a sculptor he enjoyed the friendship of Mr. Preston, of the Senate, 
whose brother sent Mr. Powers to Italy. Here he has been at work sixteen years. 
The first few years were lost to him, in consequence of his having taken orders for 
busts of his countrymen, which it cost him more to execute than they were to bring 
him, and he was for a long time compelled to work out of the marble with his 
own hands that which he now commits to artisans. Thus, in addition to the loss of 
all the early years of his life, which were occupied with merely mechanical pur- 
suits, he sacrificed three more to engagements he had made in America. Yet in 
all these years of bondage his soul was at work upon something higher and better 
than had ever come from his hands, and perhaps, like the blindness of Milton and 
imprisonment of Bunyan, it was well for him and the world that he was not suf- 
fered to put forth his hand until his soul had been refined by the fires of long 
years of trial, such as consume those who are not made of gold. Now he is less 
than fifty years of age ; and when he was many years younger than he is, the 
greatest of modern sculptors, Thorwalsden, paid him homage. He is destined to 
inaugurate a new era in sculpture, and leave a name to posterity as the founder 
of a school which will attract the admiration, and finally secure the approving 
verdict of the successive ages of the Christian world. Yet great as this man is, 
his greatest beauty of character is his ' meek simplicity.' A model for a king in 
form and height, he would sit for a child, if his spirit found expression in stone 
or on canvas. I met him first in social life, and was all but grieved. The 
majesty of a man who conceives and executes works that hold in mute wonder 
and delight the most cultivated minds, was all concealed in the gentleness of a 
genial friend ; but I fell in love with the man before I sat at the feet of the master. 
And he was just the same when I stood by him studying the glorious creations 
rising into beauty and life-like reality under his plastic hand. His studio was a 
gallery of glorious statuary when I entered it. Among the greatest of his works, 
is one just passing from under his hand. America is here presented in the form 
of a woman of youth, vigor, and promise, confident and earnest, with a face 
radiant with hope, faith, and energy. At her right, and supporting the figure, 
are the fasces, the emblem of strength derived from union, over which her mantle 
is falling gracefully. Her head is crowned with laurels, to show that union is 
victory as well as strength ; and on her head the thirteen original States are re- 
presented by as many stars, forming a tiara, which she wears, her birthright 
jewels. Her left hand points to heaven. From the shoulder the drapery hangs 
carelessly, concealing much of the form, while one foot advances with a firm yet 
elastic tread, which speaks of the progress and stability of America with eloquence 
that cannot be misread." 

180 Review and Criticism. [April. 

Dr. Steabns's Discourses on the First Church in Newark, No. II. 

The subject of the Adopting Act being incidentally mentioned, Dr. Stearns 
gives in a note, an unpublished letter of Pemberton,* then recently settled at New 
York, to Dr. Coleman, dated September 30, 1729. He had feared that " the sub- 
scription controversy would be the cause of a great disturbance and division in 
our Synod. Providence has been better to us than our fears. The debate is 
peaceably and satisfactorily ended. The conclusion of the Synod was ordered to 
be printed, that our happy agreement might be as universally known as our de- 
bates." The Act of Synod, in 1736, declaring that they adopt the standard 
" without the least variation or alteration, and without any regard to the distinc- 
tions" of necessary and essential doctrines, was called forth by the defence set up 
by Hemphill, that he had adopted the Confession only in its necesssary and essential 
doctrines. Andrews tabled charges against him before the Commission, in April, 
1 735, and Dickinson defended the action of the Synod in disowning him. Franklin 
ridiculed the idea of subscription ; u may not a Synod in George the Second's 
time do all that a Synod did in Oliver's day ?" Dickinson preached two sermons 
in Philadelphia, and republished the Adopting Act, showing that it was a " proper 
inclosure for a religious society," and no unscriptural imposition. Hubbel, of 
Westfield, was singled out by Franklin for especial derision, for his opposition to 
Hemphill. Soon after was republished, in Philadelphia, all the proceedings in 
Ireland on the Subscription question, and the defence of the non-subscribers, with 
Halvdav's argument against creeds. The Act of 1736, was cordially acquiesced 
in by all parties, and affirmed by the Brunswick brethren in the strongest manner, 
not, as is impudently asserted in a certain quarter, to make capital. 

Dr. Stearns mistakes in the case of Walton, as though he were a man without 
credentials. Born in New London, graduating at Yale, he came to Crosswieks 
and Cranberry at the urgent solicitation of " his townsman," Morgan, of Freehold. 
He was likely to have brought everybody over, but his "folly and nonsensical im- 
portunities" lost him " his honour, and he is gone." He then set up school in New 
York, and vainly tried to have his case remitted to Long Island Presbytery. He 
then went to Rye and White Plains, and through his exertions, the Connecticut 
legislaturef granted a brief, to collect money to build a church at the White 
Plains. His stay was short. He died in 1764. J 

The third minister of Newark, Mr. Pruddbv, had been settled at Jamaica — he 
was the grandfather of the Rev. John Nutman, of Hanover ; Mr. Nutman's 
daughter was the first wife of Jonathan Sergeant, and the mother of the wife of 
the Rev. Dr. John Fwing. His successor, Mr. Wakeman, was, like Mr. Pruddcn 
and the younger Pierson, the son of a minister, — he was settled at the age of 
twenty-one, and died about four years after. His marriage, his death, and that of 
his only child, and the marriage of his widow, are recorded on the Town books 
of Southampton, L. I. The next minister, Nathaniel Bowers, was probably the 
son of the Rev. John Bowers, first minister of Derby, Conn., and then of Rye, 
N. Y. Mr. Bowen was invited? to settle in Greenwich, Conn., and perhaps did 
so; and after a year of service in Newark, he was installed there in September, 
1710, probably the day before Or after the ordination of Dickinson at Elizabeth- 
town. Morgan preached on the latter occasion, on the Great Concernment of the 
Gospel, an«l impressing the necessity of proper qualifications for the ministry, 
said: " A tow lace ill beseems a silken garment." 

Dr. Stearns seems inclined to think, that John Brainerd was not installed as 
the successor of Ibirr in tbe pastoral work, although Smith in his funeral dis- 
course speaks of bis preaching at a funeral in the family of his sj/crwsor,!! and 
although the Synod unanimously gave their advice, Mav 17, 17">!\ that it was his 

duty to leave his present charge at Newark and resume his mission to the Indians; 
in the afternoon, "it is ordered, Mr. Brninerd bem§ nor remo v ed from New ar k , 

* MS. Letters of Andrews and Morgan, in Am. Anliq. Coll. 

t Boo. Papers in State Boose, Hartford. 
X Yale Catalogue. § Eoa Papers, Hartford, 

|| In the oopy of the monumental inscriptions, two of Brainerd's children are saen- 
timed as bavins died in September. 1758 : probably one ol the dates should bo 1707. 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 181 

that if need he," the pulpit be supplied four Sabbaths. Dr. Stearns omits from 
the list of Elders, Mr. Joseph Lyon, who was present at the time with Brainerd, 
and had leave to go home, as soon as the relation was dissolved. Nor was his 
ministry there in vain. Burr,* among his last letters to Scotland, mentioning 
the revival in the College, says : " There is something considerable, at Newark, 
under Mr. Brainerd." 

In relation to Ruling Elders, Dr. Macwhorter says : " Aged people supposed 
they had been in the Newark Church from the first ;" there was then no tradition 
of the introduction of the office. Mr. Caleb Ward accompanied Mr. Webb to 
Synod in 1720. Jonathan Dickinson, in reply to his Episcopal opponent, that 
the Presbyterians had laid aside the office of deacon, says : " The duty of the 
Deacon, according to the Scripture, is to take care of the church-stock, laid up 
for the poor ; but we have no church- stock, and therefore have no deacons." 
Now if there were deacons at Woodbridge, and the other East Jersey churches, 
why did he not say to his antagonist, " You are mistaken — behold our deacons." 

No copy of Dr. Macwhorter's Century Sermon is known to us to exist in any 
public library. Dr. Stearns frequently refers to it. Its value consists in embody- 
ing traditions, even then fading from the memory, and facts, of which the docu- 
mentary evidence is now gone. 

Dr. Macwhorter's two volumes of systematical discourses, were published at the 
close of life, his people having " asked leave to put them to press for the future 
and present benefit of us and our children ; that we may enjoy the happiness of 
hearing our beloved minister and guide speaking to us, even when he shall be 
sleeping in the grave." There are eighty-four sermons, plain, clear, judicious, 
and orthodox, according to the strictest interpretation of our standards. They 
were delivered uniformly, slowly, in a low tone, and were short. The Doctor's pro- 
nunciation would sound strangely now — e. g., Deutero-No-me ; but his discourses 
might be preached any Sabbath, just as they are, and be listened to with interest 
and profit. 

In reference to his mission to North Carolina, in 1775 and 6, Dr. Griffin is 
quoted, as saying : " He was appointed by Congress to visit that district to which 
he had been before, to bring the people over to the American side." The fact 
was, the Congress of that State sent Dr. Brevard and another person, to meet 
with the Presbyteries of New Brunswick and New York, and prevail on them to 
send Dr. Spencer, then of Shrewsbury, and Dr. Macwhorter, to convince the 
Scottish Highlanders that they were not bound by the oath they had taken, after 
the Rebellion of 1745, to uphold the House of Hanover. Franklin predicted 
that they would fail ; ten years had elapsed since they had been thither on a dif- 
ferent mission ; besides, they had been anticipated by the pei-severing manoeuvres 
of Gov. Martin, and Gov. Tryon, to unite the old partisans of the Pretender in a 
conscientious determination "to keep the king's commandment, and that in regard 

The church history of East Jersey has been carefully gathered up in a goodly 
array of discourses and volumes: Dr. Murray's Notes on Elizabetlitown ; Dr. 
Davidson's History of the Church of New Brunswick; Mr. Huntting's discourse 
at Westfield, Mr. King's at RocJcaway, Mr. Schenck's at Princeton, and probably 
others. Nor is Pennsylvania behind : Dr. Elliott's Life of Macurdy ; Mr. Nevin's 
Churches of the Valley; Dr. Smith's Old Redstone; Mr. Creigh's Discourse at 
Mercersburgh, Mr. Dubois's at New London, Dr. Grier's at the Forks of Brandy- 
wine, Dr. Leaman's at Cedar Grove, and Dr. Timlow's at Leacock. In New York, 
has any congregation published its history, except Jamaica f Much has been 
done to gather the needful materials in the history of Westchester County, by 
Bolton ; Orange County, by Eager ; Long Island, by Dr. Prime ; to these may be 
added Dr. Sprague's Discourse at Albany, and Mr. Woodbridge's at Hempstead. 
The gathering of these and similar documents, in a place convenient of access, is 
one important part of the mission of the Presbyterian Historical Society. How 
much labour now wasted in vain searches, will thus be saved, and how many 
yawning chasms filled up, which so sadly disfigure many historical discourses. 

K. H. 
* Gillies' Collections, edited by Bonar. 

182 The Religious World. [April. 

Temporal Power of the Pope Dangerous to the religious and civil liberties of the 
American Republic; A Review of the speech of Joseph R. Chandler, &c. By the 
Rev. Robert C. Grundy, D.D. Maysville, Kentucky. 1855. 

Dr. Grundy has ably reviewed the speech of the Philadelphia member 
of Congress, and has administered a proper rebuke with pungent, clear, 
and consistent truth. The Roman Catholics have provoked a controversy, 
which has reacted with great effect against themselves. 

Responsibilities or Educated Men to their Country: An Address before the 
Linn;ran Association of Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, Pa. By the Honorable 
Samuel Hepburn, of Carlisle, Pa. Gettysburg. 1854. 

Judge Hepburn's Address contains a great many valuable thoughts 
expressed in eloquent words. We had marked a number of passages, but 
have only space to insert the following short one. 

" I am fully aware of the importance of a high degree of intellectual cultiva- 
tion among a free people. But it cannot accomplish what we need. You may 
plant school-houses on every hill-top, establish colleges in every village, and your 
country will be none the better for it. Science and art must both have breathed 
iuto them a spirit of purer origin than themselves, to fit them to take their place 
as moral instructors of the race. You must beware of assigning them a rank 
not their own. Remember, that out of its own place, when it encroaches upon 
foreign domain, every science becomes feeble, and often injurious. Intellectual 
improvement, and refinement in taste and manners, remove the rugged asperities 
of character, but do not change the man. Amid all changes which are but the 
result of external circumstances, human nature remains the same. The senti- 
ment of the poet is the expression of a profound philosophic truth : ' unless above 
himself he can erect himself, how mean a thing is man.'" 

An Historical Discourse, containing a sketch of the Leacock Presbyterian Church, 
Lancaster County, Pa. By the Rev. P. J. Timlow, Pastor. Philadelphia. Joseph 
M. Wilson. 1855. 

This discourse begins at the foundations, and is full of accurate histori- 
cal information. The Leacock Church was formerly included within the 
bounds of the Pcquea Church, but has had a separate organization for 
more than a century. Brother Timlow has produced a rich historical 
discourse j and Mr. Wilson has issued it in his usually good style. 

€\)i JlrligtouH Waill 

Burning op Nassau IIai.i. — The following account of the burning 
of the old edifice of the College of New Jersey is taken from a letter, 
sent to " The foeabyterian." A few additions and alterations have been 
made to the letter. 

Puinceton, N. J., March 12th, 1855. 

Mcnrt. Editor/ — Nassau Hall is biirnrd to tin' ground — only its blackened walls 
remain. Thii diaaatroui conflagration ooonrred on Saturday evening die I Oth inst,at 
8 o'clock, P. M. The lire originated in the second Story, in the room of one of the 

1855.] The Religious World. 183 

students, who was at the time in the study of President Maclean. A wood fire had 
been left in the open fire-place, a spark from which had probably communicated to 
some combustible in the room. The first discovery of it was made by the heat and 
smoke issuing from the room, which was already all in a blaze. The alarm was 
given, and it was, for awhile, hoped that the flames might be subdued. They ulti- 
mately mocked, however, every effort that was made to extinguish them, and the 
whole building was destroyed. It is only North College which was burned ; East 
and West College, with the other buildings belonging to the Institution, are uninjured. 
Through the exertions of Tutor Cameron, Mr. Gilchrist, Professor Giger, and others, 
the valuable pictures belonging to the College, which were in the building, were 
saved. Among them is one by Peale, of the Death of Mercer, with a full length por- 
trait of Washington, taken at some time during the Revolution, which was hung on the 
wall of the chapel, on a spot formerly occupied by a portrait of George II. Many of the 
students lost a part or the whole of their books and furniture. It is providential that 
the high wind which had been blowing during the day had lulled before the fire broke 
out; also that it occurred at so early an hour, about eight or nine in the evening, before 
the students had retired to rest, and that no accident occurred to life or limb. The 
ruins look sad and desolate enough. There will be no suspension of the exercises of 
the College in consequence of this disaster, immediate provision having been made 
for the accommodation of the students whose rooms were burned. The insurance 
was but $12,000. By a remarkable coincidence, this fire occurred very nearly the 
fifty-third anniversary of the previous conflagration of the same building ; North Col- 
lege having been burned March 6th, 1802, about fifty-three years after the foundation 
of the Institution. N. H. 

At a meeting of the trustees of the College, recently held, it has been 
determined to let the old walls stand, and simply to renovate the building. 
This, we think, is mistaken policy. When a fire occurs, business men 
commonly take advantage of the providential opportunity to rebuild in an 
inviting and more convenient form. The old walls are not very handsome 
in appearance j and although they have not sustained any particular in- 
jury, so as to require them to be pulled down, yet the building was an old 
one, scarcely up to the times. It is true that the historical associations 
are interesting ; and if the decision was made by the heart, and not by the 
head, there would be but one sentiment on the subject. The question is, 
however, decided by the trustees ; and the interior of the building will be 
refitted in a superior manner. The great evil of the long halls will be 
remedied; and the partition walls will cut off communication between 
the different parts of" the building. Old Nassau Hall, when renovated, 
will be a much more inviting edifice than before ; and, even the external 
appearance, with a new cupola and some few other external alterations, 
will be much improved. 

A petition was sent to the New Jersey Legislature, asking aid in re- 
building the College edifice ; and a bill appropriating $10,000, was intro- 
duced into the Assembly for that purpose. The bill failed by a vote of 
16 to 36. We think it bad policy to have made any such application. 
Presbyterians are abundantly able to rebuild their colleges, and especially 
Princeton College. New Jersey has several times refused to appropriate 
the public funds to the support of Princeton College ; even before other 
colleges were established. An article appeared in one of the Newark pa- 
pers, advocating a donation to Bishop Doane's College at Burlington. And 
one of the inevitable effects of aiding Princeton College would have been 
to stimulate applications from colleges of other denominations, including 
Puseyites and Romanists. The best plan, undoubtedly, was the one 
adopted by the Legislature, which throws all such institutions on their 
own resources. The people of New Jersey want no Maynooths, endowed 
by the State. And we believe that the great majority of Presbyterians. 

184 Statistics. [April. 

will fully concur in the action of the Legislature in regard to their own 

The following account of the debate in the Legislature of New Jersey 
is taken from the Trenton State Gazette : — 

The bill to appropriate $10,000 for the relief of Princeton College was taken up. 
Mr. Tompkins advocated the appropriation as a part of liberal and enlightened policy 
on the part of the State toward educational institutions. This institution is particu- 
larly a part of the State. He recited the history of the College, and recounted the il- 
lustrious men it has educated, to the pride of the State and the benefit of the country. 
He stated that the institution is without funds to repair the damages recently sustained, 
and appealed strongly and eloquently in favor of the passage of the bill. 

Mr. Holmes said he could not support the bill on principle, believing the State has 
not a right to divert its funds in this manner. 

Mr. Diverty said he looked upon the bill as establishing a precedent which would 
lead to numerous applications of a similar kind from other institutions, and he was 
also opposed to the principle involved. 

Mr. Tompkins said the precedent had been established in other States, and he woukl 
be in favour of making a similar appropriation to other institutions, if they could pre- 
sent equally good reasons. 

Mr. Barrett supported the views in favour of the bill. 

Mr. Jay asked if the institution was sectarian. 

Mr. Vandeventcr, of Princeton, replied that it was not. It was under the control of 
gentlemen from different denominations,* and educated young men from all classes 
of society and of all religious beliefs — frequently gratuitously. The dominant control 
is Presbyterian, but the College is not directly connected with that denomination. 

Mr. Holmes protested against the opposersof the bill being considered as unfriendly 
to the institution, and offered to be one of a number to make up the sum required 
for rebuilding. 

Mr. Diverty made remarks of a similar character, and argued that the precedent 
should not be established, as it would involve future appropriations to other denomi- 
nations (if the Legislature should be consistent), including the Roman Catholics. 

Mr. Jay supported the bill on the ground that the College is not sectarian, and often 
furnishes gratuitous education. 

Mr. Stratton declared himself opposed to all appropriations, and particularly this, 
deeming the institution was of a special instead of a general character. 

Mr. Gregory alluded to the benefit the institution confers on the State pecuniarily, 
by bringing money through students from other States, which amounts to a vast sum. 

The vote was then taken, and the bill was lost — 1G to 36. 

We hope that the Alumni and friends of the College will now contri- 
bute liberally towards the building. At least $20,000 will be needed, in 
addition to the insurance. It is contemplated to make the new building 
fire-proof, as far as possible ; aud this will require a considerable extra 
expenditure. Dr. Maclkan, the honoured President, is using laudable 
efforts to secure funds in this emergency j and now is the time to send in 
contributions — liberal contributions. 

Fokkicxers in the United States. — Tho foreign born population, which is 
less than one-eighth of the native white and free coloured in the Union, is less 
than one-fiftieth in the South, about one-twentieth in the Southwest, and one- 

* All tho Trustees and Profossors are Presbyterians. — Two of the Trustees belong 
to the New School. — Ed. 




fifth in the Middle States. In the Eastern and Northwestern States, the propor- 
tion is nearly the same as the average of the Union. 

The number of foreigners who arrived in the United States since 1790 may be 
stated as follows. The arrivals from 1790 to 1820, are given on the authority of 
Professor Tucker ; those subsequent to that period are obtained from the Cus- 
tom-House reports : — 





1790 to 1800 .... 50,000 

1835-36 . 

1800 to 1810 



1810 to 1820 

































1848 (15 months) 









1852 (15 months) 




























Proportion of 

Total free population — 

Total foreign 

foreign to na- 




tive, per cent. 







■ • • 



19 84 










and Territories, 








Murder in Popish Countries. — At the late annual meeting of the Evan 
gelical Alliance in London, the Rev. Hobart Seymour gave the result of his own 
examination of authentic returns, made by public authority, in nearly all the so- 
called Catholic States of Europe, as to the single crime of murder. He sup- 
poses the plain question put, How many persons in every million of population are 
taken up and prosecuted for murder every year ? In order to answer this ques- 
tion, Mr. Seymour has examined the judicial returns in each country for several 
years, and struck the average. This done, he answers thus : — 

In Protestant England, there are prosecuted every year for murder, in 

each million of the population, ..... 4 

In Ireland, before the great emigration, there were . . .45 

In Ireland, after so many Romanists left the island, and the proportion 

of the Protestant population became larger, the number fell to . 19 

In Belgium, least immoral of Popish countries, . . .18 

In France, where murder is classified rather scientifically, under the 
heads of assassination, infanticide, parricide, poisoning, and military 

In Austria, the like varieties of murder, 


186 Statistics. [April. 

In Bavaria, now become purely " Catholic," . . . .68 

In Sardinia, where there has been for ages (in one part of that kingdom) 

some Protestant influence, the number drops to . .20 

In Lombardo-Venetia, it is up again to .... 45 

In Tuscany, where a British Christian, if in earnest, may not live, . 84 
In the Papal States, where "the Holy, Catholic, apostolical, Roman 

Church," has everything her own way, the number is . . 100 

In Sicily, not quite so intensely demoralized by the Church, it comes 

down to ........ 90 

In Naples, where they have a taste for blood, and publicly exhibit the 
blood of one St. Januarius every year, there is made an exquisitely 
careful classification of murder into parricide, husband murder, wife 
murder, murder of other relations, infanticide, poisoning, intentional 
assassination, murder with robbery, and murder with adultery. Of 
all sorts of murder, the dreadful proportion to each million in Naples 
is no less than ....... 200 

But in England, let it be again noted, only .... 4 

Considering that all crimes flourish together under the Papal shadow with cor- 
respondent luxuriance, but, for the present, only setting the scale by murder, we 
ask the advocates of Popery to account for this vast difference in favor of Protes- 
tant England. 

Disasters ox Western Rivers. — The following, from The Louisville Courier 
shows the nature and amount of the disasters which occurred in 1854 on the Mis- 
sissippi, Ohio, Missouri, and tributary Rivers : — 

No. of steamboats sunk, 71 

Loss by same, $754,000 

Loss by ice, to steamboats and flats, ..... 320,000 

No. of steamboats burned, . . . ... .33 

Loss by same, 1,304,000 

No. of steamboats destroyed by collision, .... 9 

Loss by same, 122,000 

No. of steamboats exploded, ....... 10 

Loss by same, ......... 70,000 

Total loss of property by disasters on western rivers in 1854, $550,300 

Total loss of life by same disasters. ...... 7.250 

TriE Cotton Trade of Great Britain. — The Import and the Manufac- 
ture. — The great cotton port of England is Liverpool. The total decline during 
the year was 7-8d. per lb. The imports into Great Britain for 1854, was as fol- 

lows : — 

East Indies, 
West Indies, &c, 


Total, ..... 2,172,500 

The amount of stocks for 1853 and 1854, were as follows! — 

Total unconsumed for 1S53, .... 817,600 

" " " 1854, .... 706,300 

The stock in the ports on the fust of January, 1864, amounted to 717,500 



Thoughts for the Many. 


The stock in dealers' and spinners' hands amounted to 100,000 bales. 

The import in 1854 amounted to 2,172,500. Total, 2,990,000 bales. 

The export to the Continent and Ireland amounted in all to 316,600 bales. 
The amount taken for consumption of England and Scotland, to 1,947,100 bales. 
The decrease of stocks in the hands of dealers and spinners was 20,000 bales. 
Remaining on hand in the ports on the 1st of January, 1855, 626,300. Ditto in 
dealers' and spinners' hands, 80,000. Total, 2,990,000. The probable consump- 
tion of America is thus stated : 



The table of imports into Great Britain shows a total decrease of 91,700 
bales. The average weekly consumption is estimated at 37,829 bales, divided as 
follows : — 


Egyptian, &c, 
East India, 
West India, 






The stock in the kingdom, as compared with last year, exhibits a total decrease 
of 111,200 bales, thus: 

American, ...... 13,100 

Brazil, ...... 1,400 

Egyptian, ...... 30,100 

East India, ...... 66,600 

The total import in pounds weight, was 886,626,000. 

The growth of America, not taking into account the quantity remaining on 
hand in the interior, is thus stated : — 

1850-1 ...... 2,355,257 

1851-2 ...... 3,015,029 

1852-3 ...... 3,262,882 

1853-4 ...... 2,930,027 

dtfrangjita hx tjje J&ani]. 


In the Catechism of the Nineteenth Century, says Hiram Fuller, the true an- 
swer to the question, " What is the chief end of man ?" should be — Money. 
When one pauses to reflect upon this universal scramble after " the root of all 
evil," the money-mania of the day becomes a sort of miraculous phenomenon. 
It seems to be the summum bonum of human existence — the ultima thule of 
human effort. Men work for it, fight for it, beg for it, steal for it, starve for it, 
preach for it, He for it, live for it, and die for it. And all the while, from the 
cradle to the grave, nature and God are ever thundering in our ears the solemn 
question, "What shall it profit a man to gain the whole world and lose his own 
soul?" This madness for money is the strongest and lowest of the passions ; it 
is the insatiate Moloch of the human heart, before whose remorseless altar all the 

188 Thoughts for the 3Iany. [April. 

finer attributes of humanity are sacrificed. It makes merchandize of all that is 
sacred in human affections ; and even traffics in the awful solemnities of the eter- 
nal world. Fathers sell their daughters for gold ; and temples dedicated to reli- 
gion are used as marts for the display of the glittering temptation. 

Miserly men, in the possession of great wealth and who pretend to love their 
children as the " apple of their eye," will stint them in education, in pleasure, and 
in health ; and keep them cramped and miserable for lack of money, through all 
the earlier and better years of their existence; and when Death relaxes the old 
man's grasp from his money-bags, the overwhelming avalanche of wealth becomes 
often a curse rather than a blessing to his heirs. Human life at longest is but a 
span — a fleeting dream — a passing apparition in the phantasmagoria of Time. 
What folly to devote it to au unscrupulous struggle for that "which perisheth 
with the using." 


All earthly charms, however dear, 
Howe'er they please the eye or ear, 

Will quickly fade and fly, 
Of earthly glory faint the blaze, 
And soon the transitory rays 

In endless darkness die. 

The nobler beauties of the just 
Shall never moulder in the dust, 

Or know a sad decay ; 
Their honours time and death defy, 
And round the throne of heaven on high 

Beam everlasting day. 

Henry Moore. 


The following is told of the present Governor of Pennsylvania, and, if true, is 
much to his credit as a man of religious principle: — 

"In the evening after his inauguration, a Committee of very prominent men of 
the State called on the new Governor, informing him that they had come to escort 
him to the inauguration ball. ' A ball ! gentlemen — I never attend balls.' The 
Committee informed him that all the arrangements for his presence had been 
completed, that it was a special occasion, and that the ladies were already waiting 
in anxious expectation for his introduction. 'I am very sorry, gentlemen, to 
occasion any disappointment; but I am conscientiously adverse to balls, and these 
arrangements were made without my participation, and of course without my 
consent.' The Governor did not attend the ball. 


Life is the porch of eternity: here the believer dresseth himself, that he may 
be fitted to enter in with the Bridegroom. It is to a child of God a season of 
grace, — the seed-time of eternity. The lift of a believer is as a lamp — he gains 

food doing good : while the life of a sinner runneth nut as sand, utterly worthless. 
'he life of the one is as a figure sculptured in marble; that of the other, as letters 
written in dust. 

Life is the day for labour. Death is the sleeping time for the body. Life is 
the working-time. A Christian hath QO time to lie fallow. "Work while it is 
called to -daw" Then' is ever some work to do, — either some sin to mortify, or 
gome grace to exercise. " The night cometh, when no man can work." 

1855.] Thoughts for the Many. 189 


The meditation of heaven is a pillar of support under all our sufferings ; heaven 
will make amends for all. One hour in heaven will make us forget all our sorrows. 
As the sun dries up the water, so one beam of God's glorious face will dry up all 
our tears. 

The saints shall receive as much glory as human nature, when glorified, can 
receive ; but, although Christ conveys his image to his people, he does not convey 
his essence. The sun shining upon a glass leaves the impress of its beauty there, 
but the glass is not the sunbeam ; so Christ conveys only his likeness, not his 

There will be no sorrow in heaven ; one smile from Christ will eradicate all 
tears. Sorrow is a cloud gathered in the heart upon the apprehension of some 
evil, and weeping is the cloud of grief dropping into rain ; but in heaven the Sun 
of righteousness shall shine so bright, that there shall be neither cloud nor rain. 

" There remains a rest for the people of God ;" not but that there will be motion 
in heaven, for spirits cannot be idle, but it shall be activity without lassitude or 
weariness. It shall be labour full of ease, motion full of rest. 

Heaven is the highest link of the saint's happiness. The lamp of glory will be 
ever burning, never wasting. As there is no intermission in the joys of heaven, 
so there shall be no expiration. When God has once planted his saints in para- 
dise, he will never transplant them, — " they shall be for ever with the Lord." 

What if all the dust of the earth were turned to silver ; what if every stone were 
a wedge of gold ; what if every flower were a ruby, every blade of grass a pearl, 
every grain of sand a diamond, — yet what were all this to "the new Jerusalem, 
which is above ?" It is as impossible for any man to comprehend glory, as to 
" mete the heavens with a span," or drain the mighty ocean. 

As the sunshine of blessedness is without clouds, so it never sets. 
The sea is not so full of water as the soul of a glorified saint is full of joy. There 
can be no sorrow in heaven, as there can no be joy in hell. 

The glory of heaven will be seasonable. The seasonableness of a mercy adds 
to its beauty and sweetness : it is like " apples of gold in pictures of silver." 
Heaven is granted to the saints when the conflicts with sin and sorrow are 

Although heaven be given us freely, yet we must strive for it ; our work is 
great, our Master is urgent, our time is short ; we must be earnest as well as dili- 
gent. " Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with all thy might." 

Is there a kingdom of glory coming ? then see how happy are God's saints at 
their death ! They go to a kingdom — they see God's face, which shines ten 
thousand times brighter than the sun in its meridian glory ; they have in the 
kingdom of heaven the quintessence of all delights ; they have the water of life, 
clear as crystal ; they feed not on the dew of Hermon, but on the manna of 
angels. In that kingdom the saints are crowned with perfection ; the desires of 
the glorified souls are infinitely satisfied ; there is nothing absent they could wish 
might be enjoyed ; there is nothing present that they could wish might be removed. 
No saint wishes to return from that land of Beulah ; they would not leave the 
fatness and sweetness of the olive to embrace the bramble. What are golden 
treasures to the gold that never perisheth in the kingdom of heaven? There is 
glory in its highest elevation. In that kingdom is knowledge without ignorance, 
holiness without sin, beauty without blemish, strength without weakness, light 
without darkness, riches without poverty, ease without pain, liberty without re- 
straint, rest without labour, joy without sorrow, love without hatred, plenty without 
surfeit, honour without disgrace, health without sickness, peace without end, 
contentment without cessation. Oh, the happiness of those who die to the Lord ! 
If God says to us, " Ye are mine," he will take us up to himself at death. Death 
dissolves the union between the body and the soul, but perfects the union between 
God and the soul: this is the emphasis of heaven's glory, to be with God. "Lead 
me, Lord, to that glory," said a holy man, "a glimpse whereof I have seen as in 
a glass darkly." 

190 Thoughts for the Many. [April. 


" I laboured,'' said Paul, " more abundantly than they all ; yet not I, but the 
grace of God that was with me. : ' Before his conversion Paul laboured; but his 
labours were evil in their character, and mischievous in their effects. After his 
conversion he laboured ; and his labours were good, and in their effects happy. 
The labours performed before conversion, were strictly and properly Paul's ; those 

?erformed after conversion, were not the labours of Paul, but of diviue grace in 
'aul. Men are naturally disposed to work ; but grace only disposes them to 
work aright. The connection between grace and works is that of cause and 
effect. Therefore whenever grace takes possession of the heart, the works of 
grace will follow. One of the first questions asked by Paul, when converted, 
was, " Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ?" Why does he who is renewed by 
divine grace, desire to do good works ? 

1. Because good works do honour to the Author of grace. " Let your light so 
shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father 
which is in heaven." Grace produces gratitude. The renewed heart expauds 
with emotions of thankfulness in view of a gracious inheritance. Peter gives 
expression to his gratitude thus : " Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto 
a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead to an inheritance 
incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for 
you." Paul felt the love of Christ constraining him. The grateful heart not only 
desires to do good works, but such works as will demonstrate supreme love to 
Christ. Therefore it was that the Apostles " rejoiced that they were counted 
worthy to suffer shame for his name." Professing Christians who are content to 
make no personal efforts to promote the cause of Christ, or only such as are con- 
venient, give sad evidence that they have only a name to live, or that their 
spiritual life is extremely feeble. The degree of our love to Christ is to be esti- 
mated by what we seek to do for his honour. 

2. Good works not only do honour to the Author of grace, but add to the hap- 
piness of our fellow men. Depravity is selfish, and seeks its own. Grace puri- 
fies the heart, and thus fills it with benevolence. " God is love ;" and grace 
makes men like God. Depravity makes it painful to sacrifice ease or money for 
the happiness of others. Grace makes us regard such sacrifices as privileges. 
The churches of Macedonia were in deep poverty and severe affliction ; yet grace 
made them willing — even "beyond their power' to relieve the wants of others — 
"praying us," said Paul, "with much entreaty that we would receive the gill, and 
take upon us the fellowship of the ministering to the saints." 2 Cor. 8 : 1-5. 
Grace gives us to realize the truth of that beautiful saying of our Lord Jesus — 
" that it is more blessed to give than to receive." Depravity induces men to 
hoard up what they have, that they may enjoy it. Grace prompts them to give 
out, that they may have a higher and nobler enjoyment. Depravity seeks enjoy- 
ment in ease or selfish toil. Grace seeks it in active benevolent labours. 

3. He who has tasted Divine grace, desires more of it ; and in doing good works 
he gets more. Those affections which are the fruits of grace, seek to embody 
themselves in appropriate acta ; and thus they gain strength. Besides, it is in the 

discharge of duty, thai we enjoy the Indwelling and sanctifying influences of the 
Holy Spirit. "The Lord is with you while ye lie witli him." In the faithful ser- 
vice of Christ we recieve "grace for grace." By sins, either of omission or of 
commission, the Spirit is grieved, and the heart is left in hardness and darkness. 

"Re tore unto me the joy of thy salvation," prayed penitent David, "and uphold 

me with thy free Spirit. Then will 1 teach transgressors thy ways; and sinners 
.shall lie converted unto thee." He who would " follow holiness," must follow it 
in the faithful discharge of duty. The Holy Spirit works in us "both to will and 
to do." The active Christian is the growing Christian. 

4. Works of grace arc seeds of glory; and no harvest is so certain as that 
which shall be gathered from wich seeds. -He that goeth forth and weepeth, 

hearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his 
sheaves with him." Grace in the heart aspires to glory in heaven, and lays up 

1855.] Thoughts for the Many. 191 

treasures there. And no treasures are so safe as those which consist in works of 
grace. They may be but partially enjoyed here; but they shall be enjoyed with- 
out interruption through eternal ages. The pious dead " rest from their labours, 
and their works do follow them." 

How pleasing the thought, that every truly good work becomes an imperisha- 
ble treasure, forever adding to the bliss of heaven. Well might Paul exhort 
Christians to be " always abounding in the work of the Lord ; forasmuch as ye 
know, that your labour is not in vain in the Lord." Christian reader, grace in the 
heart of Paul led to good works — abundant, self-denying works — works tending 
to the salvation of men. Does it produce in your heart the same fruits ? In him 
grace made those self-denying labours pleasant. Is such your experience ? Since 
you professed to love Christ, what efforts have you made for his cause ? What 
are you doing now ? Do you abound in such efforts ? Do you pray for opportu- 
nities to do something for the salvation of men ? When opportunities offer, do 
you thankfully embrace them ? — Presbyterian. 


" It would be a sad thing to wear a starless crown in heaven." 

If grief in heaven might find a place, 
And shame the worshipper bow down, 

Who meets the Saviour face to face, 
'Twould be to wear a starless crown ; 

Find none in all that countless host, 
We meet before the Eternal throne, 

Who once like us were sinners lost, 
Can say our influence led them home. 

The Son, to do his Father's will, 

Could lay his own bright crown aside ; 

The law's stern mandates to fulfil — 
Poured out his blood for us, and died 1 

Shall we who know his wondrous love, 

While here below sit idly down ? 
Ah then — if we reach heaven above, 

There'll be for us a starless crown! 

0, may it ne'er of me be said, 

No soul, that's saved by grace divine, 

Has called for blessings on my head, 
Or linked her destiny with mine. 


The characters which attract us most are not always those which are very 
marked or peculiar — but often those in which the beauty and completeness of the 
development render it impossible to fix on any one trait which is more prominent 
than another. 

Near the close of the last century there lived in the Isle of Wight, a poor, but 
pious girl. She lived in obscurity. In obscurity she died. But the story of the 
Dairyman's Daughter has gone into all the world, and she being dead exerts an 
influence of which she never dreamed when living. 

The influence of such a life — so pure, so gentle — is an intangible thing. We 
cannot lay our finger upon a single great thing in it, any more than we can touch 

192 Thought 8 for the Many. [April. 

the colours of the rainbow, yet as with the rainbow, we are fascinated and lifted 
above ourselves by the spectacle of so much beauty vanishing into heaven. 


1. " I believe that man is a beast ; that the soul is the body, and the body the 
soul, and that after death there is neither body nor soul.'' 

2. " I believe that there is no religion ; that natural religion is the only religion, 
and that all religion is unnatural." 

3. " I believe not in revelation ; I believe not the Bible. I believe in tradition ; 
I believe in the Shaster, the Vedas, the Koran. I believe not Moses, the Pro- 
phets, the Evangelists, the Apostles, or Jesus Christ. I believe in Chubb, Collins, 
Tolland, Tiudal, Bolingbroke, Hume, Voltaire, Volney, and Tom Paine." 



The following anecdote is related by Audubon, the celebrated traveller and 
ornithologist : — 

" A man who was once a pirate assured me that several times, while at certain 
wells dug in the burning, shelly sands of a well-known key which must be here 
nameless, the soft and melancholy notes of the doves awoke in his breast feelings 
which had long slumbered, melted his heart to repentance, and caused him to 
linger at the spot in a state of mind which he only who compares the wretched- 
ness of guilt within him with the holiness of former innocence, can truly feel. He 
said he never left the place without increased fears of futurity, associated as he was, 
although I believe by force, with a band of the most desperate villains that ever 
annoyed the Florida coast. So deeply moved was he by the notes of any bird, 
and especially those of a dove, the only soothing sounds he ever heard during his 
life of horrors, that through these plaintive notes, and them alone, he was induced 
to escape from his vessel, abandon his turbulent companions, and return to a 
family deploring his absence. After paying a hasty visit to those wells and lis- 
tening once more to the cooings of the Zcnaida dove, he poured out his soul in 
Supplication for mercy, and once more became, what one has said to be the noblest 
work of God — an honest man. His escape was effected amid difficulties and 
dangers, but no danger seemed to him comparable with the danger of living in 
violation of human and divine laws ; and he now lives in peace in the midst of 
his friends." 


It is generally known that the Church numbers among its members many more 
females than males. The natural tenderness and simplicity of the female character 
more nearly resemble the traits of Christ, than the unsoftened, rougher virtues of 
the other sex. But we think it will surprise many to learn the remarkable dis- 
proportion in regard to numbers, that is set forth in the following statement: it is 
from the pastoral letter of the venerable Bishop Meade, of "Virginia. He says: 

A most startling ami deplorable fact is the immense disproportion between the 
Dumber of male and female professors of religion. The ministers of (Jod see it 

and mourn over it. whenever they administer the Lord's Supper. The Bishops 
do the same when the rites of confirmation are performed. The number of females 
on these occasions is often double, treble, yea, quadruple that of the males. I 
have administered the rite of confirmation to thirty persons, onlyons of whomwas 

a mule. I have often done it to ■ smaller number, when there was not one male. 

li is to be Geared that the disproportion between the professors in the two sexes, 
is hut a just representation of the difference in religions character. 

EV. ©®D8Nt: .^YLEIfi, ;■ 





MAY, 1855. 

MkBlIiittetfiij* Mitlts. 


" Have you read the Presbyterian Tract on Justification ?" 
"Yes, sir, long ago, and consider it one of the ablest and best trea- 
tises on this subject, which we have ever seen, particularly for 
popular reading — it being brief, clear, and scriptural." " You mis- 
apprehend my question ; I do not allude to the Tract written many 
years since by the Rev. Dr. Archibald Alexander, and forming 
one of the series of tracts issued by the Presbyterian Board of 
Publication; but to a new tract, recently published by the New 
School Presbyterian Publication Committee, and penned by the 
Rev. Albert Barnes." As we had not seen this tract, we availed 
ourselves of an early opportunity to obtain it. We commenced its 
perusal with more than ordinary interest, and scarcely laid it down 
until it was finished. Our particular interest arose from the report 
(which we hoped to find true) that its author was becoming more 
orthodox than he had been in former years, and especially from the 
circumstance that the tract is virtually endorsed by the New School 
Presbyterian Church, it being published with the sanction of fifteen 
of their prominent men (ministers and laymen), appointed by their 
General Assembly as a Publishing Committee. For their sakes, 
and for the sake of the cause of truth, we hoped to find this cardi- 
nal doctrine of Christianity treated in a scriptural and satisfactory 

The tract contains 132 pages, about 60 of which are occupied in 
discussing preliminary topics, to prepare the way for answering the 
question, which forms the title of the tract, " How shall man be 
just with God ?" In those preliminaries we saw no evidence of 
the author's returning to old-fashioned orthodoxy. His views 
(expressed incidentally) on the nature of sin, the imputation of 

vol. v. — no. 5. 13 

194 How shall Man be just with God t [May. 

the guilt of Adam's first sin to his posterity, original sin and human 
ability, are not materially different from those -which he entertained 
and published on these points, in 1830-35. But our design in this 
notice is not remark upon these particulars. 

He commences the discussion of the main question by explaining 
the phrase " the merits of Christ," which phrase he employs sub- 
sequently instead of the one ordinarily used by Calvinistic writers, 
viz. : Christ's righteousness. He says, " the phrase [i. e. the one 
he employs] does not occur in the Bible ; but the idea which is in- 
tended to be conveyed by it exists there as a vital and central 
thought in the whole plan of justification by faith." He explains 
the phrase thus : " that there was an amount of merit in his ser- 
vices which he did not need for any personal advantage or for him- 
self, which had been secured with a special purpose to supply the 
great and undisputed deficiency of man, and which can be made 
available to us on certain conditions, and in the way which God has 
revealed as the ground of our acceptance." 

As the use of the word "merit," instead of righteousness, is the 
hinge on which the author's views are made chiefly to turn, we will 
give special attention to this point. Though we do not object to 
the word, in itself considered, but are willing to admit that it con- 
veys, when rightly understood, a true and scriptural sense, yet we 
feel no small objection to the laying aside of the scriptural term 
" righteousness,'" and substituting for it a word which is confessedly 
not found in the Bible. And our objection becomes still stronger, 
when we perceive by the subsequent discussion, that his reason for 
this course obviously is (though not so stated), that he can make 
his own views concerning justification, without reference to law, 
appear more plausible and consistent by employing the word merit, 
than he could do by using the other term. 

The frequency with which the word righteousness is employed in 
the Holy Scriptures when speaking, on this subject, ought to decide 
the question, if there were no other reason, in favour of its use by 
theological writers. In the Old Testament the Psalmist resolved 
to make mention of " God's righteousness, even of his only." 
And the prophet foretold of Christ, " this is the name whereby ho 
shall be called, the Lord our righteousness." In the New Testa- 
ment the phrases, u righteousness of God," " the righteousness of 
faith," " the righteousness of God in him," t. e., in Christ, and 
other similar expressions, are employed so uniformly with reference 
to this doctrine, that their almost total disuse in a treatise on jus- 
tification, has, to say the least, an unfavourable appearance. What 
would be thought of the conduct of a writer, who should substitute 
some other word of human invention for the name of Jesus, on the 
assumption that it expresses the true idea intended to be conveyed 
by that divine name, better than the name itself? Or who should 
employ another word, not found in the Bible, as the principal, lead- 
ing term, and then barely introduce the scriptural name of the 

1855.] How shall Man be just with God? 195 

Saviour, with the remark, that the name before used expresses the 
true meaning of the name Jesus ? This latter course would be 
analogous to that pursued by the author of this tract, in his use of 
the two words, merit and righteousness. 

But what does he expect to accomplish by this course ? The 
word righteousness is so closely allied to the term law, both by 
common usage and in the word of God, that he could not easily 
divest the mind of the reader of the idea that justification is a 
legal transaction, if he should employ the scriptural word right- 
eousness, until he had first provided a key to unlock its meaning by 
the word merit, so explained and illustrated as to indicate that 
Christ's mediatorial services had no direct reference to the law of 
God, and so far as they had any reference to it, they were over and 
above what the law demanded. "It is not meant," says he, "that 
a man who is justified on the Gospel plan, is justified in a legal 
sense." Again, "it is not, in any proper sense, a legal transac- 
tion." And further, " the plan of justification in the Gospel is a 
departure from the regular process of law" .... and still further, 
" all attempts to show that the plan of justification in the Gospel is 
a legal transaction, or is in accordance with the legal principles, 
have been signal failures." In defining the term justification as 
used in the Gospel, he says it " does not mean mere pardon," but it 
includes also " treating the offender as if he had not sinned." 
Yet this treatment, according to him, is not based on any legal 
connection between the believer and Christ, or the imputation of 
Christ's righteousness to him in any legal or proper sense, but on 
the superabounding merits of Christ, of which the sinner avails 
himself by faith. 

But is not justification a legal transaction ? and are not the obe- 
dience and sufferings of Christ, on the ground of which the believ- 
ing sinner is justified, legal in their character ? These are vital 
questions, and must be settled by the Scriptures alone. Human 
reason and philosophy are inadequate to such a task. The term 
justification is admitted to be a legal term. Paul, who employs it 
so often, had been a lawyer, and he uses it as a correlate of the 
word righteousness, which strongly indicates that he designed to 
employ it in a legal sense. "For therein," says he, i. e., in the 
Gospel, " is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith, as 
it is written, The just shall live by faith." Again, he says, 
" If Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory, 
but not before God. For what saith the Scripture ? Abraham 
believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness." 
Here Abraham's being justified, is synonymous with the phrase, 
" being counted to him for righteousness," which was not by the 
deeds of the law, but by faith in Christ. The former was imprac- 
ticable, because he was a transgressor, and hence could be justified 
only by the vicarious obedience and sufferings of the Redeemer, 
called God's righteousness. "But now," says he, "the righteousness 

196 Hoiv shall Man be just with God? [May. 

of God without the law [i. e. without our obedience to the law] is 
manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets, even the 
righteousness of God, which is by the faith of Jesus Christ, unto 
all and upon all them that believe." 

In accordance with this view of justification, the obedience and 
sufferings of Christ had a direct and specific reference to the law 
of God, and were designed to meet its claims against the sinner, 
in such a way that upon his believing in Christ, the righteousness 
of the latter might be set to his account, and he be justified, i. e., 
pardoned and accepted as righteous. Our Lord affirms that " he 
came not to destroy the law, but to fulfil." And Paul says that 
" he is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that be- 
lieveth." Again, that "he was made under the law, to redeem 
them that were under the law." And further, that "what the law 
could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God, sending 
his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, condemned 
sin in the flesh, that the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled 
in us." How is it possible, in view of such passages as these, to 
deny that Christ's mediatorial work and our justification through 
him possess a legal character ? If interpreted according to the 
obvious meaning of the terms here employed, this aspect of the 
Gospel scheme is clearly set forth ; and it cannot be avoided 
except by understanding the terms (as our author does) in an 
unusual, and (as we think) an unwarranted sense. The doctrine of 
our Confession is unquestionably the legal view, and its language 
cannot be made to harmonize with the sentiments of this tract, any 
more easily than with the Scripture phraseology, except by treat- 
ing it in the same way, viz., as having a peculiar sense, unlike that 
ordinarily attached to the same forms of expression in other 

In comparing these two views with each other, three things 
occur to us as worthy of particular consideration. 

1. Their relation to the grace of the Gospel. The new theory 
claims some advantage in this respect over the old, but without any 
good reason. Indeed the advantage is on the other side. While 
both views are gracious, the new doctrine so disconnects the grace 
of Jesus Christ from his vicarious obedience to the Divine law, as 
to render it very difficult, not to say impossible, to solve the ques- 
tion in a satisfactory manner, how God can be just, in justifying 
the believing sinner. The Holy Scriptures, as well as our Confes- 
sion of Faith, connect in distinct terms the grace of the Gospel and 
the satisfaction rendered to Divine justice by the legal obedience 
and sufferings of Christ. " Do we make void the law through 
faith? God forbid; yea, we establish the law." " In whom we 
have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, accord- 
ing to the riches of his grace." Redemption is a legal terra. 
Among the earliest provisions recorded in the Old Testament for 

administering criminal jurisprudence, was the /NJ, or kinsman 

1855.] How shall Man be just with God? '197 

redeemer, who was required by law to repair the injuries of his 
unfortunate kinsman ; or if he were murdered, to avenge his blood. 

Christ, by assuming our nature became our 7NJ, our kinsman 
Redeemer, and in this character " gave his life a ransom for many." 
But though, as the law required of him, after he voluntarily came 
under it, he was made " a curse for us ;" yet the " forgiveness of 
our sins," is declared to be "according to the riches of his grace." 
While therefore this method of justification has no tendency to 
diminish the believer's conviction of personal unworthiness and ill 
desert, it enables him, when approaching the throne of grace, to 
offer the plea of mercy and justice harmoniously blended in the 
cross of Christ. 

2. A second point of comparison is their relation to the atone- 
ment. Justification and atonement are closely connected, and our 
views of the former must necessarily modify our views of the latter. 
If justification " is not a legal transaction," the atonement is not 
legal, and Christ in dying for us did not suffer the penalty of the 
law. This is the author's view of the atonement ; a view which to 
our minds, leaves mankind in a hopeless condition. He of course 
believes it to be otherwise, and he claims, as on the previous 
point, an advantage over the legal view. Here the advantage 
claimed is, that the Gospel can be preached and salvation offered 
to all men. This advantage however is more in appearance than, 
in reality. Though the legal view involves the doctrine of substi- 
tution and definite atonement, it does not involve its insufficiency ; 
but it holds and teaches the inexhaustible "/wZwess" of Christ for 
all who will "come to him." And hence no difficulty is felt by 
those who adopt this view, in inviting all to embrace the Saviour, or 
in carrying out to the letter his last command, " Go ye into all 
the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature." Arminians 
feel the same difficulty in offering salvation to all men, in view of 
the Calvinistic doctrine of election, which our author holds and de- 
fends, as the latter feels in view of the strictly vicarious and legal 
obedience and sufferings of Christ. We think their objection has 
no force ; and yet, in our opinion, it is as valid in the one case as 
in the other. 

3. Our third point of comparison is their relation to faith in 
Christ. When a sinner under conviction for sin, feels the necessity 
of faith in the Redeemer, what causes his anxiety, except the con- 
sciousness of guilt and condemnation, as a transgressor of God's 
law? And when " being justified by faith, he has peace with God, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ," what is the source of his peace, 
except a believing and spiritual perception of the Saviour, as his 
deliverer from the curse of the law, by his vicarious obedience and 
death ? Can anything less than this satisfy his conscience, or give 
him comfort and hope ? And is it not this, which makes Christ 
appear so suitable and precious ? 

198' How shall Man be just with God? [May. 

The relation of faith to the atonement corresponds also with the 
Old School doctrine. The believer's faith does not view Christ 
merely as a Saviour in general, but as his Saviour. In his first 
efforts to believe, while groaning under the burden of sin, his fear 
is, not that the Gospel provision is too definite, but too general, to 
meet his necessities. The invitations and promises of God's word 
he perceives are general ; but how, he asks, can his faith so appro- 
priate them to himself, as to make them available for his own 
salvation ? Religion is now with him a personal matter, and he 
anxiously inquires, can Christ's blood avail for me, who am the 
chief of sinners ? Does he love me ? and will he receive me f It 
will doubtless afford him encouragement to be told that the merits 
of Christ are sufficient for all sinners who come to him. But this 
general assurance becomes specific and definite in his mind, before 
he exercises saving faith ; i. e. it becomes a transaction between 
himself and his Saviour of a personal character, an individual 
concern, and his act of believing an individual act, as much as 
though he was the only sinner on earth. This was Paul's expe- 
rience. " The life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith 
of the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me." Mark, 
"who loved me, and gave himself for me." His faith rested upon 
this precious truth, and it was the source and support of his spiri- 
tual life. Whatever may be our views theoretically, concerning 
the extent of the atonement, whether we regard it as general or 
particular, it is always contemplated in the latter aspect, when we 
are in the act of receiving it by faith. 

" The beauty of Scripture," said Luther, " consists in pro- 
nouns." Upon which Macfarlane remarks, " ! blessed above 
compare is the man who can use the ' my' and the l me' of appro- 
priation in reply to the ' thy' and the ' thee' of the covenant. Is 
it not a valuable attainment, to feel personally interested in the 
great salvation ? It is, and such is the attainment of every appro- 
priator. His faith takes mercy to itself, and the feeling that it is 
rich in that mercy is a foretaste of heaven. There is no impro- 
priety in such a selfishness as this ; would God every sinner had 
it ! — for then every sinner would himself be saved, and the selfish- 
ness of sin would flee away before the rising orb of universal love." 

If, therefore, the doctrine of "redemption through Christ's 
blood," is truly expressed in the experience of the sinner, when he 
receives Christ as his Saviour, that is the Scriptural view of atone- 
ment and justification, which embodies in it as its leading elements, 
substitution, vicarious sacrifice, and imputation, as those terms have 
been employed and understood by standard Calvinistic writers for 
the last three hundred years. 

After all, we freely admit that the tract possesses excellences, 
which we hope, notwithstanding its errors (as we must regard 
thorn), will do good. The style is plain, and the illustrations easy 
to be comprehended. In these respects it is well adapted to popu- 

1855.] Validity of Presbyterian Polity. 199 

lar reading. We think, however, he carries his efforts to make the 
subject perspicuous too far, by attempting to divest it of all 
mystery, and conveying the impression that every principle in- 
volved in the doctrines of atonement and justification finds analo- 
gies among men, not in judicial proceedings, but in the ordinary 
and daily transactions of life. His illustrations appear to have been 
selected for the purpose of showing this. While we should endea- 
vour to make the subject as clear as practicable, we should not 
forget that God himself has caused it to be recorded, that " with- 
out controversy, great is the mystery of godliness, God was mani- 
fest in the flesh ;" and further, " which things the angels desire to 
look into ;" implying that neither men nor angels can fully com- 
prehend the sublime theme of man's redemption. 



No. I. 

The question, Where is the true church ? or, Which is the true 
church ? presupposes the question, What is the true church ? We 
cannot wisely enter on any search until we have defined the object 
we seek. Before deciding upon the claims of any particular de- 
nomination of Christians to be recognized as a church, or the 
church, we must have ascertained what the Scriptures describe and 
require a church, or the church to be. 

On this point two rival theories are now contending for the 
mastery throughout Christendom. 

I. The one theory replies to the question, What is the true 
church? — It is an ecclesiastical organization, analogous to the 
state. The Scriptural idea of it is exhausted in the notion of 
some vast institute, or polity. Romanists and Anglicans are 
theorists of this class. 

II. The other theory replies to the same question — It is a Chris- 
tian society, which may be conceived of as existing independent 
of organization, just as natural society may be conceived, of, as 
existing independent of the state. The Scriptural idea of it only 
includes the notion of institute, or polity, without either beginning, 
or terminating in that notion. The great body of Evangelical 
Protestants are theorists of this class. 

But as all society tends to organization, and as Christian society 
requires organization, and, in fact, possesses a very diversified or- 
ganization, the advocates of this latter theory must determine how 
we are to decide what shall be its most valid form and structure. 
In respect to this question, three opinions may be maintained. 

200 Validity of Presbyterian Polity. [May. 

1. One opinion is, that ecclesiastical organization is a mere 
fixture of expediency, like any secular polity which is of human 

2. Another opinion is, that ecclesiastical organization is a matter 
of positive enactment, like the Mosaic polity, which was of Divine 

3. The remaining opinion is, that ecclesiastical organization is 
and can be exclusively neither, but is rather a Providential growth 
out of Christian society, embodying Scriptural principles, and 
apostolic precedents, yet adapting itself to particular ages and con- 
ditions of the world. 

According to the first opinion, neither the writings nor the acts 
of the Apostles need be consulted, but only human reason and ex- 
perience. According ^to the second opinion, their writings contain 
an inspired constitution of church polity, minutely prescribed and 
authoritatively enjoined; and their acts are to be regarded as the 
infallible inauguration of that constitution. According to the 
third opinion, their writings afford only the principles upon which 
an ecclesiastical organization should be constructed, and their prac- 
tices serve but as precedents to illustrate the application of those 

Connecting these three opinions with that maintained by the 
first class of theorists, we find there are four different criteria pro- 
posed by which we are to decide upon the validity of any particular 
form of church polity. 

1. By the degree of legitimacy it can establish in the succession 
of its officers from the primitive officers. 

2. By the degree of its correspondence with a model visible 
organization, founded by the Apostles, and minutely prescribed in 

3. By the degree of its expression, through an organized form, of 
an ideal, invisible society, depicted in Scripture, and more or less 
completely exemplified by the Apostles. 

4. By the degree of its consistency with reason and experience. 
Now, in view of this statement of the question, there are two 

methods of arguing the validity of Presbyterian Polity. 

One method would be, to fully canvass these several theories ; 
and, adopting that one which could alone be regarded as tenable, 
to advocate the claims of Presbyterianism on its grounds, and by 
the help of its principles. This reasoning might have the advan- 
tage of being the more logical and thorough of the two ; but it 
would require very nice analysis and extended discussion. 

The other method (and the one of which we propose to sketch 
an outline) is to leave these theories unexamined and unchallenged ; 
and, successively applying their proposed criteria, to show that 
Presbyterianism satisfies the demands of each of them, not only as 
well, but better than their own avowed advocates. This reasoning 
will be perfectly consistent with the other ; and may, besides, have 

1855.] The Pious Poor and the Gospel Ministry. 201 

the advantage of being more thoroughly convincing, inasmuch as 
it will enable us, without surrendering any position of our own, to 
enter the enemy's territory, and vanquishing him on his own ground 
and with his own weapons, at length remain masters of the entire 
field of controversy. C. W. S. 


Poverty, in the sense of beggary, is scarcely applicable to pious 
men. The observation of King David, accords with the general 
history of the Church in all ages : " I have been young, and now 
am old, yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed 
begging bread." But though that extreme want implied in the 
term pauperism, is seldom found except in connection with vice, 
either directly or by natural consequence, it does not follow that 
piety is usually associated with wealth. There is a wide difference 
between absolute penury and overflowing abundanc); and though 
many noble examples of devoted piety and active usefulness are 
found among the rich, the great body of God's people occupy a 
position between the two points above indicated. They are able 
to support their families with comfort and respectability ; but are 
nevertheless comparatively poor ; i. e., they possess no overplus 
beyond the supply of their ordinary wants, and the calls made upon 
them for the support of the Gospel, the common school, and those 
several benevolent objects to which all the members of the Church 
are expected to contribute. They can educate their children in 
the various branches of an English education, as taught in the com- 
mon school, and can sometimes send them a few months to an 
academy or high school ; but are unable to incur the expense of 
giving them a liberal or college education. This is what we mean 
by pious poor in the caption of this article, and from such families 
God has seen fit, to a large extent, to call his ministers. 

By comparing the Minutes of the General Assembly for 1854, 
with the Annual Report of the Board of Education for the same 
year, it will appear that the number of candidates reported to the 
Assembly by all the Presbyteries, is 390, and that the number 
reported by the Board is 342 ; showing that all the candidates in 
our church, except 48, as far as officially reported, belong to the 
pious poor. These statistics, however, we believe, do not present 
the exact state of the case. Many of those candidates, whose 
parents are able to pay the whole expense of their education, do 
not place themselves under the care of the Presbytery, until they 
are prepared to apply for licensure, and hence are not reported to 
the General Assembly. The number of students in our Theologi- 

202 The Pious Poor and the Gfospel Ministry. [May. 

cal Seminaries, according to recent reports, is 283. Supposing 
there are 15 or 20 engaged in theological studies under private 
tuition (which we have reason to believe is the fact), then the 
result is, that the 390 reported to the General Assembly by the 
several Presbyteries, exceeds by 90 only the number who have 
passed through their literary course and are engaged in the study 
of theology ; leaving the remainder of our candidates, viz., all of 
them (except 90) who are in Colleges, Academies, and elsewhere, 
to be added to the number reported by the Presbyteries to the 
General Assembly. The number under the care of the Board of 
Education, in Colleges, Academies, and other preparatory schools, 
is not less than 200 ; and from information received from several 
institutions the number thus aided varies from one-half to two- 
thirds of the whole number of those who are pursuing their literary 
course with the ministry in view. Supposing the number in all to 
be 350, from which subtract 90, the difference between the num- 
ber reported to the last General Assembly, and the number of 
theological students, then the whole number of candidates for the 
Gospel ministry in our Church, in all stages of preparation, is as 
follows : — 

Theological students, ....... . 300 

Pursuing their literary course, ... ... 260 

Total, 560 

Aided by the Board of Education, . . .... 342 

Aided from other sources, or supporting themselves, . . 218 

A small part only of those who support themselves, are rich. 
Some are sons of clergymen, who seldom accumulate property. 
Others are sons of farmers or mechanics, or small country mer- 
chants, who, with the utmost economy, save enough from their in- 
come to educate a son for the Gospel ministry. And some, without 
assistance either from parents or elsewhere, earn their own support, 
by teaching school, &c, during their intervals of study. But with 
few exceptions, whatever their pecuniai-y resources, and whether 
aided or not, they belong to pious families. An inquiry recently 
made among the students of Allegheny Theological Seminary, dis- 
closed the interesting fact, that of the 47 then in attendance, 41 
had both parents pious, 5 only one, and but 1 neither. 

Another fact is also worthy of notice, viz., that those who are 
called to the ministry have generally been trained to habits of 
industry. Idle, sluggish men lack an important pre-requisite for 
this office ; and hence God usually enters those families where the 
sons are taught in early life to contribute their share of the com- 
mon and necessary toil incident to a comfortable and honourable 
support. The office of a bishop is not a sinecure but a work, for 
which a drone is utterly disqualified. But a disposition to activity, 
energy, diligence, and self-denial,^s not so much a constitutional 

1855.] The Pious Poor and the Gospel Ministry. 203 

trait of character, as the product of early parental education ; and 
the incentive to this training in the case of the pious' poor, is not 
only moral duty but necessity ; whereas in the case of the rich, it 
is moral duty alone ; which is too often insufficient to influence 
them to train up their sons to industrious and economical habits. 
This neglect is probably one reason why so few rich men's sons, 
even when they are pious, have a desire to become ministers of the 
Gospel. All children ought to be taught from early life, as a mat- 
ter of principle, to be diligent in business, to practise self-denial, 
and to seek the good of others as well as their own. This kind of 
training would be one important item in qualifying the sons of the 
rich for the ministerial office ; and it would also render it more 
inviting to them than when childhood and youth are spent in vain 
amusement and self-gratification. It becomes those parents on 
whom Divine Providence has bestowed wealth, to consider, in a 
serious and prayerful manner, whether they do not enjoy their 
wealth at too great a cost, if its possession is to prevent their sons 
from engaging in this high and holy calling ; and to inquire how 
they can avert from their families, this implied mark of God's dis- 
pleasure. It is far better to be poor with the Lord's favour, than 
rich without it. Riches, however, though dangerous, may be made 
a blessing ; and they are such when employed in a wise and proper 
manner. But they are not employed wisely or properly, when 
they are lavished with an unsparing hand upon our children, to the 
neglect of that discipline of body and mind, which is a necessary 
stimulus to personal exertion and to active and efficient usefulness. 
Many rich men commenced life without property, and have become 
wealthy mainly by their own exertions. Their early habits may 
serve to teach them what kind of training is best for their children ; 
and if they carefully and conscientiously adhere to this rule, their 
sons, instead of being effeminate and luxurious (like. too many in 
high life), will possess that true dignity which wealth and virtue 
mutually impart to each other. Such young men will not regard 
any post of usefulness beneath their attention, and accordingly, 
when they become pious, they will be as likely to enter the minis- 
try as the pious poor. We do not regard it as any reproach on the 
ministry that its candidates are chiefly of the poorer class. Christ 
chose his Apostles from this class. But we would submit to the 
wealthy the question, whether they do not desire to share more 
largely than they now do, in the privilege of furnishing the Church 
with her ministry ; and whether this would not be the case, if they 
should feel and act in the matter as we have indicated. Let them 
so train their sons as to prepare them to practise the self-denials 
and discharge the duties of this office, if they desire to have them 
enjoy its honours. S. D. 

204 "Friend of God," or, the Excellency of [May. 


(Continued from page 152.) 

Part II. — We proceed to notice the benefits of Abraham's 
friendship with God. Our obligation to serve God rests primarily 
upon his propriety in us as his creatures. He claims our faith, 
our affection, and our obedience as a right, which our duty to him 
requires us to render. From this obligation we can never be ab- 
solved, unless we could cease to be his creatures, or fly beyond the 
limits of his moral government. But in connection with this ap- 
peal to our consciences as a matter of duty, the Bible also appeals 
to our interest, and calls upon us to trust, love, and serve God, 
from the consideration of the benefits we are to receive, both in 
the present and future world. These may be contemplated, in the 
case of Abraham, under several aspects, viz. : as personal, or those 
which he enjoyed as an individual ; as domestic, or such as per- 
tained to his family ; as social, embracing those which flowed to 
the civil community, whose members descended from him as their 
progenitor ; and as ecclesiastical, i. e., those which were conferred 
through him on the visible church, whether composed of his natural 
seed or of believing Gentiles. 


As his faith made him a friend of God, the benefits resulting 
from it were identical with those which flowed from his friendship 
with God. We begin by mentioning the elevated and exquisite 
pleasure he enjoyed. This arose from that tranquillity of soul 
which was produced by the assurance of God's favour, and that 
peace and joy which he experienced from the privilege of intimate 
communion with him as his friend. Unconverted men, so long as 
they are indifferent to the subject of religion, feel no desire to draw 
near to God ; and when they become concerned, they fear to ap- 
proach him, because his justice meets them in the way, like the 
cherubim and flaming sword at the gate of Eden. But when they 
become reconciled to God by faith in Christ, their consciences are 
relieved, their fears removed, and they can enter the Divine pre- 
sence with those pleasing emotions which arise from a consciousness 
of being accepted. This was Abraham's state of mind. And as 
his faith and piety were of a high order, his pleasure was propor- 
tionably great. Such was his sacred and holy delight in God as 
his Redeemer, and such the intimacy of his fellowship with him, 
that while his approaches were oharaeteriied by solemn awe and 
profound reverence, these feelings were so tempered and sweetened 
by glowing, filial affections, as to draw out his soul towards him 
with indescribable joy. This statement, though not found in any 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 205 

single passage of Abraham's history, accords with the whole tenor 
of his religious life. 

Next to the pleasure which he enjoyed, we mention the honour 
he received from God. The fact that he was admitted to the 
friendship of so exalted a Being, was of itself the most distinguished 
honour. But his heavenly Friend promised him the further 
honour of high earthly renown. "I will make thy name great." 
This promise was not addressed to his ambition, and it does not 
appear to have fostered in him this common propensity of our 
nature. In distinguishing Abraham, God honoured himself, by 
making his extraordinary faith and obedience the medium for 
showing forth his own glory. Thus Abraham viewed it, and hence 
he was kept humble and grateful. His fame was the renown of 
eminent piety and high moral excellence ; qualities which were not 
the gifts of nature but of grace ; which were above the reach and 
even the aspirations of unsanctified ambition. Yet he was highly 
venerated even by those who were not disposed to imitate his ex- 
ample. His name was held in honourable and sacred remembrance, 
not only by Jews and Christians, but even by Ishmaelites, who, 
though they did not inherit his virtues, yet gloried in their de- 
scent from the father of the faithful. 

Further, God blessed Abraham with great temporal prosperity. 
His promise was, " I will bless thee, and thou shalt be a blessing ;" 
i. 0., I will prosper thee in thy worldly circumstances, in thy flocks 
and herds, and in the fruit of thy ground ; yea, thou shalt be so 
wonderfully blessed, as to " become a proverb, so that when one 
shall desire to bless another, he will say, God bless thee as he did 
Abraham." The record of his large possessions, shows how lite- 
rally this promise was verified. So evident was it to others that he 
was prospered on account of the special favour of God towards 
him, that the king of Gerar and his chief captain expressed a de- 
sire to enter into a covenant with him, " saying, God is with thee 
in all that thou doest." 

He was also favoured with the Divine protection against the 
encroachments of those whose jealousy or hatred might dispose 
them to trespass upon his rights. " I will bless them that bless 
thee, and curse him that curseth thee." In these words he vir- 
tually formed an alliance with him, both offensive and defensive, 
to have the same friends and the same enemies, pledging his assis- 
tance at all times in the hour of conflict, and his protection and 
deliverance in seasons of peril. 

Again, God treated Abraham with great tenderness when over- 
taken in a fault. Twice through fear he denied his wife, and was 
exposed thereby to imminent peril. We feel under no necessity of 
endeavouring to palliate his sin. It does not admit of vindication. 
God did not approve of his conduct. But because he was his 
friend, he did not leave him to suffer those consequences which 
under other circumstances would probably have resulted from it. 

206 "Friend of God" or, the Excellency of [May. 

On the contrary, he interposed to rescue him from his exposure 
first to the wrath of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and afterwards of 
Abimelech, king of Gerar. 

Further, God revealed to him his secret purposes. " Shall I 
hide from Abraham," says he, "what I am about to do, seeing 
Abraham is to become a great and mighty nation, and in him all 
families of the earth are to be blessed." We communicate to in- 
timate friends secrets which we tell to no one else. And it is thus 
God distinguishes his friends from all others. Says the Psalmist, 
" The secret of the Lord is with them that fear him, and he will 
show them his covenant." Says Christ to his disciples, "I have 
not called you servants, for the servant knoweth not what his lord 
doeth ; but I have called you friends, for all things which the 
Father hath made known to me, have I made known to you." 

But what was more valuable to Abraham than the revelation of 
God's providential purposes, he gave him the assurance of hope 
concerning his own salvation. Paul affirms that " he desired a 
better country, that is, an heavenly." This desire indicates a state 
of mind not clouded by doubts, but clear and joyful in the expec- 
tation of future glory. He not only felt confidence in the truth of 
the promise concerning the reality and excellence of " things hoped 
for," but he enjoyed the "earnest of the spirit in his heart," as- 
suring him of his personal interest in those blessings, by that pleas- 
ing foretaste, which like a seal to a title bond, gave him such 
ample security as to relieve his mind of all apprehension. 

And to crown all, his death was peaceful and happy, and his 
eternity glorious. So greatly did God delight to honour him, after 
his departure from this world, that he made a special record of the 
fact of his being in glory, and of the certainty of the future re- 
surrection of his body, by styling himself (for so Christ interpreted 
this language) " the God of Abraham ;" and he honoured him still 
more, if possible, by employing his name as the emblem of heaven 
itself, Abraham's bosom being used in Scripture as a synonyme for 
heavenly bliss. 

These several benefits may be enjoyed, with some modifications, 
by all of God's friends. Was Abraham favoured with the privilege 
of intimate fellowship with God ? The Divine presence, through 
the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, is mentioned as one of the bless- 
ings promised to New Testament believers. " If a man love me," 
says Christ, "he will keep my words, and my Father will love him, 
and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him." Was 
Abraham honoured of God ? So are all those that love and obey 
him. "Them that honour me," says he, "I will honour." To the 
same effect are the words of our blessed Lord. " If any man 
serve me, him will my Father honour." Was Abraham greatly 
prospered in his worldly circumstances ? " Godliness is profitable," 
says Paul, " unto all things, having the promise of the life that now 
is, and of that which is to come." Did God promise Abraham his 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 207 

protection ? He said long afterwards, with a more extensive refe- 
rence, " As the mountains are round about Jerusalem, so the Lord 
is round about his people from henceforth even forever." Was he 
tender towards Abraham's infirmities ? He says of every " good 
man, though he fall, he shall not be utterly cast down, for the 
Lord upholdeth him with his hand." Did he make known to 
Abraham his secret purposes ? As we have already noticed, he 
communicates to his friends in every age those secrets of his will 
which are undiscerned by others, not prophetically, but by enlight- 
ening their minds in the knowledge of his word. Did he assure 
Abraham of his title to heaven ? "I would," says Paul, " that every 
one of you do show the same diligence, to the full assurance of hope 
unto the end." Did Abraham, at the close of life, enter upon a 
glorious reward ? The Apostle Peter declares that all who possess 
faith in Christ, and those graces which flow from it, and abound in 
them, " shall have an abundant entrance into the everlasting king- 
dom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." 

Reader, can you desire stronger incentives than these to become 
God's friend, or to induce you at all times to do those things which 
please him ? Many take much pains to secure the friendship of 
great and good men, and they justly place a high value on such an 
acquisition. But what is this compared with the friendship of 
God ? The exchequer of the world would be insignificant in such 
a purchase. "What shall it profit a man if he shall gain the 
whole world and lose his own soul ? or what shall a man give in 
exchange for his soul ?" But, thanks to God, his favour is not to be 
bought with money. " Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ," and this 
highest of all privileges will be secured. " He will guide you with 
his counsel and afterwards receive you to glory." 


When Abraham became a believer in Christ and the friend of 
God, he not only derived personal benefits from this relation, but 
his household received through him, many blessings. They shared 
with him in his riches and honour, and in that peace and security 
which he enjoyed in the possession of his property. As he journeyed 
from place to place, the altars which he erected for the worship of 
God, formed a better protection than an army of soldiers. His 
heavenly Friend and Protector, who controls the hearts of all men, 
caused the Canaanites to feel a veneration for him and his religion, 
and they were thereby restrained from doing them injury ; thus 
verifying that Scripture, " If a man's ways please the Lord, he 
causeth even his enemies to be at peace with him." 

A remarkable illustration of the value of Abraham's friendship 
with God to the members of his household, is recorded in the case 
of his nephew Lot, whom he took with him from Chaldea to Ca- 
naan, and trained him up as his adopted son. Though Lot was 
separated from him, was the resident of another city, a man of 

208 "Friend of God" or, the Excellency of [May. 

mature years with a family of his own, and withal a pious man ; 
yet when God determined to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, and to 
deliver Lot, the reason assigned for Lot's rescue was, not his own 
piety but his relation to Abraham. What remarkable language ! 
" When God destroyed the cities of the plain, he remembered 
Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow." Mark, 
it does not say, he remembered Lot, " that righteous man, who 
dwelt in Sodom," but he remembered Abraham, his peculiar friend, 
Lot's uncle. He remembered his faith and obedience, his fidelity 
in the religious training of his family, his many prayers, and espe- 
cially his intercession for that city in which Lot dwelt. And 
though it does not appear that he prayed in particular for Lot's 
deliverance, God was pleased to express his high approbation of 
his character and conduct, by bringing this former member of his 
family into a place of safety. On the same principle, he saved 
Noah's family in the ark. " Come thou and all thy house into the 
ark, for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation." 
And in numerous instances he has conferred providential favours 
upon a household, in consequence of the piety of their head. 

Nor did he bestow upon Abraham's family temporal blessings 
alone. The piety of his son Isaac and his servant Eliezer illus- 
trates the spiritual benefits enjoyed by his household through him. 
God entered into a covenant with him (Gen. 17th chapter), in which 
the blessings promised were both temporal and spiritual, but espe- 
cially the latter, and these flowed to his family through the channel 
of this covenant, which included his children and household as well 
as himself. The covenant was made with him rather than any 
other person, because he was God's friend. Of this there can be 
no reasonable doubt. For though God displayed his sovereignty 
in his conduct towards Abraham, as he does in dispensing all his 
favours to sinful men, yet he called him out of Chaldea and made 
hiiii his friend, for the purpose, in part, of forming such a covenant 
with him ; and there was a special suitableness in making so emi- 
nent a believer the depositary and trustee of that important trans- 
action ; important not only to his own household, but, as we shall 
notice hereafter, to multitudes of others. 

It is a legitimate inquiry, and one of great practical importance, 
how Abraham's faith conveyed spiritual blessings to his family? 
And to what extent and degree ? Was it his faith alone, irrespec- 
tive of the covenant? or his faith acting through the covenant? 
And if the latter, what was there in the covenant to impart or add 
efficacy to his faith ? 

If God had not been pleased to make such a covenant with 
Abraham, he might, with such other knowledge as he possessed, 
have trained his household with a faith and fidelity which would 
have met the Divine acceptance, and been blessed to their spiritual 
good. But after that covenant was made, its conditions, require- 
ments, and promises, became as much the objects of faith as any 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 209 

other part of God's will ; and hence Abraham could not have with- 
held his assent to the covenant, or neglected the duties enjoined or 
implied in it, without a forfeiture of its blessings. As that cove- 
nant therefore was the appointed medium through which blessings 
should flow to his family, it contributed to invigorate and increase 
his faith in praying for and expecting those blessings. And this 
unfolds to us the manner in which his faith was the instrument of 
conveying spiritual blessings to them through the covenant, viz. : 
that by faith he took hold and rested upon its promises, and urged 
them as a plea in his intercessory prayers in their behalf. The ( 
plea was one which God approved, and he accordingly bestowed 
the desired benefits. 

As to the extent and degree of the blessings thus secured to his 
household, it is obvious that all under his care, including his chil- 
dren and servants, enjoyed important religious privileges by virtue 
of their relation to him. The covenant secured to them, without 
exception, a knowledge of the true God, and the external means of 
grace. These privileges were common to all the members of his 
household. But whether these privileges became saving or not, 
depended upon the manner in which they were improved by each 
individual member ; and this depended, largely, upon the extent 
and degree of Abraham's faithfulness. The covenant was not a 
mere form, nor was it to be entered into in a mere formal way. 
There was indeed a form to be observed, viz. : the rite of circum- 
cision, the neglect of which involved serious consequences. " The 
uncircumcised man-child was to be cut off from among the people." 
But the observance of the form was not all which the covenant 
required. It demanded also the circumcision of the heart ; and 
Abraham in entering into that covenant made a solemn engage- 
ment to endeavour to secure for his children and household that 
higher blessing. His conduct shows that he understood the cove- 
nant in this manner. In the chapter succeeding that in which the 
covenant is recorded, God says of him, " I know Abraham that he 
will command his children and his household after him, and they 
shall keep the way of the Lord to do justice and judgment." We 
have already considered these words. We refer to them again to 
notice their connection with that covenant, and also the benefits 
which his family enjoyed in consequence of Abraham's faithfulness 
to them. This Divine testimony to his faithfulness, contains, like- 
wise, the evidence of his success. "They shall keep the way of 
the Lord." Abraham "commanded," and God added his bless- 
ing ; the result of which was that they became pious. 

Thus it is now in the case of infant baptism, which is the New 
Testament seal of that covenant. Its neglect by Christian parents, 
is an offence against God. It is a virtual expression of unbelief in 
that covenant, and a depreciation of its benefits. Yet something 
more is required than this external sign. Saving grace does not 
descend from parent to child by mere covenant relation. " Say 

VOL. v. — NO 5. 14 

210 A few Thoughts 07i Angels. [May. 

not within yourselves," said Christ to the Jews, " that we have 
Abraham to our father." God can (perhaps he often does) bestow 
grace upon the infant in the act of receiving baptism ; but this is 
not owing to the ordinance alone, but to the parental faith by which 
it is accompanied. In case of those dying in infancy, we have 
Scriptural ground for believing that they do in every instance re- 
ceive the saving grace of God ; but this does not arise solely from 
their covenant relation, but the purpose of God, who extends his 
grace to such as he has determined to remove from the world at 
, this early period of life. But the great design of their baptism is 
to secure their future religious training ; and if parents thus bring 
their children into covenant with God, and perform their duty to- 
wards them as faithfully as Abraham did to his children and house- 
hold, they will, with the Divine blessing, become in due time, fel- 
low-heirs with their parents of the grace of life. 

Dear reader ! In addition to personal considerations, which 
urge you to lead a holy life, we appeal to your feelings of interest 
in those who are bound to you by the tender tie of domestic affec- 
tion. Are you a parent, or head of a family? remember that both 
their temporal and spiritual welfare depends, in no small degree, 
upon you ? " The Lord thy God is a jealous God, visiting the 
iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth 
generation of them that hate him, and showing mercy unto thou- 
sands of them that love him and keep his commandments." If you 
do those things that please God, your piety and faithfulness will 
be to your dwelling what the blood of the paschal lamb on the 
doorposts of the Israelites, was to theirs ; protecting them from the 
destroying angel as he passed through the land of Egypt. It will 
be to them what the ark of God was to the house of Obededom, on 
account of which " the Lord blessed him and all that he had." 
But not only will temporal calamities be warded off, and temporal 
blessings secured to them, but those which are infinitely more im- 
portant, such as pertain to their souls, and extend into eternity. 
What a motive is here, for you to become an experienced Christian, 
a friend of God. To save your own soul ought to be a sufficient 
motive to influence you to serve the Lord. But in connection with 
that, you have this further motive of bringing your household to 
unite with you in this service, and securing for them that 
"inheritance which is incorruptible, undefiled and fadcth not 
away." J. W. 

(To be continued.) 


Even a superficial observer cannot fail to notice that the crea- 
tion of which we form a part, consists of a chain of beings, of a 
series of existences, ascending so slowly, so gradually, and so 

1855.] A feiv Thoughts on Angels. 211 

regularly that they almost seem to commingle as the tints of the 
rainbow. Through all the changing forms of sensitive beings up to 
man, we shall meet with some which cannot be classed with entire 
correctness, either with the higher or the lower round in the scale 
between which they stand, however skilfully the dividing line may 
seem to have been drawn. Call we these rounds genera, we shall 
find the same unbroken chain of species in them, in species varie- 
ties, in these subdivisions, and so on. 

In the human race even we shall see this principle prevail from 
the lowest type of the Bushman to the finely developed Caucasian, 
from the helpless Cretin to the mastermind of a Bacon, from the 
poorest Feejee islander to the noblest Christian whose high moral 
attainments seem to ally him to angels. Angels ! — And are their 
beings in the same scale higher than man ? — Conjecture and 
analogy would answer, Yes. The distance seems too great between 
the earth-born, clay-formed, body-bound creature, and the uncrea- 
ted, independent, self-existing Creator. For although his infini- 
tude could not be approached even by the most exalted of created 
existences, yet man, though as a spirit he may be the image of God, 
as confined by his present material frame, seems too low, too in- 
significant to be the crowning piece of God's works. No, we 
should conceive of lofty essences still rising high, high above man, 
and that again in an ascending series of Thrones and Principali- 
ties, and Powers, and Rulers, and Archangels, a regular gradation 
— not up to the Supreme Being, yet occupying the immeasurable 
vacuity that intervenes between ourselves and Him. Even the 
heathen have felt this, and they have attempted to fill up the great 
void by their heroes, their daimonia or demons, their demigods (their 
Amshaspands), their Sons of Brahma, their Ophions, and whatever 
other names their creative fancies have given to the hosts which 
they imagine hovering round the throne of the great Absolute. 
The mythology of the Hindu as well as that of the Scandinavian, 
of the refined Greek as well as of the rude Algonquin, all have as- 
sumed sentient and intelligent beings to be the messengers of God 
to do his will, rather than rest satisfied with those undeified, intan- 
gible principles, called the laws of nature, which a more enlight- 
ened philosophy places between the Creator and his acts. 

These half-developed and partly misshapen ideas which arose 
under the starlit sky of heathenism, have, however, assumed their 
true proportions under the bright sun of revelation. It is in 
Sacred Writ that we find verified our surmise that man was "made 
a little lower than the angels," that he is but little removed from 
those " ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who 
shall be heirs of salvation." From the angel who found Hagar at 
the fountain to the angel that was sent to punish the presumptuous 
pride of Herod, the sacred history is full of angelic agency. In 
their various manifestations as guardians of God's people, as 
ministering spirits to the Lord Jesus Christ, as the executioners of 

212 A few Thoughts on Angels. [May. 

divine justice, as superintendents of the natural world, they are con- 
stantly brought before us to remind us that we are the citizens of 
two worlds, and that there is an invisible creation as full of the 
glory, and wisdoin, and power, and majesty of God, as all the 
wonders of the material world. 

It is true, objectors have always been found who have much to 
say against the belief in the existence of angels. One class will 
refer to the Deos and Izeds of Zoroaster and similar phenomena of 
the Gentile world, and say that the Jews borrowed their ideas 
from them, assimilating these notions only to their somewhat purer 
religious conceptions ; with assiduity they will point out the degree 
of similarity of the Scriptural doctrine to the silly conceits of the 
Rabbins or the unrestrained flights of poets. With such objectors, 
of course, as we have no common standard of ultimate appeal, 
reasoning would be futile. 

Another class, taking for their basis such passages as that where 
Christ foretells his great power under the figure of " angels ascend- 
ing and descending upon the Son of man," or appealing to the 
gorgeous drapery of the great Epic of the Church, the Apocalypse, 
— would say that in the Bible the angels are a mere picturing forth 
and embodiment of the glory or providence of God, and that all 
passages which speak of angels are therefore to be understood as 
mythical or figurative. But in view of the multitude of passages 
in the historical, as well as in the doctrinal portions of Scripture, 
speaking of the real appearance and the actual deeds of angels, 
who does not see that such a theory rests altogether on most forced 
interpretations and the greatest violence of exegesis ? 

A third class refuse to take cognizance of the doctrine respect- 
ing angels, because, say they, it is utterly valueless to the Chris- 
tian, and to them there is nothing that should determine them to 
decide for rather than against the existence of such beings. But 
according to the canon that the Bible contains nothing superfluous, 
it may be asserted that this doctrine is of great practical utility. 
It enlivens our consciousness that through the Mediator of the New 
Covenant we are brought into fellowship with " an innumerable 
company of angels," that " there is joy in the presence of the 
angels of God" over one of us, if he repenteth, and that one day 
we shall be like unto them. 

To him who loves his Bible and delights to study it, this subject 
is worthy of diligent search and devout meditation, as placing be- 
fore us in a clearer light the example of those lofty beings, 

u Who wont to meet 
Bo ofl in festivals ofjoy and love 
Unanimous, as suns of one great Sire, 
Hymning th 1 Eternal Father." 

I. L. 

1855.] Household Religion. 213 

%mi^0 Cjjotigljb* 


That the household of David was controlled by his religious faith 
and practice, is testified by the word of God to Solomon, after the 
dedication of the temple, when it was said to him, If thou wilt 
walk before me, as David thy father walked, in integrity of heart 
and uprightness, to do according to all that I have commanded 
thee, and wilt keep my statutes and my judgments, then I will 
establish the throne of thy kingdom upon Israel forever, as I pro- 
mised to David thy father, saying, there shall not fail thee a man 
upon the throne of Israel. He ruled his household in the fear of 
God ; and he resolved to rule his kingdom as he ruled his house. 
Both as the head of a household, and the head of a nation, he 
maintains all the exercises and forms of religious culture and disci- 
pline required by that dispensation of the grace of God under 
which he lived. 

We learn from this, that religion, even from those early times, 
is an ordinance of the family, and has, in the family, the centre 
and seat of its social life. And of the exercises of religion which 
are proper to the household an indispensable part consists of the 
daily reading of the Scriptures and united prayer. For the sake 
of those Christian families where these exercises are maintained, 
as well as those in which they are not, it is our duty to consider 
often the grounds on which the practice rests, and to show how 
much the prosperity of Christian truth and righteousness depends, 
and ever must depend, on the right performance of religious duty 
by the heads of families, and particularly of daily prayer. 

We shall illustrate first the duty of the Christian head of a 
family to maintain the daily exercises of devotion with his family. 

1. The duty arises out of the domestic relations of the Christian 

Every Christian must apply his religious principles in all the 
relations of his life. Whatever he does he must do in a Christian 
way. His Christian heart must shine in and through all the works 
of his life. Least of all should a Christian parent omit any means 
of instilling his own faith and hope into the minds and hearts of all 
in his house. And how can this be better done than by giving utter- 
ance to his faith and hope in God, in the hearing of all whom he 
is bound to lead in the way of Christian truth and duty ? And let 
him do this in the solemn manner of religious devotion. Such are 
the relations of the head to the members of the household that 

214 Household Religion. [May. 

their hearts naturally become one in other things : and they would 
just as naturally become one in religion, -where all do as they ought. 
In temporal affairs, the members join their interest with the inte- 
rest of the head. They become jealous for his reputation with his 
neighbours — anxious for his success in his profession, — interested 
in his opinions and principles on all important subjects ; and why 
should not this union of interest prevail among them, in regard to 
religion. It always will with proper means ; and the head of the 
family has the natural desire that it should be so ; and of all the 
means for bringing such unity about in the dear home of his earthly 
interests and affections, the most effectual will be this : to have his 
own heart right with God, and then exercise his right affections 
daily in the devout reading of the Scriptures and in prayer in his 
family. How can a Christian householder answer a good con- 
science before God and his brethren, who does not do so much as 
this, to guide his household in the fear of God, and the faith of 
Jesus Christ. 

2. The obligation to maintain Christian devotion in the family 
arises out of the great fitness of the practice to promote religious 
culture. And first and chiefly will the master of the house him- 
self find profit in it. More than in any other way, will he thus 
strengthen his faith, clear his views of truth, settle his Christian 
habits of life, and quicken his purifying hope of heaven. While 
he will also save himself the painful self-reproach in the dying 
hour, when he sees his children around without the faith and prac- 
tice of Christians, that he has not led them to the Saviour by his 
own example of devotion. 

As to the members of the family, it calls their attention daily to 
their spiritual interest and duty. And this is never effectually 
done in any other way. How very lax must be the religious disci- 
pline of a family, where the members are left wholly to impulses 
from religious neighbours, or public meetings, or their own disposi- 
tion move them towards Christian duty. No Christian parent 
expects his children to improve by such means, in any other good 
thing, and how can you thus look for improvement in religion? 
What a space is filled, what a want is supplied, by this one do- 
mestic usage ! An altar in the house for the daily sacrifice ! What 
is the house without it ? What would the house be without a table 
which offers its refreshment at the proper hours? What, without 
the pillow for nightly repose ? Above all, what is the house as a 
dwelling for religious beings, without this means of religious cul- 
ture and growth ? 

If the Christian householder has the true religious concern for 
his family, and a w r arm heart of desire for their spiritual welfare, 
the hour of family prayer is his very occasion. lie has no other 
opportunity like that to express his heart in their hearing ; to make 
them feel his Christian piety. Then he can ao read, and cause 
them so to read the Holy Word, that they shall all drink somewhat 

1855.] Household Religion. 215 

of its spirit ; and the more will they partake of its spirit, if he is 
careful and resolute and wise, in guarding them against the influ- 
ence of the world without. Then in his simple earnest prayer for 
his house, he can show them his own devout heart as he cannot do 
in any other way. There is great power in such exercises rightly 
performed; and all the more, when the general tone of the do- 
mestic life prepares the way for the good influence of a religious 
service. What else can the head of the family do that could be 
a substitute for this ? And where this practice is maintained, how 
much it adds to the force and usefulness of all other means. When 
a father is in the habit of praying with his children, he can talk 
with them, with the more ease and effect. And while his prayers 
express his desire for their spiritual well-being, they quicken that 
desire, and strengthen it. His own soul is inspired with a sacred 
impulse. His children become imbued with the same grace. A 
Christian family without prayer ; it is like a ship at sea without her 
sails ; a machine without its moving force. But how rich and con- 
stant the flow of spiritual family blessings which we may receive 
from the Lord while as families we acknowledge him ! Let the 
household, as such, reach forth its hand of faith in daily prayer 
for the blessing of Heaven, and that blessing will as surely be 
received, as the cistern receives the water of the shower which 
falls on the roof and flows down through the channels prepared 
for it. 

3. The obligation to daily devotion in the family, is involved in 
the command to Christians, that they should pray without ceasing. 
This means that Christians should always be ready to embrace 
suitable opportunities for devotion. ' And one class of these oppor- 
tunities consists of the morning and evening convenings of the 
family. Surely these could not be omitted by the Christian house- 
holder, who desires a perpetual spirit of prayer. Let this be the 
great end of his life, to maintain the spirit of prayer, to keep his 
heart in the love of God, and to bring all those beloved ones who 
are under his immediate influence, into fellowship with his own 
faith and love, and he will feel the want of the family altar. The 
daily Christian offering of prayer and praise will come to him like 
a heavenly breeze to refresh, and to bear him along in his spiritual 
course ; and without this he would soon become weary and faint. 
Pray without ceasing. But in the strong current of worldly occu- 
pation, what a struggle it seems to keep the face heavenward, and 
hold one's course. How it tires the strongest wing of Christian 
faith, to strive against the gale across some wide field of worldli- 
ness ; and what a relief to enter the serene and quiet atmosphere 
of the domestic circle, where the spirit finds repose, and can breathe 
refreshingly, and where faith can rest in its easy and natural 
motions, and look steadily at its heavenly prize. If one does not 
pray there, how far must he have fallen from the spirit of prayer. 
The force of the command, — Pray without ceasing, — is strong to 

21 G Household Religion. [May. 

enea^e the Christian head of a family in religious exercises in his 

4. A part of the obligation to family devotion is derived from the 
express regard of the God of grace for the family interest. The 
family is a little community, composed of immortal beings, whom 
the providence of God has thus bound together, that by his grace, 
he might bless them together. He feeds them all at one table of 
his bounty that he may feed them also together with the bread of 
life offered them through Christ. 

For the same reason, the Lord has a form of the covenant ex- 
pressly for the family ; takes parents and children together under 
his dispensation of grace ; calls the members holy when the head 
is holy, and requires the head to consider those whom providence 
has committed to his charge as the Lord's. The promise is to you 
and to your children. And he makes a broad and solemn dis- 
tinction between those who thus stand in the covenant and all 
others : "Pour out thy fury upon the heathen that know thee not, 
and upon the families that call not on thy name." 

National blessings are properly sought by national supplication. 
When wide-spreading disease becomes fearful to the nation, the 
nation is called to fasting and prayer. When war is felt as a 
national calamity, the nation is summoned to fasting and prayer ; 
and this is so natural a step, that it is always looked for in pro- 
portion as the persons in authority are governed by religious prin- 
ciple. And so in public doings. The chief magistrate, of true 
Christian principle, never fails to commend his country to the 
blessing of God, in all his public communications of any importance 
or solemnity. Legislatures and conventions for state or national 
purposes, just so far as the religious sense prevails among the 
majority of the members, solemnly commend their common interests 
to God, and implore his blessing on them, in their daily assemblies. 
It is not so, indeed, in bodies of irreligious men ; but where a 
majority are controlled by Christian principle it is always so ; and 
very frequently, perhaps even in most cases, the practice is upheld 
though but a small proportion of the body profess to be devout 
men. Now if religious solemnities are thus observed in opening 
the daily business of a body of persons who have a common interest 
at stake, which is to be secured by the blessing of God upon the 
united action of all the members, how much more should this be 
done in the family, a permanent body, which has the most vital 
interests at stake, to be secured by early religious impressions on 
immortal beings, on sinners to be redeemed by the grace of Christ ; 
a body which has a special covenant of grace for itself, and particu- 
lar laws by which the blessings of that covenant may be secured. 
Here is an assembly with a Christian head, to preside over all its 
proceedings; a head, not elected by the members but constituted 
by the providence of God ; not to rule by laws and regulations 
adopted by the body, but receiving his powers directly from God, 

1855.] Household Religion. 217 

to be himself the lawgiver, and by his faithful administration to be the 
minister of the grace of God to all the members. For such a body, 
so strictly religious in its constitution, its purposes, and all its 
proper offices, for such a body to proceed to its daily callings with- 
out commending itself to the blessing of God, betrays a lack of true 
piety in the controlling power, beyond what strikes us anywhere 
else. For we see it in no bodies of men having important business 
in charge, and professing Christian principle. 

These facts show how the practice of daily devotion in the family 
arises from the Christian spirit in the head. This is one of the 
duties of the Christian life, in those who guide the household. 
Christians should exhort and encourage one another in respect to 
it. There is no department of Christian duty in which they can 
be more useful to one another than in this. The bond of Christian 
fellowship binds families together. The church covenant covers 
the covenant of the family. A part of the mutual watchfulness of 
the members of the church should be directed to this, among the 
many duties of the Christian profession. And who can compute 
the good results from faithfulness here. 

The benefits of family worship where it is duly maintained are 
obvious to all. 

It promotes spiritual communion among the members. Church 
fellowship is almost wholly maintained by exercises of devotion, in 
which Christians join with one another. So in the family, where 
the spirit of prayer lives in the head, it is communicated to the 
members. When the head of the family prays in the spirit in the 
hearing of all the members, the spirit will be awakened in the 
hearts of all the rest, unless they oppose some wilful resistance to 
it ; for the members of the family are all under one covenant of 
grace ; the promise of the Holy Spirit is to them all ; and when it 
is given the parent, it is not for himself alone, but for his house- 
hold ; and if he is faithful on his part, and his household are led 
in the ways of the Lord, and are not suffered to be led captive by 
the world, they will all show themselves to be partakers of the same 
grace. This is the law of the Spirit of grace. It is communicated 
from one to the other, among those who sincerely seek the Lord 
together. Now the members of a family are very near to each 
other. If they have right affections among themselves, their 
mutual sympathies are tender and active above those of all other 
relations. There, more than anywhere else, can it be said, that if 
one member suffers, all the members suffer with it ; and if one 
member be honored, all the members rejoice with it. Let the 
Spirit of the Gospel live among them, and how free must the 
communion of the Spirit be, especially in the exercise of prayer, 
when the soul of the parent is communing with God, and all the 
members are under his influence, and endeavoring to follow him in 
his devotion. 

Daily divine worship in the family helps the growth of piety in 

21 8 Household Religion. [May. 

the parents. We take for granted here, that both parents are 
united in maintaining religion in the household. If the parents 
•would prevent the chill of worldliness from destroying all the 
warmth of their spiritual life, they can do nothing better than to 
call their family together habitually for daily prayer. It would 
make them more watchful over themselves. The parent needs 
such prompting for himself. He, more than all others may expect 
profit from it. It prepares his heart for religious intercourse with 
his family ; and it gives him a power of utterance he would not 
otherwise possess. How much more productive must this be than 
any other social exercise of religion ! It comes like the daily meals 
on which the body lives and grows. It causes a parent to reflect 
daily on his sacred relation to his family ; to feel his responsibility 
as the head of religious influence to his household. It thus has a 
great part to act in securing his own perseverance unto the end. 
To the children and other members of the family, it is a great 
blessing to see themselves the subjects of prayer ; and still better, 
if they are taught to take part in the prayer as their own, and not 
be mere hearers ; to hear thanksgiving offered in their behalf, for 
the kindness of that Providence by which they live. It prepares 
the way for them to offer thanksgiving for themselves. The ex- 
ample is instructive. They learn what prayer is, in respect to 
their own experience and welfare, and by the blessing of the Lord 
they will imbibe its spirit. It is training children in the nurture 
and admonition of the Lord to pray with them. 

The influence of daily orderly family worship on children is very 
great in forming them to the outward practices of religion. They 
become familiar with the form and the language, and the proper 
subjects of prayer. They learn a devotional language which 
serves them happily when disposed to pray for themselves. And 
even at the very hour of solemn prayer by the parent, the serious 
thoughts of his children will be turned to those petitions of his 
yearning heart for them, and will apply the prayer to themselves 
in a way that he may not suspect, and that he will in this world 
never know. 

The prayer of a family may profit all the members by its fitness 
to occasions. Then it fixes attention, when it does not follow a 
lulling form, but speaks of things most present to the thoughts, 
the casualties of the day that is past, or the hopes and plans of the 
day that is begun. Who has not felt the solemn regard for duty, 
when he has heard the path of duty pointed out in the devout 
prayer of a parent ; or felt a dread of danger, when dangers have 
been suggested, and the Divine protection sought against them ; 
repentings for sin, when sins have been acknowledged to God, and 
his gracious forgiveness prayed for ? The head of a family does 
his children a favour that can never be estimated, when he thus 
trains their thoughts and feelings into familiarity with the exercises 
of Divine worship. 

1855.] Biographical Sketch of Dr. Quyler. 219 

There is no small advantage gained by parents with their chil- 
dren from the daily and reverent reading of the Scriptures. A 
family thus knows the Bible, which otherwise they will hardly do. 
An important part of education. To deny such a daily benefit as 
this to a household is worse, far worse, than to deprive them of a 
portion of their daily bread. Such an exercise hallows the family 
relation. Parent and child see each other in a sacred light. 
Brother and sister, while reading or hearing the holy word together, 
seem joined in a holy association which sanctifies natural affec- 
tion, and surrounds the domestic centre with a celestial halo. 

Now to whom does it belong to make the home of a household 
thus sacred to the hearts of the members as a dwelling of the 
Lord? To whom belongs the work of thus reconciling children to 
the ways of the Lord, and of thus co-operating with the Lord to 
make them humble and obedient disciples of Christ ? It belongs 
to the parents ; and not to either one alone, but to both. They 
are one, and must work as one in this thing. For a want of co- 
operation will either hinder the duty altogether, or so embarrass it 
as to prevent its proper effect. But in the forms of the service, 
the leader is the husband and the father. This, nature itself 
teaches. And when he declines the duty, even though it should be 
attempted by the mother, the absence of the father, or his silent 
presence, is a violence to propriety and to moral obligation, which 
tends to destroy the good effect of the whole. There are some 
parents whose own childhood and youth were blessed with these 
daily solemnities which they are denying to their own children. 
Is this right? Can they answer it to their own conscience and to 
God? How ungrateful to the Father of all family mercies, how 
cruel to the children and the children's children, to throw this 
mountain of unfaithfulness and sin across the channel in which the 
grace of the covenant is flowing down from generation to genera- 
tion. How must the tender parent feel at the close of his life, 
when his children have all left the paternal roof, or come to the 
freedom of manhood without the hopes or the habits of believers 
in Christ, if he must charge himself with having neglected those 
means which are commonly so effectual. J. W. Y. 

jSiaforiral anfr 98togra{i[iiraL 


It may be mentioned as an historical fact, more important in the esti- 
mation of others, perhaps, than it was in his own, that Dr. Cujler was 

* This interesting Biographical Sketch is from the pen of the Kev. Dr Joseph H. 
Jones of Philadelphia, who preached a Discourse commemorative of the life and 

220 Biographical Sketch of Dr. Cuyler. [May. 

honoured in his pedigree. He was a descendant of the colonists that 
settled the province of New York as early as the time of Charles II. Some 
of the primitive emigrants were people greatly respected, both on account 
of their character and their family. Of these, the principal were the 
well-known names of Cortlandt, Delancey, Beekman, Tenbroek, Schuyler, 
Van Rensselaer, and Cuyler, all of whom have been since distinguished 
in the civil wars, either as persecuted loyalists or triumphant patriots. 

Cornelius C. Cuyler, was born at Albany, on the 15th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1783, and was one of a family of four children, two of whom were 
sons. The letter C. was inserted in his name, to distinguish him from six 
cotemporaries of the same surname, all of whom were called Cornelius. 
His father dying when the son was but twelve years old, the forming of 
his character devolved solely on the mother, who was of the family of 
Yates ; a lady of superior education and intellect, as well as of eminent 
piety. In all his subsequent life, the son was accustomed to speak with 
frequency and deep feeling, of his obligations to this excellent mother. 
Such were his diligence and success in academical study, that at the age 
of fourteen he was prepared for college ; but events occurring that it is 
unnecessary to relate, were the occasion of postponing his application for 
admission several years. He was graduated at Union College, Schenec- 
tady, in 1806, which was then, as it is still, under the Presidentship of 
the llev. Dr. Nott. It is unnecessary to speak of the pecuuiary losses of 
the father, and of various domestic trials, except so far as they disappointed 
the hopes of the son, and were among the instruments of Providence in 
moderating his earthly attachments, and leading him to serious reflection, 
which, under the effectual teachings of the Spirit, issued in a public pro- 
fession of religion at the age of eighteen. By this change in his charac- 
ter, his mind, that had before been intent on the study of the law, was 
directed to the ministry of the Gospel. Under the theological instructions 
of Drs. Basset and Livingston, he pursued his studies till the year 1808, 
when he was licensed to preach by the Classis of Schenectady. On the 
2d of January, 1809, he was ordained and installed pastor of the Reformed 
Dutch Church in Poughkecpsie, where he remaiued till December, 1833, 
when he removed to the city of Philadelphia, in obedience to a unani- 
mous call from the Second Presbyterian Church. 

Previous to the connection of Dr. Cuyler with the congregation at 
Poughkeepsie, their condition had been unhappy, and far from prosperous. 
It was a delightful thought to our departed brother, and one which was 
the subject of repeated remark, that the Holy Spirit attended " the laying 
on of the hands of the Presbytery." His pastoral labours began amidst 
tokens of his special influences, which were enjoyed in a prolonged revival 
of two years, increasing the number of communicants from less than forty, 
to more than two hundred. Another Pentecostal blessing was given thera 
in 1815, a third in 1819 and 1820, and a fourth in 1831 and 1832. His 
labours were not more successful than they were abundant, extending 
much beyond the particular flock over which he had been made the over- 
seer. Four stations in the vicinity, that he selected for occasional services 
as he had opportunity, were nurtured into vigorous and self-sustaining 
churches. Such was the success that attended his ministry, and so great 
its acceptance, that his name and influence were widely extended to other 

character of liis beloved brother in the ministry. A few copies of the discourse were 
printed. — Ed. 

1855.] Biographical Sketch of Br. Cuyler. 221 

Christian denominations, as well as in his own. In 1814 he received an 
importunate call to the collegiate charge of the Reformed Dutch Church 
in the city of New York. So great was their desire to obtain him, that 
they agreed to remove his objection, which was mainly, to a partnership 
in labour, by consenting to divide. But the commencement of a revival 
among his people at Poughkeepsie, was deemed to be indicative of the 
Divine will, and this overture was declined. So were several subsequent 
calls, that were equally attractive, until he yielded to the invitation from 
the city of Philadelphia, in 1833. No pastor could be more beloved, nor 
more highly honoured. The results of the several revivals, in the pre- 
sumed conversion of his hearers, were at one time a harvest of sixty-nine, 
at another of eighty, and of eighty-eight at a third. On one Sabbath, the 
number of adults baptized was twenty-nine. 

In consenting at length to sunder a tie which had been strengthening 
for almost a quarter of a century, Dr. Cuyler was undoubtedly moved by 
his convictions of duty ; and yet the trial of his affections and faith was 
severe beyond the conceptions of any who have not known it by experi- 
ence. Who but such a pastor can conceive the protracted anguish of spirit 
through which he reaches the conclusion, that he must bid a beloved 
flock farewell ? Who that has not a heart of adamant can see himself 
surrounded with a group of the poor and afflicted that gather at such a 
time, and especially of his children by grace, and witness the looks, the 
tears, that speak what the tongue, palsied with sorrow, cannot utter, and 
mournfully say, " Must you leave us V! " Shall we see you among us 
as our friend, and counsellor, and pastor, no more ?" Who, I say, can 
mingle in such a scene, and not feel that his heart must break within 
him, and his " spirit fail." Never was there a day of greater sadness 
there, than that on which this spiritual friend and father bade them his 
affectionate adieu. The sacred place in which they were assembled, might 
well be called " Bochim." Though the table of the Lord had been 
recently spread, and the stated time for this service was somewhat remote, 
yet they entreated him to take leave of them in the breaking of bread ; 
and thus this weeping flock sought to gird themselves with strength for 
their trial, by gathering around the cross. 

With what fidelity and success this ever watchful and unwearied shep- 
herd pursued his labours in Philadelphia, is more familiar to some whom 
I address, than it is to the speaker. But what were his wrestlings with 
the "angel of the covenant," in secret; what his anxieties, joys, and 
sorrows, are known only to Hitn who can read the hearts of his ministers, 
and who " puts their tears in his bottle." Entering upon his duties in 
the maturity of his strength, with all the advantages afforded by years of 
study and pastoral experience, his presence and influence were seen at 
once in every department of ministerial labour. That Dr. Cuyler did 
not witness the same results here, the same delightful revivals, is not be- 
cause he did not preach the same truths, and in the same faithful, earnest 
and affectionate manner, as before. It was not because he did not desire 
them, and pray to God importunately to send them. But the reason, 
whatever it be, should cause much solicitude and scrutiny of heart among 
those from whom such an unspeakable mercy has been withheld, why it 
is that the same cause should be followed by so different results. We 
acknowledge the sovereign power of God in the gifts of the Spirit, as well 
as in the giving or withholding of rain, and disappointing the hopes of 

222 Biographical Sketch of Dr. Cuyler. [May. 

the husbandman ; but whenever he is pleased to leave the faithful mi- 
nister to expend his strength upon a people, like one who beats the air, it 
is an exercise of this sovereignty which causes much disquiet in his own 
bosom, and should stir up the same anxiety in theirs. But while it was 
not the happiness of this pastor to see such surprising interpositions of 
grace as had honoured his ministry in a former relation, yet he was cheered 
with those gradual accessions to his fold which assured him that he did 
not labour in vain. His assiduous attention to duty in every province of 
ministerial labour, in the family circle, the chamber of the sick, the 
Sabbath school, the Bible class, the lecture room, and the pulpit, was 
attested by numerous tokens of Divine favour. Many a disciple was 
edified; the afflicted and heart-broken were comforted; wholesome influ- 
ences were thrown around the wayward and thoughtless, and three hun- 
dred were added to the Church, a large proportion of whom had been 
brought to an acknowledgment of the Saviour in a public Christian pro- 

Such was the laborious, useful, and honoured course of our departed 
friend, till he had reached the forty-third year of his ministry, and the 
sixtieth of his life. His lamented death, much as it was apprehended by 
those who knew the nature of his disease, occasioned no little surprise to 
many of us, by its suddenness. Though its rapid progress was indicated 
by significant tokens, yet they were understood by few, and scarcely 
realized by any. We could not make ourselves believe that a local affec- 
tion, apparently so trivial, could come to such a serious issue, or certainly 
so soon.* If the assiduous attentions of conjugal aud filial love, if the 
skill of physicians or the prayers of the righteous could have prolonged 
his life, " our brother had not died." But his work on earth was done, 
his mission accomplished ; he had finished his course, and hence this rapid 
decliue and hasty transition. The confinement to his chamber was but 
for a few weeks, and duriug most of these, he could enjoy his food, his 
rest, aud the conversation of his friends. At first, the providence of God 
which called him out of the field while so competent to labour, appeared 
mysterious and painfully inexplicable. But he was enabled from the 
beginning to acquiesce, and as his disease advanced, the reasons for the 
dispensation were more and more apparent. The rapid advance of his 
Banctification, as evinced in his diminished interest in earthly things, his 
elevated thoughts and holy aspirations, was daily more apparent, and fur- 
nished stronger indications than any physical changes, of his approaching 
dissolution. As remarked by one who was almost constantly with him, 
" his thoughts were full of the heaven to which he was tending," and the 
expressions that were dropping from his lips, his quotations of Scripture, 
and his cjaculatory prayers, showed, very plainly, where his heart and 
treasure were. " 1 am waiting and hoping;" said he at one time, " I am 
all unworthincss, but I am trusting iu a faithful Saviour." On another, 
as he roused suddenly from sleep, " I want to be nearer the Lord." Some 
one present remarked, " Arc you not always near him ?" u Oh," said he, 
"just at that moment he seemed to be far away." 

His meditations on his ministerial labours were frequent and solemn, 
and on one occasion, when they bad evidently been ruuniug in this direc- 
tion, he remarked that " he had testimony in heaven and on earth" — and 
then added with great solemnity — li yc^, and there is testimony of me in 

* Dr. Cuyler's disease was dry gangrene, making its first appearance in his heel. 

1855.] Biographical Sketch of Br. Cinjler. 223 

hell." On the Sabbath evening which preceded his death, he requested 
that one or two favourite hymns might be sung, one commencing, 

the other, 

" Frequent the day of God returns, 
To shed its quickening beams ;" 

" Saviour, breathe an evening blessing 
Ere repose our spirits seal." 

It was the last time in which he was enabled to unite with his family in 
the delightful service of praise. He then desired to hear a portion of the 
Scriptures, when some one read the eighty-fourth Psalm, after which he 
extended his arms and led the assembled family in prayer. To the writer, 
who was present in the latter part of that day, he remarked, " how unlike 
had been his occupation that Sabbath to what he had been accustomed in 
years past." It had been spent on his bed, and a portion of it in sleep, 
but during his wakeful hours he had manifested an intense and irrepres- 
sible desire for prayer at his bedside. It seemed like the " hart panting 
after the water brook." " Oh," said he, " it will refresh me so." 

On Tuesday he was visited by his venerable friend and preceptor, the 
Kev. Dr. Nott, of Union College, Schenectady. The meeting between 
these two aged brethren, the one of whom had passed the bounds of three- 
score and ten, and the other now on the verge of Jordan, was exceedingly 
affecting. More than forty years had intervened since they had sustained 
the relation of teacher and pupil, and the interview produced a flood of 
reminiscences, that were at once both " pleasant and mournful." After 
an earnest and most pathetic prayer for one whom he called his " dying 
friend," he remarked, "You have had a long and faithful ministry, but 
are now laid aside, and can acquiesce, I trust, in his holy will. You have 
suffered in your sickness, but have not felt one pain too much." " No, 
not one," he responded with much earnestness ; then clasping his' hands 
he added — " He has been my faithful God. He has held me in his arms 
ever since I was a fatherless boy, and how I love him." 

After the visit of this aged friend, Dr. Cuyler seemed to be deeply im- 
pressed with the conviction that his time on earth was short, and the scene 
that followed on the succeeding morning, when this conviction was made 
known to his family, no tongue or pen can adequately describe. His 
words, his manner, his aspect, his voice, his condition, all combined to 
impart to the occasion an awful sublimity. 

At the break of day he awoke, calm and collected, and called for some- 
thing to strengthen him, remarking that " he had yet a work to do % " He 
then requested that his family should be assembled, who were soon gathered 
around him, when the design of this hasty summons was obvious. With 
a voice clear, sufficiently elevated, and enunciation as distinct as in the 
best days of health, with perfect composure of manner, and a discrimination 
of mind in no degree impaired by disease, he proceeded to this only re- 
maining " work" of imparting his dying counsel. But I will not freshen 
the wounds of the heart-stricken mourners by lifting the veil from a scene 
so delicate, so sacred, and which, moreover, none but a witness and sufferer 
can imagine. I will venture only to say, that, as if inspired from above 
for the emergency, his monitions were suited with admirable exactness to 
the age, condition, disposition, character, and exigency of each ; — to the 

224 Biographical Sketch of Dr. Cuyler. [May. 

dear partner of his joys and sorrows, who for more than forty years had 
been his comforter, his counsellor, and support ; to his beloved children, 
whom he addressed in succession, adapting his instructions to their respec- 
tive characteristics of temper, qualities of mind, and constitution. His 
parched tongue now and then faltering, he asked for water to moisten 
it, when, resuming his discourse, he pursued his affecting work, inter- 
spersed with thanksgivings and pious ejaculations of prayer, " Come, Lord 
Jesus, come quickly," till he had addressed them all. Then claspiug 
his hands and closing his eyes, he poured out his soul in prayer, with a 
fervour, importunity, copiousness, propriety of petition, and power of 
utterance, as if an angel had come from heaven to strengthen him. He 
prayed for the weeping group around him, so soon to be deprived of a hus- 
band and father ; for his kind and beloved family physician,* who had 
laboured for his restoration to health with so much patience, skill and 
tenderness; for the people of his former charge; for the beloved flock, 
from whom he had so recently been separated ; for their pastor eleet,f 
that he might be girded with strength to do the arduous and responsible 
work to which the providence of .God had called him. He prayed for the 
Church universal, the fulfilment of prophecy in the coming of Christ's 
kingdom, and the regeneration of the world. Not one friend, not one 
object of interest was forgotten ; but all were comprehended in his suppli- 
cations, and commended to a throne of grace, before his strength failed 
him. This solemn exercise accomplished, he exclaimed, " happy day, 
when saints shall meet to part no more," and shortly after added, " I am 
weary now," and fell asleep. 

A few hours later in the morning, when his physicians called, he re- 
ceived them with his usual smile, and when asked by one of them if he 
felt comfortable — " I would," said he, " that you were all as I am, except 
this diseased limb." Towards the latter part of the same day, he sauk 
into a partial delirium, which continued till nearly the close of the next. 
Yet the images of his mind, in all its wanderings, were pleasant, and 
showed that his thoughts were conversant with the great duties which had 
been the pursuit of his life. At one time he fancied himself to be address- 
ing his people from the pulpit, at another, to be leading them in prayer. 
Every little incident of his sick chamber seemed to be suggestive of some 
mercy or duty, obligation or promise. Thus, when one offered him drink, 
he observed that " in heaven there is no more thirst, neither do they need 
the light of the sun." To his afflicted wife, betraying in her countenance 
and tears an anxiety which she tried in vain to conceal, he said — " Would 
you call me back from the celestial city to be a poor, limping pilgrim 
here," and then quoted the distich, 

" Wait, O my soul, thy Maker's will, 
Tumultuous passions, all bo still." 

On Friday his symptoms were ominous, portending that his change was 
near. Most of the day was spout in sleep, but when aroused, he was col- 
lected and ready to answer any inquiries, after which he would say, "that 
he was tired, and wished to sleep." Some one asked if his head was not 
too low. " It will soon be lower," was his reply. In the evening ho 
appeared to be repeating to himself a hymn, and was heard to say, — 

* Dr. Hugh L. Hcxlge. t Rev. Charles W. Shields. 

1855.] The Great Revival in Kentucky. 225 

" Where the assembly ne'er breaks up, 
The Sabbath ne'er shall end,'' 

which were the last connected words he uttered. 

At half past twelve on Friday night his respiration had become difficult, 
and his articulation laborious and indistinct. At about seven o'clock in 
the morning of the 31st of August, he ceased to respond by either signs 
or words to the appeals of friends around him, but without any apparent 
bodily suffering, he continued to breathe until eleven, when his spirit 
departed. " I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, write, Blessed 
are the dead who die in the Lord, from henceforth : Yea, saith the Spirit, 
that they may rest from their labours, and their works do follow them." 
u Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright, for the end of that man 
is peace." 


[In the March number of this Magazine, we published communications from Drs. 
Alexander and Baxter, showing their views of the Great Revival in Kentucky, at 
the period of its occurrence. The editor of the " Watchman and Observer" states, 
"The same letter we copied in our issue of Sept. 3d, 1846; and soon afterwards we 
received from the Rev. Dr. Alexander a letter, which we also published, modifying 
in some measure the views taken by Dr. Baxter of this work of grace, — Dr. Baxter's 
letter having been written before the results were fully known. As a part of the 
history of the Church we again insert Dr. Alexander's letter." With the same object 
in view, we republish the letter in the Presbyterian Magazine. — Ed.] 


Princeton, N. J., Sept. 5, 1846. 

Mr. Editor, — The letter of the Rev. Dr. Baxter, giving an account of 
the Great Revival in Kentucky, in the year 1800 and 1801, recently pub- 
lished by you, was written before the results could be accurately known. 
Dr. Baxter himself changed his views respecting some appearances, of 
which he expresses a favourable opinion in this letter. And many facts 
which occurred at the close of the revival, were of such a nature, that 
judicious men were fully persuaded, that there was much that was wrong 
in the manner of conducting the work, and that an erratic and enthusi- 
astic spirit prevailed to a lamentable extent. It is not doubted, however, 
that the Spirit of God was really poured out, and that many sincere con- 
verts were made, especially in the commencement of the revival; but too 
much indulgence was given to a heated imagination, and too much stress 
was laid on the bodily affections, which accompanied the work, as though 
these were supernatural phenomena, inteDded to arouse the attention of a 
careless world. Even Dr. Baxter, in the narrative which he gives in this 
letter, seems to favour this opinion; and it is well known, that many 
pious people in Virginia entertained similar sentiments. 

Thus, what was really a bodily infirmity, was considered to be a super- 
natural means of awakening and convincing infidels, and other irreligious 
persons. And the more these bodily affections were encouraged, the 
more they increased, until at length they assumed the appearance of a 
formidable nervous disease, which was manifestly contagious, as might be 
proved by many well-attested facts. 
vol. v. — no. 5. 15 

226 The Great Revival in Kentucky. [May. 

Some of the disastrous results of this religious excitement were, — 

1st. A spirit of error, which led many, among whom were some Pres- 
byterian ministers, who had before maintained a good character, far 

2dly. A spirit of schism ; a considerable number of the subjects and 
friends of the revival, separated from the Presbyterian Church, and 
formed a new body, which preached and published a very loose and erro- 
neous system of theology ; and though a part of these schismatics, when 
the excitement had subsided, returned again to the bosom of the Church, 
others continued to depart farther from the orthodox system, in which 
they had been educated, and which they had long professed and preached. 
Among these was the Rev. Mr. Stone, who became the leader of an Arian 
sect, which continues unto this day. 

3dly. A spirit of wild enthusiasm was enkindled, under the influence 
of which, at least three pastors of Presbyterian churches in Kentucky, 
and some in Ohio, went off and joined the Shakers. Husbands and wives 
who had lived happily together were separated, and their children given 
up to be educated in this most enthusiastic society. I forbear to mention 
names, for the sake of the friends of these deluded men and women. And 
the truth is — and it should not be concealed — that the general result of 
this great excitement, was an almost total desolation of the Presbyterian 
churches in Kentucky and part of Tennessee. For the religious body 
commonly denominated " Cumberlands," arose out of this revival. The 
awakening commenced in the south part of Kentucky, and extended into 
the bordering counties of Tennessee. The Cumberland Presbytery, 
situated in that region, in utter disregard of the rules of the Presbyterian 
Church, which they had solemnly adopted at their ordination, went on to 
license a number of men, and to ordain some who had no pretensions to 
a liberal education ; and they no longer required candidates for the minis- 
try, to subscribe the Presbyterian Confession, but openly rejected some 
of the cardinal doctrines of Calvinism. The Synod of Kentucky sent a 
large u Commission" to deal with the Presbytery, who insisted on re-ex- 
amining the persons who had been licensed and ordained, contrary to 
order ) and when the Cumberland Presbytery refused to submit their 
newly licensed candidates to the examination of the Commission, they 
were suspended by this body. Thence arose a new body of Presbyterians, 
professing for the most part Arminian doctrines. Still, however, adhering 
(though inconsistently), to the doctrine of the Saint's Perseverance, and 
to the Presbyterian Principles of Church Government. 

A few years since, when new measures were coming much into vogue, 
Dr. Baxter's Letter was published, I think, in the New York Evangelist, 
to support those measures. Dr. Baxter, on being informed of it, promised 
the writer, that he would publish an explanation ; which, however, he 
did not live to perform. A. A. 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 227 

JUuiem anb CHIMml 

"God Sovereign and Man Free; or the Doctrine of Divine Foreordination and 
Man's Free Agency, Stated, Illustrated, and Proved from the Scriptures." By N. L. 
Rice, D.D. Third Edition. Published by J. D. Thorpe, Cincinnati. 

As a polemic Dr. Rice has few superiors, particularly before a popular 
audience. His language is simple, his thoughts clearly expressed, and 
his arguments direct and convincing. His polemical writings are also of 
the same character, and hence are well adapted to general reading. The 
controversy between Calvinists and Arminians is one of long standing, 
and is not likely to be settled by this or any other book, during the pre- 
sent generation. But, without anticipating such a result as this, such 
treatises as that now before us, are exerting an important influence in 
disabusing the public mind of erroneous impressions as to what the Cal- 
vinistic doctrine really is on this subject, and showing to intelligent and 
candid readers, not only that the doctrine is clearly taught in the Holy 
Scriptures, but that with all its difficulties, the Arminian doctrine is en- 
cumbered with those which are far more serious. A person is said to 
have addressed the Rev. Dr. Nettleton in the following language : " I 
cannot get along with the doctrine of predestination." The Rev. Doctor 
replied, "Then get along without it." This laconic reply reflected upon 
by the objector, resulted in convincing him of the truth of the doctrine. 
His own spiritual necessities demanded it. Salvation by grace, which 
was his only hope, he perceived was but a stream from that eternal foun- 
tain ; and hence his attempt to "get along without this doctrine," was 
like an attempt to obtain a supply of water from a rivulet, after its source 
had been dried up. The fact that two editions of this volume have been 
sold, shows that it has been regarded with favour by the community. 

" Religious Cases or Conscience answered in an evangelical manner, or the In- 
quiring Christian Instructed." By Messrs. Pike and Hatward. For sale by 
Smith & English, Philadelphia. 

The first half of this volume is occupied with answers to thirty ques- 
tions, propounded in writing, without names, by different individuals, who 
had various conscientious doubts and difficulties, of which they desired a 
solution. The- answers were prepared and delivered in a course of weekly 
lectures, in London, about a century ago. Their publication being called 
for, replies to thirty-two other questions were penned, all on important 
subjects, and added to the work, and the two together form a volume of 
over 400 pages. The book has passed through numerous editions, and 
has been highly prized by Christians both in England and in this country. 
The preface to the first part, which was published originally by itself, 
will give the reader a general idea of the topics discussed. The authors 
say, " The following answers were, among others, delivered in a weekly 
lecture, during the last winter (1755), with a view to remove the doubts 
of the timorous Christian, quicken him on his way to Zion, to guard 

228 Review and Criticism. [May. 

against presumptuous hopes, and promote the life of religion in the 


The difficulty of the task they undertook appears to have been duly 
appreciated; and the manner in which they executed it is expressed with 
becoming modesty. "It must be acknowledged," say they, " to be a 
very difficult and critical work to distribute to everyone their proper por- 
tion, and so to divide the word of truth, as to give suitable encourage- 
ment to those to whom it belongs, and yet to leave the hypocrite, or pre- 
sumptuous sinner, no room to hope. It is equally difficult to attempt to 
destroy the vain confidence of a sinner, without disturbing the peace, and 
discouraging the minds of those who are the real followers of Jesus. 
Who is sufficient for these things? We readily confess our insufficiency; 
but yet hope, that the Lord has enabled us to be in some measure faith- 
ful, so far as our spiritual knowledge extends." 

It has been remarked that there are five kinds of consciences among 
men. " First an ignorant conscience, which neither sees nor says any- 
thing, neither beholds the sins in the soul, nor reproves them. Secondly, 
the flattering conscience, whose speech is worse than silence itself, which, 
though seeing sin, soothes men in the committing thereof. Thirdly, the 
seared conscience, which has neither sight, speech nor sense, in men ' that 
are past feeling.' Fourthly, the wounded conscience, frightened with sin. 
Fifthly, a quiet and clear conscience, purified in Christ Jesus." We will 
not undertake to say that all these " cases of conscience" are discoursed 
upon, or their diseases, difficulties and dangers particularly met "by 
Messrs. Pike and Hayward ;" but we can say, that if a man possesses 
any conscience at all, he will derive spiritual benefit by the serious perusal 
of this volume. 

"The Pictorial Second Book; or Pleasant Reading for the Young." By Cousin 
Mary. Presbyterian Board of Publication. 

" Alice, What do you think of the Pictorial Second Book ?" we asked a 
young Sunday School scholar. " Oh, it's beautiful : Lillie will like that." 
Lillic relished pleasant reading, as well as Alice. Many a little girl and 
boy will thank " Cousin Mary" for this entertaining and useful volume. 
The third Pictorial Book will be looked for with curiosity. 

" Sketches of the Presbyterian Church ; containing a View of its Primitive and 
Apostolic Character, and its Principles, Order, and History." Designed especially 
for the youth of the Churoh. By the Rev. J. E. Rockwell, Philadelphia. Pres- 
byterian Board of Publication. 

This is an excellent compend of Presbyterian history ; and it would 
augur well for the youth of our Church, if they required several editions 
to satisfy their demand for such reading. Instead of searching the Sab- 
bath School Library for some new story book, they would find something 
much better in these interesting aunals of old times. 

"ScRirTURE Portraits; or Sketches 'of Bible Characters, especially designed for 
the Family Circle." By the Rev. Jonathan Brack. Now York. M. W. Dodd. 

Mr. Brace's volume contains much good reading. We think the first 
sketch the least interesting of any. The chapter on " Hannah, the mother 
of Samuel," strikes us as among the best. "Saul and the Witch of 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 229 

Endor" is another chapter, which sets off to advantage the good sense and 
discrimination of the writer. The following extract we commend to all 
who are prone to necromancy. 

Another object to be subserved by this miraculous interposition of the Almighty 
was, to pointedly rebuke all impertinent pryers into futurity. He who made 
man, and knows what is in man, knows what a strong curiosity is inherent in 
the mind and heart for what is occult, and how this innate disposition to pry into 
what is hidden would seek to be gratified. He knew that a class of persons de- 
nominated magicians, fortune-tellers, rappers, clairvoyants, &c, would appear, 
claiming to have their prescience of futurity, and an intimacy with things invisible ; 
claiming to reveal secrets, disclose hidden treasures, interpret dreams, and bring 
tidings from the eternal world ; he knew that such persons would appear, practise 
their various illusory arts, and that some would be so weak and credulous as to 
believe in them and trust them. Hence the record of this King of Israel sneaking 
by night to a sorry witch to learn his fortune! What did he get by it? Any 
good, any comfort ? Did he reap any advantage in taking her as his counsellor ? 
No ; he was ensnared, entrapped, punished : and a like fate awaits all who have 
to do with such sinful agents. They derive no benefits by their inventions, but 
are duped, defrauded, and fall into mischief; find a home in lunatic asylums. 
All who practise these enchantments, of whatever name*, are not to be run after, 
or consulted, but frowned upon and denounced. "Have no fellowship," says the 
apostle, "with unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them." These 
vain, illusory arts are just such works, for they are "works of darkness, and un- 
fruitful ;" unproductive of any good to all parties concerned in them, save only 
the conjuror himself or herself who gets his or her fee for laying the snare. 
Avoid these necromancers, turn from them and pass away. When, in protracted 
trials and perplexities, sense and reason point out no way of deliverance, and you 
are tempted by evil imaginings or corrupt advisers to resort for relief to sinful 
expedients, — remember Saul, and neither "lean to your own understandings," nor 
apply for direction to other than to the Father of Lights. " If any man lack 
wisdom, let him ask," — not of Satan, nor of Satan's emissaries, nor of any appa- 
rition counterfeiting human shape, but "ask of God, who giveth to all men libe- 
rally, and upbraideth" and deceiveth " not." He who forsakes Infinite Wisdom, 
and contemns the counsels of the Most High, will be embarrassed, circumvented, 
stumble upon the dark mountains, and fall into hell. " The prudent man looketh 
well to his goings, by taking heed thereto according to God's word !" 

"The Bohemian Martyrs ; or Sketches of the Lives of John Huss, and Jerome of 
Prague." Presbyterian Board of Publication. 

True religion is nurtured by the perusal of works like this. The 
lives of John Huss, and Jerome of Prague, are glorious exhibitions of 
the grace and strength which God gives to men, according to their day. 
It is a great thing to familiarize the minds of children with the deeds 
of heroic self-denial, and Christian devotion, which characterized the 

" The Perseverance of the Saints." Philadelphia. Presbyterian Board of Pub- 

This is a good old treatise on an important doctrine of the Bible. The 
author first defines his position by stating the doctrine of perseverance ; 
he then answers fifteen of the common objections, or misrepresentations; 
and in the third place, he advances twenty-one Scriptural arguments in 
favour of perseverance. The following is the author's statement of the 
doctrine : 

230 Review and Criticism. [May. 

" I. It seems proper to explain what we mean by the doctrine of the Perseve- 
rance of the Saints. 

u 1. By a 'Saint' I do not mean a perfectly holy person, for there is not such 
an one on earth. Nor, running to the other extreme, do I consider every awak- 
ened and convicted person a saint ; for many are alarmed, excited and partially 
reformed, who are never thoroughly converted. The falling away of such per- 
sons we do not consider the falling away of saints. But by a saint I understand 
a real Christian, one who has been born again (John 3 : 7), who has become a 
new creature (2 Cor. 5 : 17), or, to use a favourite expression of our opponents, 
has been ' soundly and thoroughly converted.' It is impossible such a person 
should perish. 

" 2. When we say it is impossible for a saint to fall away and be lost, we do not 
mean that this impossibility arises from anything in the Christian himself, but 
from the immutability of the purpose and promise of God. If left to himself, the 
Christian would fall in a moment ; and hence arises the propriety of those cau- 
tions, exhortations and warnings against falling, which abound in the word of 

" 3. When we say it is impossible to fall from grace, we do not mean that it is 
impossible to lose many degrees of grace, or to be backsliders to a considerable 
extent ; for this we admit is a frequent occurrence : but that it is impossible to 
fall entirely away, to lose all grace and perish eternally. Dr. Emmons and some 
other New England divines admit a total, though they deny a final, falling from 
grace. Our church in my opinion very properly, denies both ; but the latter is 
the more important of the two, and it is to this I shall principally direct your 

"Our doctrine therefore is, 'That no real Christian, no one who has been truly 
regenerated and made a new creature in Christ Jesus, will ever be suffered to 
perish eternally.' " 

" The Last Words of a Pastor to his People ; two Discourses delivered in the 
Third Presbyterian Church, Albany, &c, with a history of the Church." By Rev. 
E. A. Huntington, D.D. Albany j Fisk & Little. 

The first of these discourses, which, in our judgment, is much the most 
interesting and able of the two, contains an argument against despondency. 
This discourse is one that ought to be read by all, who belong to a feeble 
church, and are prone to despise the day of small things. These " last 
words" deserve to be sounded throughout many of our congregations. 
The Appendix contains a highly instructive chapter of Church History, 
especially as illustrated in the life of Rev. Hooper Cumming. We wish 
much success to Dr. Huntington, Professor elect in the Auburn Semi- 
nary, and also to Dr. Halley, Pastor elect of the Third Church in Albany. 

" TnE Christian Retrospect and Register. A Summary of the Scientific, Moral, 
and Religious Progress of the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. With a Supple- 
ment, bringing the work down to the present time." By Robert Baird. Pub- 
lished by W. M. Dodd, New York. 

The name of Dr. Baird is extensively and favourably known. He 
is remarkable for his laborious collection of historical facts and statistics, 
and for the accurate and judicious manner in which he arranges and 
records them. Several works of this character were prepared and 
published by him many years ago, and this circumstance contributed to 
qualify him to prepare the present volume, which is a handsome 12mo. of 
1 I- pages. 

The former edition, without the supplement, was highly valued as a 
book of reference, and its value has been iucreascd by the statistics con- 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 231 

tained in the supplement, without adding much to the price of the volume. 
Its design is to give a condensed history of the changes which have 
occurred in the world during the Nineteenth Century, political, scientific, 
and religious. Not a few of these are within the recollection of many 
now living. To such persons, a work of this kind will be valuable, by 
reviving in their memories interesting facts and dates, which are gradually 
fading away. To their juniors in age, it will be still more useful, by 
furnishing them new information concerning the progress of society, since 
or before the time of their birth. The rapid sale of the book after its 
first appearance in 1851 (several thousands being sold during that and 
the following year), affords reasonable ground to anticipate an extensive 
circulation of the present edition, especially as the former one was out of 
print, before this was issued. We commend it to the notice of those who 
need a work of this description. 

" Adam and Christ ; or the Doctrine of Representation stated and explained." By 
E. C. Wines, D.D. Presbyterian Board of Publication. 

This is a very able theological tract, on an important and fundamental 
topic. Dr. Wines originally preached the sermon before the Synod of 
New York, which body requested a copy for publication. Dr? Wines lays 
down three propositions, or leading truths, comprehended in the passage 
in Romans 5 : 12-19. 

"I. My first proposition is: A public and representative character attaches 
both to Adam and to Christ ; herein the former was a type of the latter, the rela- 
tion which Adam bore to his posterity being the same as that which Christ bears 
to believers. 

" II. My second proposition is this : No mere private individual was tried in 
Eden ; the probation, though in the person of Adam, was of the nature that God 
had made ; and, as a consequence of the miscarriage of the trial, the whole race 
of mankind fell under condemnation, became obnoxious to punishment, and are 
actually subjected to penal evils, on account of their sin in him. 

" III. My third proposition is : By the abounding grace of God, a new proba- 
tion has been admitted in the person of his incarnate Son ; this second trial 
issued favourably, the illustrious probationer having fulfilled all righteousness ; 
and, as a consequence, believing sinners are redeemed and saved by his merits." 

The following extract relating to the manner of God's gracious inter- 
position for man's deliverance from death and restoration to life, will be 
read with interest. 

"In v. 14, the apostle affirms, that Adam was a type of Christ. "With wonder" 
ful exactness do the type and the antitype agree together. The comparison con- 
sists of five couplets ; Adam and Christ, sin and righteousness, sinners and 
righteous persons, condemnation and justification, death and life. Placing the 
five terms on each side of the comparison together, the relation may be denoted 
thus : Adam, sin. sinners, condemnation, death — Christ, righteousness, righteous 
persons, justification, life. As Adam by his sin made sinners of all his natural 
posterity, involving them in condemnation and death, so Christ by his righteous- 
ness constitutes righteous all who believe in him, procuring for them justification 
unto life. 

" How exact the correspondence ! Is Adam the author of sin ? Christ is the 
author of righteousness. Is Adam the cause of other men's becoming sinners ? 
Christ is the cause of other men's becoming righteous. Is the sin of Adam the 
ground of condemnation? The righteousness of Christ is the ground of justifi- 
cation. Does the condemnation through Adam bring death? The justification 
through Christ brings life. Are the many judicially constituted sinners by the 

232 Review and Criticism. [May. 

disobedience of the one? The many are judicially constituted righteous by the 
obedience of the other. Does the principle of representation obtain under the 
one economy? So does it under the other. Is imputation the mode whereby 
this principle exerts its force in the one case? So is it in the other. Is the first 
covenant the ministry of death to all men descending from Adam by ordinary 
generation ? The second covenant is the ministry of life to all men who believe 
in Christ. Was Adam the federal head of his natural children ? Christ is the 
federal head of his spiritual children. 

" In all these respects the similitude is admirable. In the principle of their 
respective economies, and in their relation, in the one case to the apostasy, in the 
other to the recovery, the correspondence is exact to a tittle. The mode of apos- 
tasy is the mode of the recovery. The federal headship of the first Adam, and 
the federal headship of the second Adam, are counterparts of each other. The 
first Adam sustained the persons of all who were federally in him, i. e., of his 
natural posterity ; and the second Adam sustained the persons of all who were 
federally in him, i. e., of elect sinners. God accounts as done by the represented 
what was done by the first representative ; and he equally accounts as done by 
the represented what was done by the second representative. Sin and death 
were conveyed by the one to all his natural seed ; righteousness and life are con- 
veyed by the other to all his spiritual seed. The demerit of Adam is imputed to 
us to condemnation ; the merit of Christ is imputed to us to justification. 

" Thus it appears that the Lord Jesus Christ, in the redemption, is the repre- 
sentative of his people, and that the method by which he redeems them is that of 
substitution — the substitution of his obedience for their obedience, the substitu- 
tion of his death for their death, the substitution of himself for them, ' the just 
for the unjust.'" 

Dr. Wines' work, although small in size, contains an elaborate discus- 
sion of the great evangelical doctrine of Representation, well worthy of 
the study of our intelligent laymen. 

" Aspects of Society. A Lecture before the Young Men's Literary Association 
of Fort Wayne, Ind." By J. Edwards, Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, 
Fort Wayne. T. N. Hood. 1S55. 

In this thoughtful, philosophical Discourse, Mr. Edwards first glances 
at the varieties of national physiognomy among the early nations. A 
summary of his views is seen in the following extract. 

" Here then we have noted six distinct types of the social state — China, India, 
Egypt, Assyria, Greece, Rome. 

" Politically, China is Patriarchal ; India and Egypt, variations of the Sacer- 
dotal ; Assyria, sheer Despotism ; Greece, Municipal; Rome, Imperial. 

"PuiLosormcALLY, China is Materialism : India and Egypt, different kinds 
of Spiritualism ; Assyria, Sensualism ; Greece, Genius ; Rome, Authority. 

" The typk of China is its own grand canal — extended, useful for certain pur- 
poses, yet sluggish, and for great and noble ends long since obsolete. The type 
of India is the Banyan of its forests, with a double growth, upward and down- 
ward — its every branch pointing to heaven, yet having each its separate root in 
the earth. Egypt is represented in its Sphinx — its face, human indeed, yet de- 
void of passion or of hope, and known to be in monstrous alliance with a heart 
and a body that are otdy bestial. Assyria is a winged bull — aspiring, coarse, 
sullen, strong. Greece is symbolized in the Owl of her mythology — the bird of 
wisdom, indeed, yet seeing best and achieving most in comparative darkness j 
folding its pinions and closing its eves al the rising of the sun. Rome is the 

Eagh — thai Boars grandly, yet ominously; not in glad, grateful, blessed freedonij 
like the lark, as it breasts ami heralds the beams of the morning, but b creaming 
in threatening dissonance as borne aloft by the whirling spray of the cataract or 

the storm." 

1855.] The Religious World. 

Mr. Edwards next turns to Christianity, as a philosophy, modifying 
the aspects of society ; and shows its vast superiority over any element, 
previously at work among the nations. We quote him again. 

" In two points its superiority will be sufficiently shown : 

" It is Catholic. 

" Other civilizations were local and partial. Their gods were the gods of the 
plains or of the mountains only. But tbis heaven-born scheme, independent of 
climate or physical contour,, overriding all personal and national peculiarities, 
comes to every people and to every man with equal cordiality and with adapted- 
ness. It has heart and help for all. 

" It is Progressive. 

" Until its advent, no advance had been made by the race as such. The dif- 
ferent civilizations were tentative, but unsuccessful — a weary round of tread-wheel 
toil. Indeed, until the comparative enfranchisement of Grecian mind, the diffe- 
rent nations knew not of any civilization other than their own, or knew only to 
despise. The idea of public profit by the experience of others seems scarcely to 
have been conceived. But a spirit of resolute advance is now evoked. Chris- 
tianity is Progress. Here are some footprints of its victorious career : 

" The Code Justinian, in which it gave the world the first Institutes of Civil 
Law : 

" The Crusades, in which it first revealed the practicability of national co- 
operation and confederation without fusion : 

" The Feudal System and its attendant Chivalry, in which it at once deve- 
loped a becoming, high-toned individualism, and invested woman with her proper 
right to the heart, the home, and the defensive arm of man : 

" The Reformation, in which it asserted not only a pure doctrine, but a free 
conscience : 

"The English Revolution of 1688, in which it proclaimed, and the Ameri- 
can Revolution of 1776, in which it inaugurated civil liberty in the earth." 

Mr. Edwards concludes with some remarks on the Aspects of Society 
in our own country, which aspects he characterizes as Eclectic, Christian, 
Progressive, and Diffusive. The style of the Discourse is Saxon ; and 
those who have heard Mr. Edwards speak, will not be at a loss to know 
how he writes. 

i JUligian* SJorlb. 

Presbyterianism in Natchez. — The True Witness states that the 
Presbyterian Church of Natchez, Miss., some years since, built a large 
and comfortable church for the coloured population, and have supported 
for them a regular pastor ever since. The editor adds : " We attended 
their church a few Sabbaths since, and were very much pleased with the 
order and interest manifested by this large congregation. They have a 
choir, melodeon, and everything which gives to it the air of a city congre- 
gation." In addition to the above enterprise, the church in Natchez is 
now engaged in raising a subscription of $10,000 to build a second churchy 
and there is no doubt but that it will be done. This will add greatly to 
the strength and influence of Presbyterianism in that city. 

234 The Religious World. [May. 

Davidson College, North Carolina. — The Rev. Drury Lacy, D.D., 
of Raleigh, North Carolina, has accepted the Presidency of Davidson Col- 
lege, to which he was recently elected. Dr. Lacy is universally esteemed 
for his urbanity, and many excellent qualities of mind and heart. We 
trust he may be greatly encouraged and useful in the important post upon 
which he enters. 

The bequest of Maxwell Chambers, Esq., to this Institution, which we 
have already noticed, it is ascertained will probably amount to about 
$200,000.— Bret. 

Ecclesiological. — We learn from The Churchman that a meeting of 
the Ecclesiological Society in New York, was held on the 16th instant, at 
St. Paul's Chapel, when the Rev. Mr. Hopkins read a report on the Cathe- 
dral system, proposing certain changes in the social and educational ar- 
rangements of the Episcopalian clergy. We copy from The Churchman : 

" Every Bishop should have his See, which should be the chief city in the 
diocese over which he presides. Here, of course, was the cathedral, and the 
proper place for the meetings of conventions, &c. The Bishop and clergy (of the 
cathedral) should live together, eating at the same table, and living a common 
life. By this means a house would be provided for the country clergy who should 
visit the Bishop, and a closer bond of union and intercourse established between 
the Bishop and his clergy. It might be objected that the clergy generally being 
married men, this arrangement would not work ; but this need not be a very great 
obstacle ; if the clergy must marry, their wives could act as housekeepers. The 
Eastern Church required that the Bishops should be widowers or unmarried men. 
The Scripture says that it is not good for man to be alone, and Bishops are no 
exception to the rule. They, too, need a he]p-meel for them ; and what better 
help-meet can they have than a band of young, unmarried, self-denying priests 
and deacons? There should also be schools: a theological training school 
attached to the cathedral ; a boys' school, to furnish choristers (boys' voices only 
being proper for church music), and to prepare them for the ministry ; and a 
girls' school, to make good clergymen's wives. Then we should have a cathedral 
like that of St. Basil in the East, with Bishops and priests living together in holy 
harmony. It would also be a real centre for the organized and missionary labours 
of the diocese, and a modified form of itinerancy might be adopted, which would 
relieve the country clergy, and give the Church health and life. If it should be 
objected that the dioceses are too large — and they are — let them be broken up. 
The way has been opened by county convocations, and the Church is gradually 
growing up to the cathedral system of the Primitive Church. No diocese should 
be more than forty miles long. There need be no revolution of any kind, uo altera- 
tion of canons, nothing is wanted but action." 

Anolican Church. — The Anglican Church Establishment is a com- 
promise between Catholicism and Protestantism, held together by the 
royal supremacy. Its Episcopal hierarchy, although deprived of its former 
head, and its liturgical service, although purged of the sacrifice of the 
mass and the Latin dress, constitute its churchly, historical, traditional 
element, and may be said, in some sense, to look towards Rome ; while 
its Thirty-Nine Articles and Catechism are essentially Protestant, and 
look towards Geneva. It is Romanism nationalized and Puritanizcd, or 
moderate Calvinism Catholicized and eluirehiued. It includes a Catholic 
and a Protestant, an objective and a subjective, a sacramental and a Puri- 
tanic, a churchly and an evangelical element, the principle of authority and 
exclusivcness as well as the principle of freedom and toleratiou. But 

1855.] The Religious World. 235 

they are not internally, organically, and really united and harmonized ; 
stand rather externally and mechanically related to each other; they get 
into constant collisions; are impatient, jealous and envious of each other, 
and present to the outsider the spectacle of a strange inconsistency and 
self-contradiction, with an equally remarkable tenacity of life derived from 
the extreme right and the extreme left wing of Christianity. — Evangelist. 

The Dutch Remonstrants. — It is a matter of some interest to learn 
what has become of that part of the churches in Holland, which made so 
much noise in the days of the Synod of Dort, under the name of Remon- 
strants, or Arminians ; those, in other words, with whom Arminianism 
was born and cradled ? The New Brunswick Review informs us, that the 
sect still exists, but is gradually dwindling to nothing. In 1803, they 
had 34 churches and 40 ministers ; now they have 27 churches and 24 
ministers. The membership of the body is now reduced to 4,835. They 
have a Theological Seminary with three students. In regard to doctrinal 
belief, they are very low. 

Agitation in the Free Church of Scotland. — Our readers will 
regret to learn that the agitation about the College question has been 
very violent. The point is whether there shall be only one full Divinity 
Hall, or not. The special friends of the New College at Edinburgh ad- 
vocate the policy of endowing and sustaining a single college of a high 
order, and deprecate the existence of smaller and inferior institutions in 
other localities. The Aberdeen Hall has heretofore been regarded as 
a subordinate one, and a sort of feeder to the Edinburgh College — its 
students having been required to spend the last one or two years at 
Edinburgh. The Assembly of 1854, however, in pursuance of the policy 
marked out in 1850, resolved that the Aberdeen institution should be 
raised up to a full Theological Hall, with three professors. This proposal 
was adopted by a decisive vote, after a long and able debate. According 
to the terms of the Barrier Act, the Presbyteries must sanction the 
measure, before it can be carried into execution. The Presbyteries have 
been lately considering the matter, and making their decisions upon it. 
Dr. Cunningham, who was in a minority in the last Assembly, has been 
exerting all his influence to prevent the final sanctioning of the measure 
by the Presbyteries. Dr. Candlish is on the opposite side; as are the 
ministers of Glasgow — and generally the Northern ministers, who, by 
locality, are Aberdeeners. The Glasgow brethren, also, expect to have a 
Theological Hall before many years ; and this Presbytery has pronounced 
in favour of the Aberdeen Hall, by a vote of 29 to 2. The controversy 
assumed, for a time, a bitter personal aspect, in consequence of a declara- 
tion by Dr. Cunningham that the Sustentation Committee (whose leaders 
reside principally at Glasgow), had agreed to waive energetic efforts to 
increase that fund, in order to give better opportunity to carry out the 
Aberdeen scheme. Dr. Buchanan, of Glasgow, resented this imputa- 
tion, and expressed his determination in consequence of it, to resign the 
Convenership of the Sustentation Committee at the meeting of the As- 
sembly. Subsequently Dr. Cunningham expressed regret at his course, 
and Dr. Buchanan waived his determination. As public sentiment in 
the Free Church is evidently in favour of a plurality of Theological Halls, 

236 Statistics. [May. 

it strikes us, at this distance, that the policy of our Edinburgh brethren 
was not to agitate again the Church to its centre, but to acquiesce with a 
grace that should rally the resources of the friends of the New College at 
Edinburgh, and conciliate the friends of the other institutions. 


Facts from the British Census. — London extends over an area of 78,029 
acres, on the sides of the Thames, into Kent, Surrey and Middlesex, and the 
number of its inhabitants, constantly increasing, was 2,362,236 on the day that 
the census was taken. 

The people of England were, on an average, 153 yards asunder in 1801, and 
108 yards asunder in 1851. The mean distance apart of their houses was 362 
yards in 1801, and only 252 yards in 1851. 

What is the oldest age that is now attained? The Census furnishes us some 
aid toward the prosecution of this inquiry, which is certainly of no inconsiderable 
interest or importance. In Great Britain, more than half a million of the inhabi- 
tants (596,030) have passed the barrier of "threescore and ten;" more than a 
hundred and twenty-nine thousand the Psalmist's limit of fourscore years, and 
100,000 the years which the last of Plato's climacteric square numbers expressed, 
(9 times 9 equals 81); nearly ten thousand (9,847) have lived ninety years or 
more ; a band of 2,638 aged pilgrims have been wandering ninety-five years and 
more on their unended journey, and 319 say that they have witnessed more than 
a hundred revolutions of the seasons. Many instances, we may observe, are cited 
of men living in the ancient world more than a hundred years ; and Lord Bacon, 
in his History of Life and Death, quotes a fact unquestioned, that a few years 
before he wrote, a Morrisdance was performed in Herefordshire, at the May 
games, by eight men, whose ages, in the aggregate, amounted to 800 years. No 
populous village in England was then, it would seem, without a man or woman of 
fourscore years old. In the Seventeenth Century, some time after Bacon wrote, 
two Englishmen are reported to have died at ages greater than almost any ot 
those which have been attained in other European nations. According to documents 
printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Thomas Parr 
lived 152 years and nine months; Henry Jenkins 169 years. The evidence in 
these extraordinary instances is however by no means conclusive, as it evidently 
rests chiefly on uncertain tradition, and on the very fallible memories of illiterate 
old men ; for there is no mention of documentary evidence in Parr's case, and 
the births of both date back to a period before the Parish Registers were insti- 
tuted by Cromwell, in 1538. Wc need hardly say that the prolongation of the 
life of a people must become an essential part of family, municipal, and national 

In England, it seems that the tircnl ;/-si.c/h year is the mean age at which men 
marry, and the twenty-fifth that at which women marry. 

The average age of the wife is about 4()J years, of the husband 43 years; or 
the husband in Great Britain, on the average] is 2] years older than the wife. 

Of 4,694,583 children of the age 6 to l">, only 2,405,442 are returned as 
scholars at home and abroad ; while .705,409 are employed in some extraneous 

employment and 1,583,732 are simply occupied as children at home. 

By the English Life Table it is shown that the half of a generation of men of 

1855.] Miscellaneous Thoughts. 237 

all acres passes away in thirty years, and that more than three in every four of 
their number die in half a century. 

The average number of persons to a house in Great Britain, at the census of 
1851, was five and a half, the same as in 1831. 

The Slave-Trade. — According to a statement contained in Niles's Eegister, 
vol. xix. p. 282, derived from the speech of Mr. Smith, of South Carolina, on the 
Missouri Compromise, the ownership of the vessels engaged in the transportation 
of slaves from Africa to South Carolina (the only State admitting their impor- 
tation), from Jan. 1, 1804, to Dec. 31, 1807, were as follows: Charleston, 61 5 
Rhode Island, 57 ; Baltimore, 4 ; Boston, 1 ; Norfolk, 2 ; Connecticut, 1 ; Sweden, 
1 ; Great Britain, 70 ; France, 3 ; total, 282. 

These vessels imported 39,075 slaves, of whom 21,027 were brought in foreign 
vessels, and 5,717 others in American vessels owned by foreigners. Rhode Island 
imported 8,238 ; the rest of the North, 659. 

MijmUatnmus C-JjMgfrfi 


The following paragraphs are extracted from the Memoir of Rev. 
William H. Hewitson, late a minister of the Free Church of Scotland : — 


Many think that God is only to be worshipped upon their knees in the closet, 
around the family hearth, and in the place of public worship ; but, if we think like 
them, we shall not live godly lives in Christ Jesus. We ought to worship God 
whenever he is present, and that is always, at all times. We ought to worship 
him wherever he is present, and that is everywhere, in all places. Whoever is in 
our company, we ought to keep company more with God than with them. What- 
ever we say to others, we ought to say it more to God than to them. It is our pri- 
vilege, and our calling as Christians, to strive by all means to keep up constant 
fellowship with God, and to walk in the light of his countenance. We do so 
when, like the Psalmist, we can say truly, " / have set the Lord always before 


When we fail to observe answers to prayer, and to make them occasions of 
praise, may we not expect that God will, as a matter of discipline and chastise- 
ment, send answers to prayer less abundant, less marked ? Our Lord is angiy 
with the wicked for not considering " the operations of his hands :" how much 
greater cause for anger he has, when he finds his own children not recognizing, 
in his dealings with them, tokens of his love and faithfulness as the hearer of 
prayer ! " We should seek," said a brother to me lately in London — " we should 
seek to meet God in every circumstance." In every circumstance we should, I 
may add, by way of applying the observation, seek to meet God as the answerer 
of prayer. Praying without ceasing, and praising without ceasing, the believer 
can, without ceasing, walk with God. 

238 Miscellaneous Thoughts. [May. 


Have faith in God. Faith will be staggered even by loose stones in the way, 
if we look man-ward ; if we look God-ward, faith will not be staggered even by in- 
accessible mountains stretching across, and obstructing apparently our onward 
progress. " Go forward !" is the voice from heaven ; and faith, obeying, finds the 
mountains before it flat as plains. " God with us !"' is the watchword of our war- 
fare — the secret of our strength, the security of our triumph. a If thou canst be- 
lieve, all things are possible to him that believeth." How strong faith is when we 
are just fresh from the fountain of redeeming blood! A good conscience, and 
then faith will do all things, for it is in its very nature such as to let God work 
all. We may say that it is most active when it is most passive, and that it wea- 
ries least when it does most work. 


The character and spirit of the now aged Apostle John's conversation are 
gathered from what he says to his friend, " the elect lady :" " Having many things 
to write unto you, I would not write with paper and ink ; but I trust to come unto 
you, and speak face to face, that our joy may be full." His conversation on 
meeting with the brethren was just a continuation of what he wrote about to them 
when absent; and in such conversation " his joy was full," for the Lord was pre- 
sent according to promise, " Wheresoever two or three are met together in my 
name, there am I in the midst of them." To get always a fulfilment of this pro- 
mise, we should always meet in the name of Christ. If Christians ever meet to 
do or say what they cannot engage in doing or saying in the name of Christ, it 
were better for them not to meet at all ; for the Scripture says, " Whatsoever ye 
do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus." 


Nothing has more attractive and heart-weaning power than habitual contem- 
plation of the Lord's living person. Our Redeemer is no mere abstraction, no 
ideality, that has its being only in our own shifting thoughts. He is the most in- 
dependently personal of all persons, and the most absolutely living of all who 
live. He is " the First and the Last, and the Living One." fie is so near us, as 
the Son of God, that we can feel his warm breath on our souls ; and, as the Son 
of man, he has a heart like these hearts of ours — a human heart, meek and lowly, 
tender, kind, and sympathizing. In the word — the almost viva voce utterance of 
himself — his arm of power is stretched forth beside you, that you may lean on it 
with all your weight; and in the Word, also, his love is revealed, that on the bosom 
of it you may lay your aching head, and forget your sorrow in the abundance of 
his consolations. The Living One, who died, we must contemplate — to him we 
must look, that we may be weaned and won over wholly to God — that we may be 
strengthened, spiritualized, and sanctified. 


Wk have never seen a more truthful remark upon "the Book of all Rooks," 
than the following: The Bible, says Koine, "is dangerous." But dangerous for 
whom? It is dangerous for infidelity, whieh it confounds ; dangerous for sins, 
which it curses ; dangerous for Satan, whom it dethrones ; dangerous to fhlse re- 
ligion, which it unmasks; dangerous to every church which dares to conceal it 
from the people, and whose criminal impostures or fatal illusions it brings to 

1855.] Miscellaneous Thoughts. 239 


Time is a river deep and wide ; 

And while along its banks we stray, 
We see our loved ones o'er its tide 

Sail from our sight away, away. 
"Where are they sped, — they who return 

No more to glad our longing eyes ? 
They've passed from life's contracted bourne 

To land unseen, unknown, that lies 

Beyond the river. 

'Tis hid from view ; but we may guess 

How beautiful that realm must be ; 
For gleamings of its loveliness, 

In visions granted, oft we see. 
The very clouds that o'er it throw 

Their veil, upraised for mortal sight, 
With gold and purple tintings glow, 

Reflected from the glorious light 

Beyond the river. 

And gentle airs, so sweet, so calm, 

Steal sometimes from that viewless sphere ; 
The mourner feels their breath of balm, 

And soothed sorrow dries the tear. 
Sometimes the listening ear may gain 

Entrancing sound that hither floats ; 
The echo of a distant strain, 

Of harps' and voices' blended notes, 

Beyond the river. 

There are our loved ones in their rest 1 

They've crossed Time's River, — now no more 
They heed the bubbles on its breast, 

Nor feel the storms that sweep its shore. 
But there pure love can live, can last, — 

They look for us their home to share ; 
When we in turn away have passed, 

What joyful greetings wait us there, 

Beyond the river. 


A pious mechanic says: "On New Year's day, 1827 or 1828, which was 
Monday, I reflected that I had never attended a monthly concert of prayer in 
this city, and determined that for once I would go. I went early, found only the 
sexton in the room, and sat down. Soon there came in a plain man, who spoke 
very pleasantly to the sexton, and then coming and sitting by my side, after a 
kind salutation, said, 'I trust you love the Saviour!' The question instantly 
filled my eyes with tears. I had been preached to at arm's length all my days, 
but this was the first time in my life that ever a Christian thus kindly and directly 
put such a question to my heart. We conversed together, in the course of which, 
at his request, I gave him my name and residence. The next day he came into 
my shop, and brought me the tract, ' Way to be Saved,' which he thought I should 
like to read. He called again and again. I became interested in him, and the 
next Sabbath joined his Sunday-school, was brought, as I hope, to Christ, and 
soon united with the church." 

Have you never noticed such instances, my Christian reader? Have you 

240 3IisceUaneous Thoughts. [May. 

never observed a lingering in the step of some one in your Bible class, or in your 
Sunday-school class, or in your circle of friends, as if your visitor had something 
on him he desired to bring up, — some heart-sickness, — and wanted but a kind 
word ? Did you speak to him t 

Has it never happened that one whom you little thought to be labouring under 
religious impressions, has hesitatingly and half-jestingly touched on religion, as 
if to call your own attention to it, he at the time knowing you to be a professed 
Christian ? Did you speak to him ? 

Did it never happen that a fellow-mortal on the eve of committing some great 
sin, or in a state of peculiar doubt, distress, or desolation, has been brought un- 
expectedly within your presence, as if for the very purpose of enabling you to 
point to him the only way of peace ? Did you speak to him ? 


The good and wise Creator of all has implanted in man certain passions and 
appetites ; the legitimate gratification of which is necessary to the support and 
comfort of mind and body. The superadded pleasure attached to this gratifica- 
tion, is a gratuitous and merciful provision of our Creator. The abuse of these 
appetites and propensities is characterized as sinful, and directions are given for 
keeping them in subjection. Thus, in relation to the appetite for food, it is said 
that " every man should eat and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labour." 
Even the kind is prescribed : " Eat ye that which is good." Also the quantity : 
" Eat so much as is sufficient for thee." And so of all this world's goods — we are 
to " use them as not abusing them." 

There are passions of a less physical nature. Love to one another, and espe- 
cially to the brethren, is enjoined, yet it may become so intense or carnal as to 
draw away the affections from the Supreme object of love. 

But there is another class of appetites, the very existence of which is sinful. 
They were never given by the Architect of our nature, but created by man him- 
self. They are the result of human depravity. 

Of this last class is the appetite for ardent spirits, tobacco, opium, &c. The 
habitual use of strong drink as a beverage is expressly forbidden in Scripture, and 
the gratification of this last class of appetites must be contrary to the spirit of this 
divine standard of moral rectitude. 

Need I speak of the folly of such indulgences? They are necessarily injurious 
to the constitution and deleterious to health. The body, of such delicate work- 
manship, must submit to the changes of the new agent, and the powers necessary 
to the performance of important functions in the promotion of health must be 
weakened, or paralyzed by this inroad upon Nature's arrangements. The natural 
appetites are impaired, so that the relish for the provisions of nature is in part 

A distinguishing feature of this class of appetites — and one which makes their 
gratification hazardous and foolish — is that they constantly gain strength and in- 
tensity by indulgence. He who indulges them is, in the same proportion, a slave. 
He feels — he knows that it is so. 

Such appetites are always present, crying: "give, give!" The victim, perhaps 
very gradually, but cons/a nfly yields; and in process of time finds his decision of 
character by no means improved thereby. 

This animal addition to human nature must be gratified, or its possessor suffer. 
The victim of tobacco, e. g., when deprived of the " great weed," feels as if 
violence had been done to nature, in some way. He is, to some extent, deranged 
not only physically, but mentally. It lakes himself and his quid (or cigar) to 
make a man! — Presbyterian Herald. 



JUNE, 1855. 


No. II. 

In our former article concerning the Rev. Albert Barnes' Tract 
on the question, How shall man be just with God ? we made no 
allusion to the reasons he assigns why faith is made the instrument 
of our justification. This omission was occasioned first by the 
want of room, without extending the article to a greater length 
than is suitable for the Magazine ; and secondly, by a desire to 
give those reasons a more mature consideration before submitting 
our thoughts to the public. 

As introductory to our remarks, we will quote a part of an edi- 
torial notice of this tract from a late number of the Christian 
Intelligencer, a Reformed Dutch newspaper, published in New 
York. The paper is conducted with ability, and its spirit is kind 
and conservative. Says the editor : 

" In undertaking to show why faith is so important in the work of salvation, 
the very cardo rerum, he occupies a number of pages in unfolding such heads as 
these : ' 1. Faith acts an important part in the affairs of the world. 2. It is the 
strongest conceivable bond of union between minds and hearts. 3. It is adapted 
to meet all the ills of the world.' All this is mere darkening counsel — mere dis- 
tracting the attention from what is chief in importance. If none of these posi- 
tions were true, faith would be none the less appropriately the means of justifi- 
cation. The old and just view of the subject is, that justifying faith derives all 
its efficacy from its terminating on Christ : and to dwell as much as Mr. Barnes 
does on its inherent intrinsic excellence, is to run the risk of building again what 
he has destroyed, and bringing in under a new name justification by works. If 
faith saves us because it is confidence, and confidence is such a wonderfully good 
and useful thing, then after all we are not saved gratuitously, and thus there is 
another gospel. We do not charge this on Mr. Barnes, for other parts of his 
book have the genuine evangelical stamp, but we do charge that his illustrations 
of the worth of faith have a very dangerous tendency, and taken by themselves 
would go far to mislead an inquiring soul from the way of salvation." 

vol. v. — no. 6. 16 

242 How shall Man be just with God ? [June. 

It is proper to remark that all these reasons are of a general 
character, without any specific reference to Christ as the object of 
faith ; and to the three general reasons above mentioned, the 
author adds a fourth, viz. : " that faith is required or is made the 
condition of justification for this reason : there is an obvious pro- 
priety that where salvation is provided and offered, there should be 
some act on our part signifying our acceptance of it." The dis- 
cussion of these four points occupies over twelve pages. He then 
proceeds through seven more, " to show why faith in Christ par- 
ticularly is made so important a condition of salvation." (1.) 
" We are to repose faith or confidence in Christ as authorized to 
negotiate the terms of reconciliation." (2.) " It is by his agency 
and merits only that we can be received into the favour of God." 
(3.) " The act of believing in Christ is made in circumstances and 
in manner indicating confidence of the highest kind that ever ex- 
ists in the human bosom, constituting a union of the closest con- 
ceivable nature." " The circumstances are these :" (a.) " The 
sinner feels that he is lost and ruined :" (b.) " He despairs of sal- 
vation in himself:" (c.) "In these sad and perilous circumstances, 
he commits his soul, with all its infinite and eternal interests, into 
the hands of the Lord Jesus :" (d.) " This is a wonderful act of 
confidence:" "It remains then only to add, (e.) that in virtue of 
such a union there should be identity of treatment." 

We cheerfully admit that if the theme proposed by our author 
had been the Life of Faith, or the Walk of Faith, there would be 
little if anything objectionable in the thoughts here presented on 
the subject of faith ; so modified, of course, in form and expres- 
sion, as to be adapted to this modification of the general topic. 
Faith is an important Christian grace, considered with reference 
to its influence on the heart and life. The names of persons 
distinguished for their faith, are mentioned by the sacred writers 
with peculiar honour. So numerous were they under the Old 
Testament dispensation, that Paul says that "time would fail him 
to speak of them in particular:" "who through faith subdued 
kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the 
mouths of lions, quenched the violence of fire, escaped the 
edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed 
valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens," &c, &c. 

But this inspired laudation of the power of faith is not found in 
a discourse on justification ; and we have no example in the Holy 
Scriptures for connecting the intrinsic value of faith with this 
subject. Such a view of faith belongs to the spirit and conduct 
of a man who is already a believer, but not to the case of one who 
desires to obtain a solution of the great question, " How shall Man 
be just with God?" Its introduction hoe as a reason for God's 
requiring faith, is calculated to give the inquirer erroneous views 
concerning the nature of justification, as a gratuitous act, and also 
to throw his mind into doubt and difficulty as to the nature and 

1855.] How shall Man be just ivith God? 243 

strength of the faith he must exercise in order to his being justi- 
fied. We are aware that one passage of Scripture has been ap- 
pealed to by some, to prove the opposite of what we now assert, 
but it is from the want of a due consideration of its connection. 
We refer to Rom. 4 : 22, " And therefore it was imputed to him 
for righteousness." The two preceding verses speak of the 
strength of Abraham's faith. " Strong in faith, giving glory to 
God," &c. Hence a cursory reader is liable to connect the "there- 
fore" of the succeeding verse with his faith's being strong, as 
though this was the reason for its being imputed to him for right- 
eousness. But an examination of the context will show (see v. 13, 
16) that faith as opposed to the deeds of the law, and not a strong 
as opposed to a weak faith, was the point which the Apostle was 
arguing, and that the latter was introduced incidentally and paren- 
thetically, as illustrative of the extraordinary character of that 
patriarch. "It is of faith," says he (v. 16), " that it might be by 
grace ; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed ;" 
implying that the faith by which he was justified, was such a faith 
as all believers must exercise in order to inherit the promise ; not 
faith in its strength, but in its evangelical character. This is 
evident from the fact that if its strength was intended, no one can 
be justified, at least he cannot feel sure of being in a justified 
state, unless he possesses as strong a faith as Abraham. A strong 
faith is a gracious attainment, but is not essential to its genuine- 
ness ; and this seldom, if ever, characterizes its first saving act, 
when the sinner receives and rests upon Christ as his Redeemer. 
Hence it is evident that it is not the degree but the nature of faith 
which makes it saving. 

In directing an inquiring soul to exercise faith, the Apostle's 
words were, "Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be 
saved." Not a syllable is uttered concerning the properties of 
faith, and nothing is implied, except sincerity of heart. " With 
the heart man believeth unto righteousness." The jailer is simply 
directed to its great and glorious object, without his mind being 
diverted in the smallest degree by a consideration of faith itself as 
intrinsically excellent, or as being on this account suited to become 
the instrument of his salvation. Accordingly, we approach more 
nearly to the spirit of the Bible, when we assign no other reason 
why faith is the instrument of justification, than because it receives 
and rests upon Christ as its object; the sinner's faith merely 
accepting Christ and his righteousness as the free gift of God. 
And so far is this faith from being " a wonderful act of confidence," 
(as our author affirms), the wonder really is, that any sinner on 
earth, and particularly a convicted sinner, should hesitate for a 
moment to trust in a Saviour who is so fully and freely presented, 
as "able to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by 
him." His unbelief is unreasonable and sinful. It makes God a 
liar. (1st John 5 : 10.) It tramples under foot the blood of his 

244 How shall Man be just with God ? [June. 

Son. (Heb. 10 : 20.) Its continuance can be accounted for only 
by the fact, that his depravity affects most seriously and fatally 
all the faculties of his soul, until renovated by the Holy Spirit. 

But does not this tract point the sinner to Christ, as the willing, 
the all-sufficient, and the only Saviour ? We are glad to say, that 
it does. But while it does this, it dwells so much longer, and makes 
so prominent., the intrinsic excellencies of faith, that the reader is 
liable to overlook the former, or to connect with it so many other 
things, as to obscure that one great and glorious idea, and to have 
his mind bewildered with reference to the simple, and only true 
answer to the question, " What must I do to be saved?" If it be 
asked, What is the practical difference in the effect of presenting 
the subject in this simple form, or of connecting therewith the 
several reasons assigned by the author, in addition to that which 
he has also given ? our answer is, that the difference lies, 

1. In the fact, that with this single reason only, before his mind, 
the sinner perceives that the ground of his justification is Christ 
alone, without the smallest reliance upon himself. And hence if 
he is disposed to be self-righteous, this view of God's plan of 
salvation will have a tendency to humble his pride ; or if on the 
other hand, he is oppressed and overwhelmed by a sense of the 
magnitude of his sins, and afraid to come to Christ, lest he may 
not receive him, the contemplation of the Saviour's love and suffer- 
ings for sinners, for him the chief of sinners, will furnish a com- 
plete answer to every objection, and exert a powerful influence 
upon him to repose his soul in humble faith upon " the Lord our 
righteousness." But suppose, in addition to this reason, he is told 
of the "important part" which faith exerts "in the affairs of the 
world," that " it is the strongest conceivable bond of union between 
minds and hearts," is "adapted to meet all the ills of the world," 
&c, and, that on these accounts, as well as the other, it is the 
instrument of our justification. His view of the Saviour will be 
through a mist. His mind will become confused. He will be 
liable to lose sight of the fact, that Christ is the sole and exclusive 
ground of his acceptance, and to elevate faith itself, by virtue of 
its excellent properties to a share in procuring this divine and 
gracious privilege. Thus faith virtually becomes a work, upon 
the performance of which he will be disposed to rely in part, for 
the forgiveness of sins, and this heavenly grace, which is the 
appointed instrument of uniting the soul to Christ, is made, by 
this false and unscriptural position in which it is placed, a practical 
hindrance to his closing in with the Gospel offer. 

2. Another difference lies in the fact, that most, if not all of 
those reasons which arc derived from the intrinsic excellence of 
faith, apply with equal force to love, and several of them to the 
other Christian graces. Love possesses in some respects the pre- 
eminence. "Now abidcth faith, hope, charity, these three, but 
the greatest of these is charity." As ornaments of the Christian, 

1855.] Sow shall Man be just with G-od? 245 

they all contribute their due proportion, and if a single one be 
defective, his character suffers injury. Hence if a seeker after 
religion has his thoughts directed to the inherent worth and efficacy 
of faith, as a valuable consideration in the matter of his justifica- 
tion, he will naturally inquire, why may not love, repentance, 
patience, meekness and humility, contribute to the same end ? and 
as no good reason can be assigned why they should not, on the 
principle which we are now considering, he will be liable to asso- 
ciate them together and to rely upon them all, more or less, in 
order to obtain an interest in Christ's righteousness. This mis- 
take is actually committed sometimes by anxious sinners, who 
feel that they are not prepared to exercise faith in Christ, because 
they are not sufficiently penitent or humble, or do not perceive in 
their hearts a glow of love towards him. And most of the reasons 
given in this tract, why faith is the instrument of justification, are 
adapted to induce and foster this mistake, and thus again, as in 
the former case, retard the soul in its endeavours to trust in the 

3. A third difference is (flowing from the two preceding), that 
this single reason, taken alone and by itself, is productive of greater 
peace and comfort, than when the other reasons are given and 
relied upon, in connection with it. The joy of faith is propor- 
tioned to the assurance which it produces in the mind, and the 
latter is never felt so much as when we view Christ with that 
singleness of spiritual vision, which John the Baptist expressed in 
that thrilling and glorious declaration, "Behold the Lamb of God, 
which taketh away the sin of the world." Christ's righteousness 
is perfect ; and if our faith rests upon that alone, we can say with 
a siveet and joyful confidence, " It is God that justifieth ; who is he 
that condemneth?" But as soon as we ascribe any virtue to faith 
itself, in the matter of our justification, and rely in part upon this 
(as we unavoidably shall), to aid us in securing this privilege, the 
consequence will be anxiety and distress of mind, from the fear 
that the imperfection of our faith, may prevent our obtaining the 
forgiveness of sins. Like Peter, we shall sink in the waves of 
terror and despondency, and will find it impossible to procure relief, 
except by a return to that undivided reliance upon Christ, which, 
in his case, was indicated by the cry, "Lord, save or I perish." 

The Papal doctrine that faith justifies by its inherent excellence, 
by a righteousness infused and not imputed (as maintained by 
Protestants), produced this very doubt and disquietude of which 
we speak, and led to the imposition of penance, and other austeri- 
ties in order to supply the deficiencies of an imperfect justification. 
And who does not perceive, how devoid that system must be of 
true spiritual comfort ? If such of its votaries as depend on this 
view of the case, feel satisfied with their condition and prospects, 
their hope and comfort are not the fruit of any scriptural faith in 
Christ, but of a blind and superstitious reliance upon the efficacy 

246 Hoiv shall Man be just with God? [June. 

of sacramental grace, and of priestly absolution. The author of 
this tract, we doubt not, abhors Popery as much as we do, and for 
this reason, it is the more to be regretted, that he has pursued a 
train of thought, which, on this point, has some tendency in that 

For the sake of those who may read this number, but not the 
previous one, we will mention, that the main point of discussion in 
our previous article, was whether justification is a legal transaction ; 
which our author denies, but we affirm. Without paying particular 
regard to the order of our former remarks, we will briefly reca- 
pitulate our reasons for this opinion. 

1. The terms employed in Scripture in relation to justification, 
such as God's righteousness, redemption, &c, are legal terms, and 
are employed in the ordinary legal sense. 

2. Though our justification is " without law," so far as it relates 
to our own personal obedience, the mediatorial work of Christ, on 
the ground of which the believing sinner is justified, is declared in 
the plainest language, to have a direct reference to the law ; and 
as atonement and justification are admitted to bear a close relation 
to each other, it follows from the legal character of the former, 
that the latter is also legal. Indeed, we cannot see how an atone- 
ment can be made, so as to satisfy Divine justice, on any other 
principle, or how the sinner can entertain a comfortable hope of 
salvation on a different view of this subject. This view relieves 
the conscience of the awakened sinner, as the other cannot. When 
convicted of sin, his distress arises from his having violated God's 
holy law. And when he is by faith brought into a justified state, 
and his remorse is succeeded by peace, this result is secured by 
that view of Christ, which contemplates him as " bearing our sins 
in his own body on the tree ;" as "redeeming us from the curse of 
the law, by being made a curse for us." 

3. The legal view is as gracious in its character as the other, 
but does not, like the other, bestow grace at the expense of justice. 
Mercy and justice harmonize in that method of justification, which, 
though not provided for in the law itself, is not bestowed without 
regard to the law, but in such a way as to satisfy all its demands. 

4. The legal view lays as broad a foundation as the other for 
"preaching the Gospel to every creature," but is more adapted to 
meet the wants, desires, and feelings of the individual sinner in a 
state of anxiety for his soul. It makes the atonement BfMTMnaZ, 
as well as a governmental matter. His faith rests upon it as made 
for him, as bringing him into a state of reconciliation with God, 
as securing for him such a, friend as ho need?, and as being there- 
fore exactly suited to his condition. This view of the atonement 
and justification, and the joy flowing from it into the soul of the 
believer, are described by the Apostle in Horn. 5 : 8-11 ; to which 
we refer the reader. The "joy in God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ," which he describes, was the fruit of reconciliation ; yet 

1855.] Row shall Man be just with God. 247 

not irrespective of the honour and glory redounding to God and his 
holy law, by the obedience and sufferings of Christ through which 
this reconciliation was effected. Faith's appropriation of the 
atonement, and its benefits to ourselves individually, and the evi- 
dence of our justification, which ensues, are rendered clear and 
precious in proportion to the clearness of our spiritual perception 
of God's love towards us, and of the transcendent lustre of his per- 
fections, as displayed through the perfect satisfaction rendered to 
his law. The believer could not have the heart to ask for Gospel 
justification, if in conferring this blessing, God's law must be dis- 
regarded and dishonoured. The legal view of justification is, there- 
fore, the only one which accords with Scripture, or is adapted to 
ease the conscience, and comfort the heart of the convicted sinner. 

We observed in our former article, that this tract possesses 
excellencies, which we hoped would do good, notwithstanding its 
errors. The latter, however, cannot contribute to this end. Gold 
is worth more when separated from alloy, than when mingled with 
it. Accordingly this tract would be improved, in our judgment, if 
the author would submit it to the crucible, and extract from it 
those portions which, as we think, will diminish its usefulness. A 
reduction of its size to two-thirds, or even one-half its present 
length, would be no objection, but render it more suitable for gene- 
ral circulation, and if condensed in a judicious manner, the tract 
thus reproduced would be far more valuable than in its present 
form. We respectfully suggest this thought for the consideration 
of the author, and of the publishing committee, by whose authority 
it has been issued. 

In making this suggestion, and the remarks which have preceded 
it, we are not conscious of having penned a line with an unfriendly 
spirit, or from a disposition to make a single unkind or needless 
criticism. We entertain no such feelings towards the author, or 
his brethren of the committee, or the New School Presbyterian 
Church. Nor do we feel any jealousy with regard to their engaging 
in the work of publishing books. On the contrary, we shall rejoice 
to have them produce a religious literature of the most unexcep- 
tionable character, such as might be safely placed on the shelves 
of the Presbyterian Board of Publication, in exchange for their 
books. The two bodies profess to adopt the same Confession of 
Faith, as the exponent of their views of Scripture doctrines. Their 
publications, therefore, like different grains of wheat, ought to 
possess the same family resemblance. With this homogeneousness 
of character, and a corresponding harmony and concert of effort, 
they might in a few years furnish our country and the world with 
an adequate supply of sterling denominational literature, each 
speaking the same language, as well as bearing the same name, 
and both together reflecting and diffusing the light derived from 
that divine model, the Holy Scriptures. We have hoped, moreover, 
that the division which has unhappily separated these two branches 

248 Validity of Presbyterian Polity. [June. 

of the Presbyterian church for seventeen years, would ere long 
terminate, and nothing we believe would contribute so much to 
their re-union, as such an exhibition of their agreement in doctri- 
nal belief. But if our brethren issue books and tracts, containing 
doctrines on the most vital points in theology, which are at variance 
with our standards, this division must necessarily be perpetuated. 



No. I.| 

The question, where is the true church ? or, which is the true 
church? presupposes the question, what is the true church? We 
cannot wisely enter on any search, until we have defined the object 
we seek. Before deciding upon the claims of any particular de- 
nomination of Christians to be recognized as the church or a church, 
we must first have ascertained what the Scriptures describe and 
require the church or a church to be. 

On this point two rival theories are now contending for the 
mastery throughout Christendom. 

The one theory replies to the question, what is the true church ? 
It is a particular ecclesiastical corporation, analogous to the state, 
under some one of its forms of monarchy, aristocracy, or demo- 
cracy. The Scriptural idea of it is exhausted in the notion of a 
vast institute or polity. 

The other theory replies to the same question, It is all Christian 
society! (the whole company of true believers in Christ) conceived 

* The only novelty of this outline is that of arrangement. No new arguments, of 
course, are adduced. Many of the ideas presented may be found fully developed in 
the articles in the Princeton Repertory on the "Idea of the Church/' and in the" Es- 
says on the Primitive Church Ollices,'' reprinted from the same Review by Scribner, 

n. y. 

f This number was published last month, but after it went to press the author de- 
sired to add a little to the basis of the outline ; and hence it is reproduced in its 
amended form, in order that the reader may better understand the argument which 
follows. — Editor. 

J Christian society is that species of human society of which Christ is the Spiritual 
Head, and in which all true believers in Him are joined together as members incor- 
porated into the same body, or branches grafted into the same vine; it is the new 
race in the second Adam — the one holy ami Catholic church. Christian society (the 
community of true believers in Christ) may be distinguished from ecclesiastical society 
(the association of professed believers an.l their children), just as natural society may 
be distinguished from political society. Men have existed and do exist under every 
variety of civil government, retaining, in greater or less measure, all those social pro- 
perties and functions appertaining to kindred of the lirst Adam; and Christians have 
existed and do exist under every variety of church government, retaining, in greater 
or less measure, all those social attributesand prerogatives, appertaining to kindred of the 
second Ad:un. Organized, indeed, in some form, both species of society must be, 
and such organizations will vary in legitimacy and utility ; but to attempt to divest 

1855.] Validity of Presbyterian Polity. 249 

of as existing independent of any and every organization ; just as 
natural society may be conceived of as existing independent of 
any and every form of the state. The Scriptural idea of it simply 
includes, or admits the notion of an institute, or polity, without 
either beginning or terminating in that notion. 

But as all society tends to organization, and as Christian society 
requires organization, and in fact possesses a very diversified or- 
ganization, the advocates of this latter theory must decide how we 
are to determine what shall be its most valid form and structure. 
In respect to this question three opinions may be maintained. 

One opinion is, that ecclesiastical polity is a mere fixture of 
expediency, like any secular polity which is of human contrivance. 

Another opinion is, that it was a matter of arbitrary institution, 
like the Mosaic polity, which was of Divine contrivance. 

The remaining opinion is, that it is exclusively neither, but is 
rather a Providential growth out of Christian society, embodying, 
in the main, Scriptural principles and apostolic precedents, yet 
adapting itself, in details, to particular ages and conditions of the 

Connecting these three opinions with that maintained by advo- 
cates of the first theory, we have four views in respect to the 
matter of church organization. 

According to the first view, mere organization is everything ; it 
is that to which the Scriptural characteristics and powers of Chris- 
tian society alone appertains. In looking for the true church, we 
are to look for an ecclesiastical body politic, composed of legitimate 
officers with their subjects ; the latter being professed Christians ; 
and the former being (according to Anglicans) successors of the Apos- 
tles, or (according to Romanists) successors of the Apostles together 
with the successor of Peter their Primate. 

According to the second view, organization is a matter of but 
little moment. We need refer for it neither to the writings, nor 
to the acts of the Apostles, but only to human reason and experi- 
ence, as applicable in given cases. 

According to the third view, organization is very essential. The 
writings of the Apostles contain an inspired constitution of church 
polity, minutely prescribed and authoritatively enjoined; and their 
acts involved its infallible inauguration. 

According to the fourth view, organization is highly important. 
The writings of the Apostles afford the principles upon which 
sound church polity should be constructed ; and their acts serve as 
precedents to illustrate the application of those principles. 

The several criteria, then, by which different theorists would 
require any particular form of ecclesiastical polity to establish its 

all Christians of their Christianity, who are not professed subjects of either pope, 
prelate, or presbyter, would be as absurd as to attempt to divest all men of their hu- 
manity who are not subjects of the Prince of Rome, or of the Queen of England, or 
citizens of the United States. 

250 Validity of Presbyterian Polity. [Jane. 

validity may be stated as follows (slightly transposing, for conve- 
nience sake, the order hitherto observed) : 

I. The extent to which it actually possesses the attributes, and 
legitimately claims the prerogatives of Christian society. 

II. The extent to which it corresponds with the organization 
assumed by primitive Christian society. 

III. The extent to which it embodies the principles employed in 
the organization of primitive Christian society. 

IV. The extent to which it is adapted to the exigencies of 
modern Christian society. 

Now in view of this statement of the question, there are two 
methods of arguing the validity of Presbyterian Polity. 

One method would be to fully canvass these several theories, and 
adopting that one which could alone be regarded as tenable, to 
advocate the claims of Presbytery on its ground and by the help 
of its principles. This reasoning might have the advantage of 
being strictly logical and thorough ; but it would require very nice 
analysis and extended discussion. 

The other method (and the one of which we propose to sketch 
an outline) is to leave these theories unexamined and unchallenged, 
and successively applying their several criteria, to show that Pres- 
bytery satisfies the demands of each of them, not only as well, but 
in some cases better, than their own avowed advocates. This reasoning 
will be perfectly consistent with the other, and may besides have the 
advantage of being more generally convincing, inasmuch as it will 
enable us, without surrendering any position of our own, to enter 
the enemy's territory, and meeting him on his own ground and 
with his own weapons, at length remain masters of the entire field 
of controversy. C. W. S. 

No. II. 

The first criterion by which it is proposed to judge of the 
validity of Presbyterian Polity, is that of the Romish and Angli- 
can theory of the Church : — 

The extent to which it actually possesses the attributes, 
and legitimately claims the prerogatives of christian so- 

According to this theory, that community, which is characterized 
in Scripture as holy, united, perpetual, and as having the powers 
of authoritative teaching and ruling, is an organized body of reli- 
gious professors, in subjection to lawful officers. We are required 
to show that the Presbyterian body is as holy, united, perpetual, 
and as rightfully invested with the powers of authoritative teach- 
ing and ruling, as the Papal or Prelatical body. 

1. Show that, strictly speaking, the criterion is impracticable, 
and that, on such grounds, neither party can claim to be the true 

1855.] Validity of Presbyterian Polity. 251 

Church. If we should admit that a perfect church organization 
would actually possess those attributes and legitimately claim those 
prerogatives, we must still deny that such a mere ideal ever has 
been, or can be realized on earth. For, 

(1.) The characteristics and powers of Christian society (as 
defined in Scripture) are not predicable of any erring association 
of erring men in an organized capacity. To conceive of a visible 
society of Christian professors, as perfectly sanctified, perfectly 
united in faith and love, perfectly secure from apostacy, and of 
their officers as pronouncing infallible doctrines, and irreversible 
decrees, would be, to conceive of men as transformed into angels, 
and earth as turned into heaven ; in short, to conceive of the very 
exigencies for which alone all church polity exists, as removed. 
Papacy, or prelacy, or any other ecclesiastical corporation, may as 
little claim to possess true holiness, unity, and perpetuity, or to 
exercise divine guidance and control, as a body may claim to be 
affected with moral qualities, or to discharge spiritual functions. 

(2.) The history of all ecclesiastical organizations confirms this 
d priori principle. None of them have ever, as a matter of fact, 
actually possessed those attributes, or legitimately exercised those 
prerogatives. Instead of being holy, they have been rife with 
corruption ; instead of being catholic, they have been rent with 
schism ; instead of being perpetual, they have been whelmed in 
apostacy. So far from proving infallible in their teaching, their 
dogmas have flagrantly conflicted not only with Scripture, but 
with each other ; and as to their decrees being final, they have 
notoriously absolved sinners and excommunicated saints. Papal, 
Prelatical, or even Presbyterian bodies, considered as mere organi- 
zations, apart from individual exceptions, have at times been as 
destitute of the traits and powers of Christian society, as a corpse 
of intelligence, or a skeleton of volition. 

It would, therefore, be a sufficient reply to such theorists, that 
they require us to have what they do not have themselves, and 
what neither of us could acquire. 

But if it should be granted that a perfect church organization 
would, to a certain extent, involve those attributes and preroga- 
tives, and if the question might be simply concerning the extent 
to which any actual polity approximates such an ideal polity, 
then, — 

2. Show that in the only sense in which the proposed criterion 
is available, Presbytery meets its demands as fully as either Pa- 
pacy or Prelacy. Supposing that ecclesiastical polity is to Chris- 
tian society what the body is to the soul, an organ through which 
to manifest spiritual traits and powers, we may maintain that our 
form as truthfully expresses or enhances church attributes, and as 
legitimately vests church prerogatives, as either the Romish or the 
Anglican. Divide the criterion, thus modified, into two parts. 

252 Validity of Presbyterian Polity. [June. 

I. Presbytery as truthfully expresses and enhances the 


(1.) Holiness. There is in our system, considered as a system, 
as much that is expressive and productive of that inward purity 
and essential separateness from the world, attributed to Christ's 
mystical body — and more ; since it proceeds on the principle of 
conforming the external to the internal conditions of membership 
to a far greater extent than either Rome or Oxford. An organi- 
zation which subjects its members and officers to such courts of 
review and control, breathes forth a holy expression (an avowed 
disposition to come out from the world and keep intact from all 
its uncleanness), which it might still retain, even though all its 
adherents should apostatize, like the sacred smile sometimes left 
lingering amid the soulless features of one that hath fallen asleep 
in Christ. But the very systems of Prelacy and Popery wear the 
impress of spiritual vacancy and corruption. 

(2.) Unity. There is in our system as much that is expressive 
and productive of that inward oneness of faith and feeling, that 
spiritual communion and catholicity, attributed to Christ's mystical 
body, — and more ; since its principles of ecclesiastical intercourse 
are more liberal, at the same time that its principles of doctrinal 
conformity are more rigid than the Romish or Anglican systems, 
which are not only obliged to exclude true believers, but to include 
heretics and infidels. An organization which allows the door of 
its communion to swing both ways, within Scriptural limits, for 
the egress or ingress of all professors of the true faith, exhibits an 
inherent capacity of embracing the whole brotherhood of saints, 
approximates the ideal of one catholic church, however far it may 
come short of being realized, and even though, at times, it should 
fall into the hands of schismatics. But the very systems of Po- 
pery and Prelacy so far as realized would shut the gates of heaven 
against the great bulk of Christendom ; and then, not only debar 
the remainder from all ecclesiastical or Christian fellowship, but 
consort them with heretics and infidels.* 

(3.) Perpetuity. There is as much in our system that is expres- 
sive and productive of that steadfastness in the true Apostolic 
faith and that security from final apostacy, attributed to Christ's 
mystical body, — and more ; since it is better suited to edify true 
believers through its appliances for maintaining sound doctrine and 
pure discipline, than either the Romish or the Anglican systems. 
In proportion as the theory of Presbyterian Polity is realized, 
true Christian society manifests itself through it as impregnable to 
all assaults ; but in proportion as the Papal, or Prelatical theory 

* Even bo cru le an idea qi unity ns that of mere outward union or consolidation, 

it better fulfilled in our system than in theirs, r-inee a polity wliidi. through the repre- 
sentative principle, subordinates masses to manes, presents to the world n. more 
oompaol visible unit, than one which subordinates masses t'> individuals! 

1855.] Validity of Presbyterian Polity. 253 

is realized, it must dwindle and disappear. Compare them his- 

Were we to conceive of all the members of Christ's mystical 
body, now scattered and hidden under various organizations, 
brought visibly together under some one organization that should 
be an exact expression of their social qualities, an outward embodi- 
ment of the one holy and Catholic Church, we would have less 
difficulty in imagining that organization Presbyterian, than either 
Papal or Prelatical. 

II. Presbytery as legitimately vests the prerogatives of 
Christian society as either Papacy or Prelacy:. 

1. Show, that if it was designed, that those powers of teaching 
and ruling, inherent in Christ's mystical body, should, be vested 
authoritatively in the primitive church officers, and from them 
transmitted by a series of valid ordinations through their succes- 
sors, then our succession through Presbyters is as legitimate as 
their succession through Popes or Prelates ; since, — 

(1.) The primitive church officers (their alleged Primate included) 
had no other successors than presbyters, who were designed to be 
the only permanentf officers in the church, and through whom 
alone, therefore, any succession must be traced. 

(2.) The same succession is common to all parties until the Re- 
formation, after which the Presbyterian succession is fully as cer- 
tain and notorious as either the Romish or Anglican. 

2. Show, that, if we adopt the sounder and more practicable 
test, that the prerogatives of Christ's mystical body are to be 
vested in those who give credible evidence of having been called 
of God's Spirit and Providence to assume and exercise them, 
then our mode of vestment is more legitimate than theirs ; since, 

(1.) The very idea of such a Divine call they, to a great extent, 
ignore, while we adopt and act upon it as a cardinal principle. 

(2.) The Head of the Church himself has sanctioned it, as seen 
in the fruits of our several ministries, when historically compared. 

If it were proposed that those prerogatives, primarily inhering 
in Christ's mystical body, but now variously vested in different 
species of ecclesiastical officers throughout the world, should be 
absorbed into any one species, who alone might have authority to 
teach and to bind and to loose, then it could be more'easily demon- 
strated (by any test of legitimacy which may be adopted) that 
such officers should be Presbyters, than that they should be a Pope 
or Prelates. 

The Presbyterian Polity may thus be shown to be a nearer ap- 
proximation to the ideal polity than either of the adverse systems. 

* Even that false view of the church's perpetuity which makes it depend on an 
uninterrupted ministry, is as fully met by our system as by theirs — since an apostolic 
succession through presbyters is as valid and as unbroken as through popes or 
prelates. Vide sequel. 

f Vide following articles. 

254 "Friend of God," or, the Excellency of [June. 

Were it fully realized throughout Christendom, it would far better 
than they merit the title of being the one true Church. 

The plan of these articles precludes any detailed proof of the 
several positions indicated. The argument matured, would ob- 
viously lead to the conclusion, that the Romanist and Anglican 
criterion of church polity, so far as it can be applied, is as fully 
met, and in most respects more fully met by our system, than by 
its own advocates. " Their rock is not as our rock, our enemies 
themselves being judges." C. W. S. 


(Continued from page 210.) 

"When Abraham located himself in Canaan, his particular rela- 
tion to those around him, extended no farther, for a time, than to 
his own household, and hence the benefits resulting from his friend- 
ship with God, were at first only personal or domestic. But God's 
designs and promises reached far beyond these. His language to 
Abraham was, "I will make of thee a great nation." And after- 
wards, this promise was repeated, with some amplification. "A 
father of many nations have I made thee," in confirmation of which 
he changed his name from Abram to Abraham, and the name of 
his wife from Sarai to Sarah, the addition to each being a part of 
a word signifying multitude. A threefold gradation has been noticed 
in Abraham's name : first, his cognomen or family name Bam, 
which signfies high ; then his nomen, or individual name Ab, which 
means father ; to which was finally added ham, multitude ; making 
Abraham, or high father of a multitude. This was a personal 
honour to him, but was designed in a particular manner to show 
how extensively God intended to bless others through him; not 
those only who were immediately related to him as the head of a 
family, but those who might be connected with him more remotely, 
as the progenitor of a great and mighty nation, and also, as the 
spiritual father of believers in all subsequent ages of the world. 


In God's promising to make of him a great nation, more is meant 
than that his posterity should be numerous, and possess power and 
renown. It meant also, that he would honour himself by raising 
up a people, who should maintain the true religion amidst the ido- 
latry of other nations, that he would protect and prosper them, in 
consequence of their relation to Abraham, and that their prosperity 
ami greatness would be continued as long as they should adhere to 
that course of conduct, of which he was so illustrious an example. 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 255 

Abraham himself acquired so much political distinction before 
the close of his life, that the sons of Heth called him, " a mighty 
prince among them ;" and the favoured clan over which he presided 
doubtless experienced the beneficial consequences of having for their 
leader, a man who was recognized, and treated by God, as his 
friend. But the chief development of these benefits was made 
long afterwards, when the twelve tribes of Israel organized in 
Canaan a civil government, the fundamental law of which was a 
recognition of Jehovah as the only true God, and his law as the 
rule of their conduct. The benefits which they derived as a nation 
from Abraham's friendship with God were, 

1. Negative, consisting in the exercise of divine forbearance 
towards them, in consequence of their relation to Abraham. Thus it 
is said (2 Kings 13 : 22, 23), that " Hazael, king of Syria, oppressed 
Israel all the days of Jehoahaz. And the Lord was gracious unto 
them, and had compassion on them, because of his covenant with 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and would not destroy them, neither 
cast he them from his presence as yet." These words indicate 
that they had become wicked, and obnoxious to the judgment of 
God, but that out of regard to his covenant with Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob — first made with Abraham, and afterwards confirmed 
with Isaac and Jacob, and which contained a promise of special 
favour to their descendants, — he would suspend the infliction of 
those evils which would otherwise have been sent upon them. But 

2. They also enjoyed positive benefits. These consisted pri- 
marily in his preserving them, to an extent unknown to any other 
ancient nation, from those defections from the path of piety and 
virtue, which in the instance above referred to, provoked him to 
destroy them. The sterling principles which Abraham practised 
and taught, germinated in the minds of that people, and produced 
those golden fruits of enlightened liberty, morality, and religion, 
which formed during many successive centuries, the bulwark and 
glory of the Jewish commonwealth. " Them that honour me," says 
Jehovah, " I will honour." In their best days, it must be admitted, 
they did many things which he did not approve, and which accord- 
ingly the Bible does not commend. But it is also true, that com- 
pared with their heathen neighbours, they were eminently virtuous. 
The true religion was generally maintained among them with pious 
care. Those forms of public worship, which recognized God as 
the only true God, and his law as unceasingly binding upon them, 
were daily and solemnly observed. And in their judicial and le- 
gislative proceedings, they possessed no other statute book, but God's 
word, and no other rule of action, but his will. Such was their 
national education, and their disposition to educate in this manner 
was a part of that inheritance which they enjoyed as the descendants 
of Abraham, " the friend of God." The " promise to be a God to 
him, and his seed after him, in their generations," involved the 
preservation among them of those moral and religious principles 

256 "Friend of God," or, the Excellency of [June. 

■which he approved, and on account of which, he would bless and 
prosper them. A kingdom founded in atheism or infidelity cannot 
stand. Hence, it was a signal favour to that people, to be pre- 
served, by a kind providence, from this calamity ; and what con- 
tributed in no small degree to secure them from so great an evil, 
was the relation they sustained to "the father of the faithful." 

We have reason, as a nation, to bless God for the piety of our 
early founders. The elements which composed our original popu- 
lation, were largely of this character. The English Puritans, the 
Dutch Calvinists, the French Huguenots, and the Scotch and Irish 
Presbyterians, constituted the large majority of the inhabitants. 

Their religious principles were incorporated with their political 
and civil polity. These principles imbued the minds of the people. 
And it is not too much to affirm, that our country is more indebted 
to these circumstances, for its present free institutions, and its 
public prosperity, than to all other causes. It becomes us to beware 
lest by a departure from those pious principles, we forfeit our 
national privileges, and be deprived of our greatness and prosperity. 
We refer, without quoting it, to that solemn warning, recorded in 
Ps. 2: 1-12 ; which closes with this earnest exhortation, "Be wise 
now therefore, ye kings : be instructed, ye judges of the earth. 
Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the 
Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath 
is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust 
in him." 


The covenant between God and Abraham, of which we have 
spoken, had special reference to the visible church, which at that 
time assumed a more distinct organization than hitherto, with a 
provision for its perpetuity and enlargement. Preserving intact 
the family relation, which had been in existence from the beginning, 
God incorporated this relation as an element in the Church, which 
with reference to the incarnation of Christ, was to consist of Abra- 
ham's natural seed, but with reference to its spiritual character and 
ultimate extension through the world, was to be composed of 
believers in Christ, whether Jews or Gentiles. In allusion to this 
(as already noticed), Abraham was spoken of as the " father of 
many nations," and believers as his "heirs according to the pro- 
mise," they inheriting from him as God's friend, like children from 
a father, those distinguished privileges and blessings promised in 
that covenant. 

In this family element which was recognized and maintained, 
both with respect to his natural and spiritual seed, originated the 
doctrine of infant church-membership, upon which was based that 
system of pious instruction, discipline, and care, which with the 
iJivine blessing, were to secure the continuance of the church, and 

1855.] Faith and a Eoly Life. 257 

finally bring about the fulfilment of that promise yet future, that 
"in Abraham's seed all families of the earth should be blessed." 

The church in every age has accordingly been benefited by 
Abraham's faith and friendship with God. Beginning with him, 
as being under God the source of covenant privileges, they were 
transmitted from one generation to another, till the advent of the 
Messiah. And the same principle has been operating from that 
time to this, i. e., the transmission of church-membership, and 
Christian ordinances through the family, consisting of parents and 
children, and it will continue to be so, till the original promise, in 
which families are expressly named, shall be fulfilled, viz. : that " all 
families of the earth shall be blessed in him." God's method 
of continuing his church has ever been by the religious training of 
the rising generation. Where this has been faithfully attended 
to, the church has been preserved in a particular line ; but if 
neglected, the line of connection has been broken off in that family, 
and a new channel opened somewhere else. These remarks are not 
designed as applying invariably to all cases, but only as indicating 
what has been God's ordinary method. He is a sovereign, and acts 
according to his own good pleasure. Children in pious families 
are born sinners, and the most faithful religious training will not 
renew their hearts without the agency of the Holy Spirit. But on 
the other hand, the kingdom of grace is seldom advanced without 
the use of means, and to encourage us to employ them faithfully, 
God has been pleased so to connect Christian fidelity with its appro- 
priate results, and more especially in the discharge of parental 
duty towards our children, as to make this his general method of 
procedure in perpetuating and enlarging his church. 

We have noticed already Abraham's fidelity to his household, 
and its effects in influencing them " to keep the way of the Lord." 
How was it with his descendants ? Isaac imitated his father in 
providing for the religious nurture of his family, while Ishmael, 
influenced in part, it is probable, by his Egyptian wife, neglected 
this duty. The result was that the church was preserved in the 
family of Isaac, whereas, among the posterity of Ishmael, the true 
religion was soon corrupted and eventually almost wholly lost. In 
like manner, Lot, though a righteous man, did not guard the morals 
and religion of his children as he should have done, and hence his 
descendants, the Moabites and Ammonites, were excluded from the 
congregation of Israel. Jacob and Esau furnish another illustra- 
tion of this principle. The former valued the blessings belonging 
to the birth-right, and desired earnestly to make them his own. 
He doubtless felt this desire in part from personal considerations, 
but as the history shows, it was chiefly on account of his family 
and descendants, whom he was anxious to have blessed with those 
spiritual privileges promised in God's covenant with Abraham. 
This we infer from the language of Esau concerning the birth-right, 
whose estimate of its value was opposite to that of his brother, 

VOL. V. — NO. 6. 17 

258 "Friend of G-od," or, the Excellency of [June. 

and hence he deliberately sold it for a "mess of pottage." Says 
he, " I am about to die, and what good shall this birth-right do 
me ?" i. e., What advantage shall it be to me, personally ? mean- 
ing that its privileges were chiefly future, to be enjoyed by his 
family and descendants, after his death, and not by himself during 
his life. But he had no faith in that future good promised in the 
covenSnt made with Abraham, and no suitable appreciation of its 
nature and worth. Hence, he assumed the fearful responsibility 
of bartering it away for a mere trifle. The result was that his 
posterity, the Edomites, were among the bitterest enemies of the 
church, as long as any record of them is found on the page of 
sacred history ; while in Jacob's family and among his descendants 
the church was preserved and perpetuated. In allusion to these 
instructive facts in the history of these several individuals, God 
styled himself " the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the 
God of Jacob ;" and caused it to be preserved as a permanent 
record of the distinction which he made between those who faith- 
fully discharged their religious obligations to him, and to their 
children, and those who did not. 

As a further illustration of this principle, Moses was raised up 
and qualified for the high and holy mission of leading the church 
out of Egypt, to the borders of the land of Canaan. When 
Pharaoh's daughter found him in an ark of bulrushes, amidst the 
flags of the Nile, it was so ordered by a kind Providence that he 
was committed to the care of his own parents, who instructed him 
in the knowledge of the true God and the promised Messiah. And 
so thoroughly was his mind imbued with these pious sentiments, 
that by the divine blessing, he experienced in early life a radical 
change of heart, and cast in his lot with the oppressed people of 
God. " When he came to years, he refused to be called the son of 
Pharaoh's daughter" [mark, it was by faith, Paul says, he did 
this], " choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, 
than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season ; esteeming the re- 
proach of Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt." 
Afterwards, as the inspired lawgiver of that people, he enjoined 
upon them, to pursue the same course towards their children which 
his own parents had done towards him. " These words which I 
command thee this day shall be in thine heart, and thou shalt teach 
them diligently unto thy children," &c. Deut. 6 : 6, 7. 

Joshua gave similar counsels to the people towards the close of 
his long and eventful life ; solemnly exhorting them to maintain 
the worship and continue in the service of God; and enforcing his 
exhortation by saying that " as for him and his house, they would 
serve the Lord." In the 78th Psalm particular mention is made 
of the manner in which the knowledge and worship of God were 
transmitted from one generation to another. Sec Ps. 78 : 1, 7. 
And an affecting example of this is recorded in the dying charge 
of David to his son Solomon. " Solomon, my son, know thou the 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 259 

God of thy father," &c. In the reign of Jehoshaphat, he sent 
priests and Levites through all the villages of Judah, " to teach 
the people the good way of the Lord." And after the captivity, 
particular mention is made of the care which was taken by 
Nehemiah and Ezra, to instruct the whole congregation of Israel 
in the Holy Scriptures. In both cases this was done as a means 
of reviving religion among them, and that the church might be 
purified and transmitted uncorrupt to their descendants. 

This pious diligence and care originated in the covenant made 
with Abraham, "the friend of God," and were designed to carry 
out its requirements and provisions. And the connection between 
that covenant and the church under the gospel dispensation, is as 
intimate as it was between the covenant and the natural seed of 
Abraham. " It was confirmed of God in Christ." And when the 
Jews as a people rejected the Messiah, both for themselves and 
their children, saying, "His blood be on us and on our children," they 
were excluded from the church, and believing Gentiles succeeded to 
their ecclesiastical privileges. See Rom. 11 : 11, 18. But the 
Gentiles were brought in with this solemn warning* (v. 21, 22) : 
"If God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he spare 
not thee. Behold, therefore, the goodness and severity of God ; 
on them which fell severity, but toward thee goodness, if thou con- 
tinue in his goodness ; otherwise thou also shalt be cut off." The 
Roman church, to which this warning was directly addressed, did 
not continue to give heed, but in process of time became an apos- 
tate body, the Antichrist ; and the consequence has been, that for 
four hundred years past, though there may have always been true 
Christians in that communion, and may be now, yet as a body they 
are not entitled to be recognized as a church of Christ. He has 
disowned her, the providential indications of which are as distinct, 
though not as fearful, as that he disowned the Jews. The evan- 
gelical Protestant churches are now the depositaries of the true 
faith, and of the blessings of that covenant, and to them it belongs 
to employ and continue those agencies which God has appointed 
for consummating the fulfilment of the ultimate and glorious 
promise contained in the covenant, viz. : that in Abraham's "seed 
all families of the earth should be blessed." This promise looks 
forward to the millennium, when, as Paul describes it, " God will put 
his laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts ; and he 
will be to them a God, and they shall be to him a people ; and they 
shall not teach every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, 
saying, know the Lord ; for all shall know him, from the least to 
the greatest." Heb. 8 : 10, 11. 

Dear reader, do you enjoy the high honour of occupying a place 
in that line of covenant privileges, which have descended to you 
through Abraham, "the friend of God ?" See that you transmit 
this precious legacy unimpaired to your children. If you neglect 
the religious nurture of your households, God may cut off your 

260 Thornton and Berridge on Clerical Wit. [June. 

connection with the future glory of the church on earth ; either 
by bereaving you of your children or leaving them to grow up in 
impenitence and unbelief. In the former case, your family will be 
blotted out before the millennium begins ; in the latter, your descen- 
dants will be found among the enemies of Christ, and be crushed 
and destroyed in the terrible conflict, which, according to the com- 
mon understanding of Scripture prophecy, will precede that august 
period. First of all, become yourself " the friend of Cfod ;" 
and then, if you are a parent, "command your children and house- 
hold after you, that they keep the way of the Lord, to do justice 
and judgment." You will thus please and honour him, save your 
own soul, and secure invaluable benefits to your children. 

J. W. 

(To be continued.) 


The Rev. John Berridge was a celebrated evangelical clergy- 
man, of the Church of England, a very stirring preacher, and a 
popular and useful man. His besetting sin was the excessive in- 
dulgence of humour and wit. John Thornton, a distinguished lay- 
man, whose praise is in all the churches, and who was one of Ber- 
ridge's friends, addressed to the latter the following letter of 
affectionate admonition and counsel : 

" In some discussions we have had relative to ' The Christian 
World Unmasked,' I could not help laughing with you, though at 
the same time I felt a check within ; your reasons silenced, but did 
not satisfy me. Your vein of humour and mine seem much alike. 
If there is any difference between us, it lies here : I would strive 
against mine, while you seem to indulge yours. I fight against 
mine, because I find the ludicrous spirit is just as dangerous as the 
sullen one ; and it is much the same to our great adversary, 
whether he falls in with a capricious, or facetious turn of mind. I 
could not forbear smiling at your humorous allegory about the 
tooth, and was pleased at the good sense displayed in it ; yet some- 
thing came across my mind — Is this method agreeable to the idea 
we ought to entertain of a father in Israel ? It would pass mighty 
well in a newspaper, or anything calculated for public entertain- 
ment ; but it certainly wanted that solidity or seriousness that a 
Christian minister should write with. What the apostle said in 
another sense will apply here : ' When I was a child, I spake as a 
child,' etc. An expression of yours in your prayer before sermon, 
when at Tottenham Court, struck me, that God would give us 
new bread, not stale, but what was baked in the oven that day. 
Whether it is that I am too little, or you too much used to such 
expressions, I won't pretend to determine, but I could not help 

1855.] Thornton and Berridge on Clerical Wit. 261 

thinking it savored of attention to men more than to God. I know 
the apology frequently made for such language is, that the common 
people require it ; it fixes their attention, and it affords matter for 
conversation afterwards ; for a sentence out of the common road is 
more remembered than all the rest. This may be true, but the 
effect it has is only a loud laugh among their acquaintances ; not 
one person is edified, and many are offended by such like expres- 
sions. Some ministers I have known, run into the other extreme, 
and think something grand must be uttered to strike the audience ; 
but this seems to me as unnecessary as the other, and both have a 
twang of self-conceit, and seem like leaning to carnal wisdom. 
Truth, simple truth, requires no embellishments, nor should it be 
degraded ; we are not to add or take from it, but to remember the 
power is of God wholly. 

" My reverend friend, as an old man, might be indulged in his 
favorite peculiarities if they would stop with him ; but others catch 
the infection, and we find young ministers and common people 
indulging themselves in the same way ; they think they are 
authorized so to do by such an example. Wit in any person is 
dangerous and often mischievous when used improperly, and espe- 
cially on religious subjects; for as the professing part of an audience 
will much longer retain a witty or low expression than one more 
serious, so will the wicked part of it too, and turn it to the disad- 
vantage of religion. I recollect but one humorous passage in all 
the Bible, which is that of Elijah with the Baalites ; and when the 
time, place, and circumstances are properly considered, nothing 
could be more seasonable, nothing so effectually expose the impo- 
tency of their false god, and the absurdity of their vain worship. 
The prophets often speak ironically, sometimes satirically, but I do 
not remember of their ever speaking ludicrously. Our Lord and 
his apostles never had recourse to any such methods. The short 
abstracts we have of their sermons and conversations are all in a 
serious strain, and ministers cannot copy after a better example. 
I dare not say that giving liberty to a man's natural turn, or an 
endeavour to put and keep the people in good-humour, is sinful ; 
but this I may assert, such a method is universally followed on the 
stage, and in all places of public entertainment, and therefore it 
seems to me to savour much more of the old man than of the new. 

" I remember you once jocularly informed me you was born with 
a fool's cap on ; pray, my dear sir, is it not high time it was pulled 
off? Such an accoutrement may suit a natural birth, and be of 
service ; but surely it has nothing to do with a spiritual one, nor 
ever can be made ornamental to a serious man, much less to a 
Christian minister. I waive mentioning Scripture injunctions, such 
as, ' Let your speech be with grace,' etc., as you know these better 
than I do. Surely they should have some weight, for idle and 
unprofitable words stand forbidden. If it should please God to 
give you to see things as I do, you will think it necessary to be 

262 Thornton and Berridge on Clerical Wit. [June. 

more guarded ; but should you think me mistaken, I trust it will 
make no interruption with our friendship that I am thus free with 
you, as it proceeds from a sincere love and regard. The Taber- 
nacle people are in general wild and enthusiastic, and delight in 
anything out of the common course, which is a temper of mind, 
though in some respects necessary, yet that should never be en- 
couraged. If you and some few others, who have the greatest 
influence over them, would use the curb instead of the spur, I am 
persuaded the effect would be very blessed. Wildfire is better than 
no fire ; but there is a Divine warmth between these two extremes 
which the real Christian catches, and which when obtained is 
evidenced by a cool head and a warm heart, and makes him a 
glorious, shining example to all around him. I desire to be earnest 
in prayer that we may be more and more partakers of this heavenly 
wisdom, and ascribe all might, majesty, and dominion, to the Lord 

" I am, dear sir, yours affectionately, 

" John Thornton." 

Berridge replied in the following good-natured and character- 
istic style, showing how a happy rebuke could be well received: 

" Dear and honoured sir, your favour of the 17th requires an 
answer attended with a challenge ; and I do hereby challenge* you, 
and defy all your acquaintances to prove, that I have a single cor- 
respondent half so honest as yourself. Epistolary intercourses are 
become a polite traffic, and he that can say pretty things, and wink 
at bad things, is an admired correspondent. Indeed, for want of 
due authority and meekness on one side, and of patience and hu- 
mility on the other, to give or to take reproof, a fear of raising 
indignation instead of conviction, often puts a bar on the door of 
my lips ; for I find where reproof does not humble it hardens, and 
the seasonable time of striking, if we can catch it, is when the iron 
is hot: when the heart is melted down in a furnace, then it sub- 
mits to the stroke, and takes and retains the impression. I wish 
you would exercise the trade of a gospel limner, and draw the fea- 
tures of all my brethren in black, and send them their portraits. 
I believe you would do them justice every way, by giving every 
cheek its proper blush without hiding a dimple upon it. Yet I 
fear, if your subsistence depended on this business, you would often 
want a morsel of bread, unless I sent you a quartern loaf from 

" As to myself, you know the man : odd things break from me 
as abruptly as croaking from a raven. I was born with a fool's 
cap. True, you say ; yet why is not the cap put off? It suits 
the first Adam, but not the second. A very proper question, and 
my answer is this : a fool's cap is not put oft* so readily as a night- 
cap. One cleaves to the head, and one to the heart. Not many 
prayers only, but many furnaces, are needful for this purpose. 

1855.] Communion of Members Baptized in Infancy. 263 

And after all, the same thing happens to a tainted heart as to a 
tainted cask, which may be sweetened by many washings and 
firings, yet a scent remains still. Late furnaces have singed the 
bonnet of my cap, but the crown still abides on my head ; and I 
must confess that the crown so abides, in whole or in part, for 
want of a closer walk with God, and nearer communion with him. 
When I creep near the throne, this humour disappears, or is tem- 
pered so well as not to be distasteful. Hear, sir, how my Master 
deals with me : when I am running wild, and saying things some- 
what rash or very quaint, he gives me an immediate blow on my 
breast, which stuns me. Such a check I received while I was 
uttering that expression in prayer you complained of ; but the bolt 
was too far shot to be recovered. Thus I had intelligence from 
above, before I received it from your hand. However, I am bound 
to thank you, and do hereby acknowledge myself reimbursed for 
returning your note. 

" And now, dear sir, having given you an honest account of 
myself, and acknowledged the obligation I owe you, I would return 
the obligation in the best manner I am able. It has been a matter 
of surprise to me how Dr. Conyers could accept of Deptford living, 
and how Mr. Thornton could present him to it. The Lord says, 
' Woe to the idle shepherd that leaveth his flock.' Is not Helmsley 
flock, and a choice flock too, left — left altogether, and left in the 
hands, not of shepherds to feed, but of wolves to devour them ? 
Has not lucre led him to Deptford, and has not a family connec- 
tion overruled your private judgment ? You may give me a box 
on the ear for these questions, if you please, and I will take it 
kindly, and still love and pray for you. 

" The Lord bless you, and bless your family, and bless your 
affectionate servant, John Berridge." 


In volume Fifth, of " Home, The School, and The Church," pp. 
37, 38, some allusions are made to the manner in which the Church 
in early times, admitted to the communion such as had been bap- 
tized in infancy. The Presbytery of Elizabethtown have adopted 
a paper on this subject, which we republish for the information of 
our readers. 

The following paper was unanimously adopted by the Presbytery 
of Elizabethtown at its late sessions in Rahway, April 18th, 1855: 

" In the early Church all who professed faith in Christ were ad- 
mitted to the company of believers as fellow-heirs of the common 
salvation. Adults were baptized on the profession of their faith ; 
and children were dedicated to God by their professing parents, 
and thus became parts of the flock of the Good Shepherd. 

264 Directions for Family Worship. [June. 

" In the Papal Church, all born within its pale are regarded as 
members, and children are admitted to ordinances on confirmation 
and confession. The way to the Eucharist is through the priest 
and his penances. 

" In the Episcopal Church, in confirmation, the children assume 
the vows made for them by their sponsors in baptism, and are after- 
wards entitled to the Lord's Supper, to which they receive access 
through the Rector. 

" In the Presbyterian Church, the children of professing parents 
are regarded as sustaining a covenant relation to the visible church, 
and as entitled to baptism, as were the children of the Jews to cir- 
cumcision, but an evidence of their conversion is required to entitle 
them to the Lord's Supper. The Session are made the judges of 
that evidence, through whom admission must be sought to ordi- 
nances, as in the Episcopal Church through the Rector, and as in 
the Catholic through the priest. 

" The Presbyterian Church is, throughout, a representative 
body — a representative democracy. In the same sense that the 
General Assembly represents the whole Church, does the Session 
an individual Church. The act of the Session is the act of the 
Church, until reversed by a higher court. As the Session sus- 
pends or excommunicates without any appeal to the people, so does 
it admit to the communion. When the" Session examines and re- 
ceives a person to membership, the act is consummated which num- 
bers the individual with the company of believers, and which 
introduces to church-fellowship and church privileges. This is our 
theory ; and this is the practice of our Church in all places where 
there has been no departure from our ancient and simple rules. 

" To this practice, without propounding for admission, and with- 
out receiving publicly, or consenting to a confession read to them — 
which may or may not conform to our Standards — save in the 
cases referred tQ in chap, ix., sect, iv., we would advise all our 
churches to return, which have deviated from it, where it can be 
done without interrupting their peace and harmony." 

Jkrutjjolb CIjottgljR 


TnE Apostle's words, "Let all things be done unto edifi/iiii/," 
show the earnest and settled conviction that piety must thrive by 
the religious intercourse of men. They are a general direction as 
to religious exercises where several persons are together. It 
requires that the things done and the way of doing them, be most 

1855.] Directions for Family Worship. 265 

for the spiritual benefit of all present. We shall apply the precept 
now to the exercises of family devotion ; and draw it out in some 
of those simple and plain directions, to be followed by those who 
desire to regulate their households in the fear of God, and to make 
the most of their spiritual privileges and gifts. 

We begin with the beginnings of the household, and remark — 

1. That every married pair, who are or wish to be Christians, 
should pray and worship God together the first day of their existence 
as the head of a household, and should conscientiously maintain the 
practice thereafter with all that belong to their family. This they 
are bound to do as they regard their highest good. Whether they 
observe the Lord's Supper or not, makes no difference in this 
matter. Every human being who knows the God of heaven and 
hears his Word, is bound to pray to Him and worship Him. 
Every such person is solemnly bound, indeed, with humble faith in 
Christ, to eat and drink with Christ's believing people, in remem- 
brance of Him. We can conceive, however, and often meet with 
some peculiar states of mind in which persons may be saved, 
though in their doubts and perplexities, perhaps under unwise 
teaching, they may not commune at the Lord's table. But no 
man can conceive a state of mind in which a person can be saved, 
who has no heart to pray and worship God ; and where a married 
couple eitherare or desire to be Christians, their united profession, 
or their united desire, should be expressed in united prayer, with 
all that so belong to their household as to be under their control. 
Or, if only one of the parties has these Christian desires for himself 
and all his, and if this be the husband, then is he required, by the 
law of Divine grace, in his office as ruler in his house, to begin the 
duties of that office, by instituting daily Divine worship as a part 
of the order of his household. If the wife only be, or desire to be 
the Christian, she is required to maintain such household instruc- 
tion and worship as the circumstances under her control may re- 
commend, with the approbation or allowance of the husband. 

2. As children arise, the religious arrangements of the house- 
hold must at once have respect to them. The great work of 
Christian parents is to secure religious impressions in the minds of 
their children. And how early these impressions may begin, it is 
impossible for the parent to tell. It may not be wholly unimportant 
for the seemingly unconscious babe of half a year, that the domestic 
arrangements should begin to provide for his being quietly awake, 
and always present at the hour of prayer ; for, religious being as 
he is, he may receive an impulse towards the unfolding of the germ 
of religious reverence in his infant soul from the posture and the 
tones of Divine worship, as early as an impulse towards the unfold- 
ing of natural affection from parental smile and prattle. Christian 
mother, mark that early moment when the countenance of your babe 
for the first time opens and brightens passively under your smile, or 
when the tender lip contracts and quivers under your frown ; and 

266 Directions for Family Worship. [June. 

be sure that then, too, there is another susceptibility which you 
can reach, though you may not fully understand or explain it. 
The spirit of a covenant-keeping God is there, according to the 
promise, and on that rests the hope of good to children through 
means of grace, even in the infant state. The ordinance of bap- 
tism, administered to the infant, at the instance of the believing 
parent, and in the exercise of living faith at the time, is effectual 
upon the child, as the occasion on which the Holy Spirit exerts 
more power in the soul than He otherwise would. How earnest, 
therefore, should be the prayers of the Christian parent, and his 
use of all suitable means of favouring the operations of the grace of 
God in the heart of his child. There can be no doubt that the be- 
ginnings of good impressions in children, under proper culture, are 
wholly imperceptible by us, and that the first impressions that we 
discover, are always very far from being the first that exist. 

3. In suiting religious exercises to little children, the parent 
should secure the active attention of the child to such exercises at 
the very earliest period ; — as soon as his attention can be com- 
manded to anything. While yet in the mother's arms at table, or 
when placed for the first time in his elevated seat at the family 
board, let him learn patient and submissive silence during a few 
words of prayer. This should be exacted of him, and that without 
the least allowance, and commonly after two or three times only, 
and frequently after the very first time, he comes into it of his own 
accord. And the practice should be invariable at every meal. 
Let not this be thought a trifle, and unworthy of such formal 
notice. We have occasions in abundance to notice the good effects 
of such discipline. It is not a trifle for the little member of the 
kingdom of God that, as he sits at the table, with keen appetite 
for his sweet repast, he must pause a moment, and keep silence 
with clasped hands ; and that he looks with solemn reverence into 
the calm and serious face of the parent during a prayer of half a 
minute. For that is the beginning of a habit of reverential silence 
to be carried out in the longer services of family devotion, and in 
public worship, where parents often have such trouble with their 
little children for want of this discipline at home. And all such 
discipline, carefully and resolutely pursued, forms a part of the 
true religious culture of children. 

4. On the same principle, the children of a family should take 
part in the religious exercises as early as possible, such as read- 
ing the Scriptures, and the sacred song, where that can be used. 
Let it not be thought a matter of indifference that the attention of 
the child should be called to such a service, even before he can 
understand the words. Children learn the meaning of many other 
signs, before thoy learn the meaning of words. The solemn forms 
of worship, the reading of the Scriptures, the reverential kneeling, 
the prayer, nay the very coming together of the family, their 
remaining together in silent order, during Divine worship, is a 

1855.] Directions for Family Worship. 267 

language to the heart of the child which he understands better 
than he can show, and feels beyond what the parent can ever 
know. Long before words carry any meaning to his thought, the 
whole aspect and force of the exercise carry meaning to his heart. 
There is a forming, moulding process going on in such cases, not 
indicated by mere growth of knowledge, or clear, systematic 
thought, but apparent rather in the subdued, reverential respect 
for religious things, while he does not know the things as religious ; 
an unconscious and almost passive conformity of the infant mind to 
those solemn services on which, in his future course, so much of 
his religious growth and comfort is to depend. 

Here observe, especially, how much may be lost with children 
by not beginning this religious discipline early, and giving the 
little child a place and a part in religious exercises, while yet so 
young that many would not suppose him capable. To leave an 
infant out of the room with the nurse, because he might be trou- 
blesome or noisy, is a mistake. If old enough to make voluntary 
trouble by his prattle or his ill humour, he is old enough to be 
taught silence at proper times. And the art and resolution to 
secure submission on such occasions, are an attainment which a 
parent cannot too earnestly cultivate. It is not the art of invent- 
ing little quiet diversions with a watch or a trinket for the mo- 
ment ; it is causing submissive silence in obedience. And this, so 
easily done, at the beginning (and the beginning is much earlier 
than is generally supposed), saves almost endless trouble afterwards 
to the parent, by laying a firm foundation for obedience, and all 
right self-discipline in the child. And if this is delayed, as is too 
common, the opportunity is gone. The seedtime of true obedience 
is past ; and it is hard for family discipline to recover lost time. 
When the boy has not been taught occasional silence during 
prayer, till he is old enough to toss his marbles, or shove the 
chairs, or shout, or chatter for his own diversion, the best moment 
for such discipline is past ; for then there is a will to be resisted 
and overcome, instead of the mere involuntary restlessness of in- 
fancy. When once a will has erected itself in the child against 
the parent, and the discipline takes the form of a conflict, the 
work of discipline is begun too late ; the struggle is painful, the 
good temper of both child and parent is endangered or lost, and 
the good result is hardly ever complete. 

In these remarks we discern the laws of the human formation 
by following the established order of nature, and endeavouring in 
the right way to do the right things at the right time. This is 
obedience to divine laws ; and on such obedience we may look for 
the blessing of the Lord ; the blessing of providence on obedience 
to the laws of providence, and the blessing of grace on obedience 
to the laws of grace. 

5. Having spoken thus of providing that children should have a 
part in the religious services of the household, we further remark 

268 Directions for Family Worship. [June. 

that they should be carefully taught to view the exercises as 
strictly religious. There are many incidental benefits from the 
practice, all of great value ; such as the promotion of household 
order, improvement in respectful and serious behaviour among 
children, increasing knowledge of the Scriptures, and even im- 
provement in reading and sacred song. But the great thing is to 
worship God. The whole arrangement should be so ordered as to 
carry the aspect of divine worship. All work or play should be 
dropped. All the family should be together, and in solemn silence 
before the service begins. This, to small children, will be more 
edifying than any other feature of the occasion. If any sport 
among the children or other excitement from worldly matters has 
gone before, pause a moment, till all within as well as all without 
is quiet, and every heart feels itself in the presence of God, and 
is prepared to worship him. In proportion as the service loses the 
character and the spirit of divine worship, and sinks into a drill 
for family discipline, its sacred charm and its divine force are 
gone. That such a service may truly nourish holy reverence, it 
must be so conducted that the things that are seen, and make up 
the outward appearance and ceremony of the occasion shall sug- 
gest the things not seen and eternal to those of the age of re- 
flection, and even inspire a sympathetic solemnity in the smaller 

6. The exercise should be conducted with the subdued and calm 
solemnity becoming sinners concerned for their eternal salvation. 
For the full effect of the service, it must be pervaded by the spirit 
of penitence and hope. We may seem to have almost an oblique 
design in these remarks, hardly consistent with a personal and 
earnest interest in religion. We may seem to recommend working 
for effect. But remember how our Lord puts personal interest 
and usefulness together. Be holy as your Father is holy ; and, 
Let others see your works, for their good. And we are speaking 
here of a family ; of parents, who have a personal, Christian in- 
terest in their household; to you whose children are not "others," 
separate from yourselves, but are part and parcel of yourselves, in 
other things as well as in religion. And the eye of the humble 
Christian parent will be on Christ for his children as well as for 
himself. How moving the scene when the father and the mother, 
with their little child before them, feel that all the three are one ; 
having a common nature, and that a nature which comes short of 
the glory of God, and must be renewed by the Holy Ghost through 
Christ ; when the parents feel the humiliating truth that they have 
sinful natures, and that their little one has the same, and when 
they commend themselves and their child with peaceful hope to 
the Lord of pardoning mercy. Do not be too confident, Christian 
parent, that your little one in the cradle has no feeling for such a 
scene. We cannot tell when the spiritual sense begins to open. 
As you watch the opening bud, which will swell in a few days now 

1855.] Directions for Family Worship. 269 

■with the life of spring, you cannot see the beginning. Long be- 
fore any motion appears to your eye, there has been a preparation 
under the same living forces which cause the visible motion at the 
proper time. For all this preparation there must be the genial 
warmth and light. Let the infant live in the atmosphere of hum- 
ble faith and penitence from the first ; just as you would wish the 
warmth and moisture of the soil to surround and penetrate the 
seed, from the moment of planting. Then will the same influence, 
accompanied, according to the promise, by the grace of God, guide 
all the growth, and form the character in the image of Christ. 
Seek to mould inwardly ; not merely to control by outward con- 
straint. Let the whole scene of family devotion be pervaded by 
the subdued solemnity of an occasion when the house is, as it were, 
opened to the inspection of the All-searching eye, and every heart 
feels the Divine presence. For by such solemnity it is, not less 
than by direct effort, that the work of the Lord in the household 
is to be carried on. The knowledge of sin, the feeling of our sin- 
fulness, the consciousness that we have the sentence of death in 
ourselves, and the seeds of death as the fruit of our sin, this feel- 
ing of dependence on mercy, leading us daily to the throne for 
pardon, this is the beginning of the fear of the Lord in the house- 
hold as in the individual. Let it have simple, unaffected utterance 
in the orderings and all the motions of Divine worship in the 
family ; for it is the grace and power of Christ in you waiting oc> 
casions tor work in all that belong to you. 

7. Read the Holy Word with a devout and meditative spirit. And 
for such occasions, and indeed for most of our sacred purposes of 
Scripture reading, we gain more by reading in the contemplative way 
than in the inquisitive. There is more of the heart engaged, and 
more present enjoyment. Look at Scripture scenery as it lies 
open to the eye ; and many an eye can contemplate that, though 
it cannot criticise minutely any particular. Do you not enjoy the 
beautiful landscape although you cannot tell the lines and angles 
by surveying; and just as well as if you could? The Scriptures 
are pictures to be looked at with the eye of faith, not merely a 
field for the chain and compass of the intellect. They present 
landscapes of heaven in earthly colors. They reveal heavenly 
beauty smiling through earthly faces. They glow with the spirit 
more than they charm with the letter. They are spirit and life — 
radiant spirit ; warm, exhilarating life ; and the life is the light of 
men. Let the family devotion, morning and evening, be a dwell- 
ing for a time in that light. Let the humble faith of the parents 
with open eye behold it as the glory of the Lord Jesus ; and they 
will see the sacred, living radiance reflected on all who are with 
them. For in that electric circle of the Spirit, heart touches 
heart. The life and warmth of each may go round. let life be 
there, and not death ; light, and not darkness. 

Read Scripture to commune, to meditate, to contemplate ; not 

270 Directions for Family Worship. [June. 

so much for duty and service as for exercise and refreshment. Far 
more of the deep and glorious mystery of the divine word is un- 
folded to the calm contemplative view of pious faith, than to 
scientific criticism ; though that also has its great use. How much 
better to be imbued with the spirit than to be expert in the letter. 
Our children, trained in Holy Scripture, may be retentive of 
chapter and verse, accurate in the grammar, at home in the 
geography, enraptured with the poetry, alive to the sublimity, and 
even skilled in the doctrine ; but they must drink of its spirit. In 
the morning and in the evening lead them thither as to the wells 
of salvation ; as to the table of living bread. 

8. An important benefit from family worship may be found in 
sacred song. Little do we seem to know the value of divine song 
in spiritual culture. Thousands of Christian people are indifferent 
whether they or their children can sing. It was not always so, 
and will not be. It is only one of the short-comings of our pecu- 
liar time and country. Piety begat psalmody as its first-born of 
refined and refining art. As it belongs to the human nature to 
put forth the musical faculty in man, so it belongs to the Divine 
Spirit to use that faculty for raising man to the heavenly state. 
Its fitness for family edification is peculiar. Its capacity is vast 
and varied beyond our thought. The most thoughtless own its 
power by instinct. Doth not nature itself teach the mother to 
soothe her troubled babe with a lullaby ; and the father to tilt 
his playful boy on his knee with a glee ? And where can depressed 
and troubled human nature profit more by soothing and exhila- 
rating sounds than in the songs of Zion ; where heavenly thoughts 
dissolved in earthly harmonies, distil upon the soul through the 
delighted ear ? Let the Christian family lift its one heart of holy 
joy to heaven, in the voice of its sacred song. 

Some of our families have long cultivated music as a branch of 
education ; seeking it for their children as an accomplishment ; 
and their musical instrument is quite the most elegant and costly 
article in their house. But do they ever use that and their voices 
in the praise of the Lord, to enliven, expand, and elevate holy 
affection ? How the lovely harmony of voices and instruments of 
music, adorns and enriches the public worship of the church. And 
what is the family but a church in the house ? 

All the spiritual powers of Christ in his people rejoice in the 
sounds of sacred harmony. They rose in the lofty and majestic 
anthems of the Jewish temple service. They broke forth in the 
inspired hosannas of the children, in the Saviour's mysterious tri- 
umphal entry in Jerusalem, where, according to the prophet and 
the words of the Saviour himself, there was perfect praise out of 
the mouths of babes. Let the babes of every generation and of 
every family be taught to raise sweet harmony in thankful adoring 
praise to the Lord ; and he will accept and bless them, and bless 
the parents who thus lead them. 

1855.] Directions for Family Worship. 271 

9. Finally, the prayer. This is the most important part of the 
family service, but it is also the chief difficulty with the unpractised 
head of the household. The reading and the sacred music would 
not deter. But it is harder to lead in the prayer. This would, 
however, be less a hindrance if rightly understood. For when one 
thinks himself incapable of praying before others to edification, 
he is thinking of elevated language, like that of pulpit prayer ; 
and is magnifying his own house into a place of public concourse, and 
his family into an assembly. But he is not called upon to pray 
" before others." He is alone with his wife and children, who are 
not " others," as his neighbors are, but a part of himself. He 
talks freely among them ; and his prayers will be the very best for 
them and for himself, when, with a warm heart of devotion, he 
prays as he talks, though he pray but one minute ; and three mi- 
nutes would be quite enough, where there are young children. The 
classic propriety of language required in the pulpit is not needed 
for the household, where it is not in familiar use. The prayer for 
home must be homely ; not indeed in the current sense of that 
word, but as uttering the sentiments, the wants, the interests, the 
hopes, the very language of home. If this be remembered, it will 
relieve some who cannot feel at home in attempting to pray in 
their families ; and some, perhaps, who mistake the nature of 
family devotion, and lessen its interests and profits by effort at 
comely speech and remote thought. Let prayer in the family be 
family prayer. It will then be most engaging to all concerned ; 
for it will have the flavour and charm of home, sweet home. 

No other person, Christian parent, can pray in your house with 
your family alone, so much to edification as yourself. A minister 
never feels so much embarrassed in praying in the pulpit of a 
neighboring minister, as in the private dwelling of a neighbor who 
prays in his family. The interests and circumstances of the" 
children and of all the other members, should be noticed where 
they are at all remarkable ; and it will be all the better if the ex- 
ercises are regarded not as performed by one part of the family 
for the benefit of another, but as belonging to all. This makes it 
family devotion. Teach the children so to understand and use it. 

Christian householder, you are the head, support, and guide of 
your family. Think not that your children can get elsewhere those 
religious benefits which you ought to provide for them at home. 
It belongs to you to put your children into daily communication 
with heaven. Have you a personal interest in Christ ? Impart it 
to your family by constantly showing it before them, and engaging 
their sympathy in your pious faith. They are exposed to death. 
Do not leave them to perish. It belongs to you to call the physi- 
cian, and open your doors that he may come in to them. Say not, 
I am not a Christian, and this family duty can hardly be expected 
of me. You are a sinner, and the very person that ought to pray. 
You lead your family in sin ; lead them in repentance. Have you 

272 A Sketch of the early Roman Catholic [June. 

no time ? It is your chief business. Better omit all other things 
than this. But all other things will be the better done for doing this. 
No time to sow in spring ! No time to reap in harvest ! Then will 
the harvest soon be past, and the summer ended, and your house- 
hold not be saved. J. W. Y. 

JJirforifol anb 36iagrap|juaL 


The great interest which has been felt in California since its connection 
with the United States, and the prospective bearings which it seems des- 
tined to have upon the commercial prosperity of the Union not only, but 
also upon the future character of the Eastern shores of Asia, invest every- 
thing that relates to its past history, no less than to its present condition, 
with attractiveness and importance. That history would be incomplete 
without some notice of the early Roman Catholic Missions planted upon 
the shores of the Pacific. 

Although Sir Francis Drake took possession of part of the coast as 
high as 37° (or, according to Bancroft, 43°), and called it New Albion, 
in 1579, the credit of prior discovery is due to Cortez. He discovered 
the peninsula and navigated the gulf in 1536, and conceived the most 
magnificent anticipations from its pearl fisheries, and its fertile soil. But 
being compelled to return to Mexico, to quell some commotions which had 
broken out there, he unwillingly laid aside his project of settliug Cali- 
fornia, and for near half a century nothing further appears to have been 
done. In January, 1683, an expedition was fitted out by Marquis de la 
Laguna, Viceroy of Mexico., and landed in March on the southeast coast, 
giving to the port the name of Our Lady of Peace, and building a fort 
there. The expedition was accompanied by two Jesuit Fathers, Matthias 
G-ogni, and Eusebius Francis Kino, the last of whom was a German. 
His name has been by some spelled Caino. But the settlement did not 
prove fortunate, and the two missionaries were obliged, after a while, to 
abandon California, and retire into the provinces of Cinaloa and Souora, 
where the missions were more promising. 

This account is taken from the celebrated Letlrcs Edifiantcs et Curie-uses, 
condensed and translated by Mr. Lockman, under the title of Travels of 
the Jesuits. On account of the rarity of this work, and the scantiness of 
materials elsewhere, it is intended to draw largely from its pages; and 
when its narratives cease, from other sources. The total accouut giveu in 
Newcomb's recent Cyclopedia of Missions is comprised in one brief and 
very unsatisfactory sentence, viz. : "The Upper California missions were 
conducted by Franciscans, aud till a recent period were in a very flourish- 
ing state, but are now destroyed." (p. 303.) 

1855.] 31issions in California. 273 

The earliest information we have been able to obtain is derived from a 
letter of Father Le Gobien to the Jesuits of France, written somewhere 
about or before the year 1705. He was the first who corrected the com- 
mon error of California being an island, instead of a peninsula. Yet 
strange to say, notwithstanding this discovery, Noblot, in his Universal 
Geography, published in 1725, represented it as an island.* 

Le Gobien tells us, that after the departure of the first two missiona- 
ries (whether owing to the hostilities of the natives, or other causes, he 
does not state), nothing more was done for about a dozen years. Then 
Father John Maria de Salvatierra, a Milanese Jesuit labouring in the 
Province of Taromara, or New Biscay, felt his heart stirred up within 
him to make another attempt to establish a Christian colony in California. 
In this design he obtained the approbation and concurrence of the Count 
de Monteguma, successor of Laguna in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. 
Labouring indefatigably, he inspired others with his own enthusiasm, and 
succeeded in procuring money, ships, and missionaries. But just as the 
whole affair was on the point of consummation, the Indians of Taromara 
broke out in insurrection, taking up arms to extirpate the Spaniards and 
converts. Father Kino, and many other persons who had agreed to go 
with the new colony, were compelled to give up the expedition, as they 
could not leave in so critical a conjuncture. Salvatierra was therefore 
obliged to go by himself, and landed at Concho, Oct. 18, 1697. 

Although the Indians at first appeared friendly, it was discovered that 
they only dissimulated, in order the better to surprise and cut to pieces 
the Spaniards, which they would have done, had not their treachery been 
detected in season to forestall and punish it. Father Picolo, who soon after 
joined Salvatierra, and who presented an account of the Mission to the 
Royal Council at Guadalaxara in 1702, gives the following explanation of 
the attack of the natives. He writes, "Being all happily arrived, we 
placed the image of our Lady (after adorning it in the best manner possi- 
ble), in the place which we thought most suitable and worthy of the Saint; 
and besought her to be as favourable and indulgent to us on land as she had 
been at sea. As the natives had not an opportunity of knowing the 
design we were come upon, viz., of bringing them to the light of the 
Gospel, they not understanding our language, and none of our company 
having the least knowledge of theirs, this made them imagine that our 
only motive was to dispossess them of their pearl-fishery, as others had 
attempted more than once before. For this reason they had recourse to 
arms, and accordingly came in different bodies to our settlement, in which 
there then were but a very few Spaniards. On which occasion they 
attacked us with so much fury, and poured in such showers of darts and 
stones, that we must inevitably have been lost, had it not been for the 
protection of the Blessed Virgin." (Trav. of the Jes. i. 396.) The 
barbarians becoming more tractable after their defeat, and being unde- 
ceived as to the intentions of their visitors, now flocked to them in great 
numbers, and seemed overjoyed, the Father states, to be instructed in the 
Christian faith and the way to heaven. 

The two missionaries, Salvatierra and Picolo, were soon joined by 

* It was so delineated on Moll's maps, and also on a map of the World by Edward 
Wells (in the writer's possession), published about the middle of the last century. 
Even a Dublin edition of Salmon's Gazetteer, printed in 174G, says, " it is either an 
island or a peninsula, most probably the latter." 

VOL. V. — NO. 6. 18 

274 A Sketch of the early Roman Catholic [June. 

Father Kino, who found his way thither by land; during which journey, 
he made the discovery that California was not an island. He laid down 
and transmitted to Spain a map of the country, being well skilled "in 
mathematics." (Trav. Jes. i. 356.) 

The Jesuit fathers spent two years and upwards in learning the lan- 
guages of the country, which they found to be two, the Monqui and the 
Laymone, in which they began to preach as soon as they were able. 
They divided the whole country into four Missions : Concho, or Our Lady 
of Loretto ; Biaundo, or St. Francis Xavier ; Yodivinegga, or Our Lady 
of Grief; and St. John de Lordo, which was not so well established or 
promising as the three others. (Trav. Jes. i. 398.) " Each mission," 
says Picolo, " consists of several villages. A chapel had been built for 
the second mission ; but being found too small, we have begun to raise a 
lofty church, with brick walls, and design to cover it in with timber. 
The garden, which joins to the house of the missionaries, produces herbs 
and pulse of every kind already ; and the Mexican trees planted there 
thrive well, and will soon be loaded with excellent fruits." (lb.) 

In accomplishing their task, the Jesuit Padres are said to have exhi- 
bited an heroic endurance and adventurous spirit not inferior to those of 
Cortez himself. Of their methods and labours, different opinions may be 
entertained, but none can deny them the credit of inextinguishable zeal, 
or of having raised the condition of the miserable tribes of natives, whom 
they induced to leave their wandering life, and live in houses. Previous 
to their arrival, the natives had been in the lowest state of degradation, 
little better than " the beasts that perish." The men, Father Picolo tells 
us, went entirely in a state of nudity, with the exception of a kind of net- 
work about their heads, and ornaments of mother-of-pearl and beads made 
of the stones or kernels of fruits, round their necks, and sometimes on 
their hands. Their only weapons were bows and arrows or javelins, 
which they perpetually carried, the several villages being frequently in a 
state of war. The women wore aprons like mats, plaited of reeds very art- 
fully, from the waist to the knee, skins of beasts on their shoulders, a 
curious network on their heads, and necklaces and bracelets, composed of 
mother-of-pearl, kernels, and sea-shells, in great profusion. (Trav. Jes. 
i. 403.) 

Given to indolence, the natives passed whole days stretched out at full 
length on their faces in the saud, nor were they roused to any effort, till 
driven to the chase or the digging of roots by the gnawings of hunger, and 
when those gnawings were appeased, they relapsed again into their former 
apathy and laziness. 

The only sense of religion which they possessed was a terror of some 
great and unknown Being, of whose power, as seen in the occurrences of 
nature, they stood in dread. (Malte-Brun, iii. 291.) Father Picolo 
says, that though at first their jocular propensities led them to laugh and 
jeer at the mistakes of the foreigners in speaking their language, they 
afterwards exhibited much greater civility. " Whenever we explain some 
mystery or article in morality, which interferes with their prejudices or 
ancient errors, they wait till the preacher has ended his discourse, and 
then will dispute with him, in a forcible and sensible manner. If cogent 
reasons are offered, they listen to them with great docility; and when 
convinced, they submit, and perforin whatever is enjoined them. They 
did not seem to have any form of government, nor scarce anything like 

1855.] Missions in California. 275 

religion, or a regular worship. They adore the moon, and cut their hair 
(to the best of my remembrance) when that planet is in the wane, in honour 
of their deity. The hair which is thus cut off they give to their priests, 
who employ it in several superstitious uses." (Trav. Jes. i. p. 405.) 

The religion of the tribes in the interior differed from that of those on 
the sea-coast. Even when the same names were retained, the traditions 
greatly varied. This we learn from Father Geronimo Boscana, a Fran- 
ciscan friar of San Juan Capistrano, who enjoyed peculiar facilities for 
acquiring information. He died in 1S31, leaving among his papers an 
elaborate treatise on the subject, which the curious may find appended to 
Mr. Alfred Robinson's book, entitled " Life in California." 

According to Boscana, the natives believed in an Almighty Being by 
the name of Chinigchinich, and also in a devil, who took the form of 
some animal. They believed in the creation of the first man out of clay, 
and in a general deluge. Their worship consisted in violent dances, of 
which they were extravagantly fond, on which occasions they wore 
dresses and crowns of feathers, and painted their bodies black and red. 
They were abject slaves of superstition, and completely in the power of 
their sorcerers, who made them submit to the most cruel ordeals and self- 
denials. Their year commenced on the 21st of December, when the sun 
arrived at the tropic of Capricorn. Their months were lunar. They 
held to a future state, which was a sort of earthly paradise, with dancing 
and festivity, plenty to eat and nothing to do. (Life in Cal. App. pp. 

The writer of the article on California in Rees's Cyclopaedia, states that 
the Jesuits succeeded in reducing the Indians to as complete subjection 
as they did the natives of Paraguay, and that they introduced into their 
missions the same policy and regulations ; and he adds, that in order to 
prevent the Court of Spain from entertaining any jealousy of their plans, 
they depreciated the country as insalubrious and barren in the extreme, 
so that it might be thought no conceivable motive but that of converting 
the natives could lead any man to settle there. 

This statement is hardly borne out by the communication of Father 
Picolo, already cited, as made to the Royal Council at Guadalaxara ; for 
in that account he gives a glowing description of the fertility of the soil, 
its fourteen kinds of grain, its fruits, figs, pistachios, beans, and melons 
of a prodigious size. The soil, he represented to be so vastly rich, as that 
many plants produced fruit thrice a year; and were the proper labour and 
instruments employed, he had no doubt of the greatest plenty both of 
fruits and grain being the result. He also gave it as his opinion, that 
the rock salt, found in pits, and the pearl-fishery, might be made to yield 
vast sums ; and added this significant sentence, which falls upon our ears 
with double weight, since the recent developments of that auriferous 
region : " I don't doubt but mines would be discovered in several places, 
if sought for, since part of the country is in the same latitude with the 
provinces of Cinaloa and Sonora, where there are very rich ones." (Trav. 
Jes. i. 402.) It would be entertaining to quote from these Fathers their 
accounts at large of the fauna and flora of the country, as well as their 
speculations on the probability of its having been peopled by Tartars 
crossing over by Behring's Straits. But as these subjects are foreign to 
the matter in hand, we content ourselves with this passing allusion. 

For their better security the Spaniards built a fort in the district of St. 

276 A Sketch of the early Roman Catholic [June. 

Denis, or Concho. It had four bastions, and was surrounded by a deep 
ditch. An area was laid out for the soldiers to exercise in, and barracks 
for their lodging. There were eighteen soldiers with their officers, two 
of whom had wives and children. This garrison was but small, and had 
been reduced by inability to support more. Father Picolo was desirous 
of further reinforcements, and of greater rewards bestowed on the troops 
as an incentive to bravery; so that although he speaks of their having 
maintained peace and tranquillity, he evidently felt no assurance of being 
secure against disturbance, without the aid of the arm of flesh. 

Here we must take our leave of the entertaining narratives of the Je- 
suit Padres; for in 1767, they fell under tbe displeasure of the Spanish 
king, Charles III., and by his order were banished from every part of his 
dominions, America included. The venerable priests attempted no re- 
sistance, and by their meek behaviour and snow-white hair, blanched by 
half a century's labours, softened the heart of the royal governor, who 
had expected to find a large native army drawn up to oppose him. The 
missionaries appeared to be much beloved by their converts, who accom- 
panied them to tbe place of embarkation with sobs and tears. 

The Jesuits were succeeded by the Franciscans, and the Franciscans 
afterwards by the Dominicans; but the distinction is not necessary to be 
retained in this sketch, and they will be spoken of only under the com- 
mon title of Missionaries. 

Two years after the expulsion of the Jesuits, Padre Junipero Serra, a 
Franciscan, in 1769, founded the mission of San Diego, in Alta Califor- 
nia. This was the commencement of the attempts to Christianize New 
or Upper California. It soon extended along the coast as far as San 
Francisco. Father Serra was indefatigable in his efforts, and established 
nine missions before his death, in 1784. Afterwards ten more were 
added, making in all nineteen. Mr. Robinson computed the total num- 
ber to have been twenty-one, the last being founded in 1823. (Life in 
California, pp. vii. & 3.) His information he professes to have derived, 
in regard to the early missions, from a work of Padre Vanegas. 

The names and locations of the Missions arc given by Bayard Taylor 
as follows : 

San Rafael, and San Francisco Solano, north of San Francisco Bay ; 
Dolores, near San Francisco; Santa Clara, founded in 1777, and San 
Jose, near Puebla San Jos6, founded in 1797 ; San Juan Bautista, 
founded in 1797; Santa Cruz, and Carmel, near Monterey; Soledad, 
founded in 1791; San Antonio, founded in 1771, and San Miguel, 
founded in 1797, in the valley of Salinas liiver; San Luis Obispo ; La 
Furissima, founded in 1787; Santa Yncz, founded in 1797; Santa Bar- 
bara, and San Buenaventura, near Santa Barbara, founded in 1782; 
San Gabriel, founded in 1771; San Fernando, founded iu 1797, near 
Los Angeles; San Luis Rcy, founded in 1798; San Juan Capistrano, 
founded in 1776; and San Diego, on the coast, south of Los Angeles, 
founded in 1769. " Tbcse Missions," says Mr. Robinson, "were the 
germs of Spanish colonization." (Life in Cal. Introd. p. 7.) 

In achieving the spiritual conquest of the upper province, the govern- 
ment lent all tbe aid in its power, being stimulated by a jealousy of Eng- 
lish, French, and Russian enterprise, aud the desire to secure a firm foot- 
hold in a region wbose position and wealth invested it with great value. 
But the narrow policy and commercial restrictions of tbe Spanish govern- 

1855.] Missions in California. 277 

merit crippled the development of its resources, and converted it into 
nothing better than " a refuge for invalid soldiers, indolent priests, and 
pampered officials." (Home Miss. Dec. 1849, p. 199.) 

The Missions prosecuted their work with a sagacity and energy, 
which formed a striking contrast with the course of the civilians. Left 
unmolested for fifty years, the accumulated fruits of their labours assumed 
a magnitude which gave them a power and influence co-ordinate, if not 
indeed preponderant. 

For this two reasons may be assigned. One was the military protection 
they enjoyed. The early Missionaries sallied forth on their expeditions, 
we ai-e told, accompanied by small detachments of soldiers as guards ; 
and in course of time four military forts, called Presidios, were erected, 
in each of which were stationed 250 mounted men. The chief employ- 
ment of these troops was to protect the padres, and to recapture abscond- 
ing proselytes. To each fort was attached a large rancho or farm, for 
the use and support of the soldiers ; and as their tour of duty expired, 
they received grants of land, and were formed into villages or pueblos. 
As none could settle or marry but by the permission of the priests, it is 
easy to see how completely they could prevent any unwelcome intrusion. 
(Life in Calif, p. 218.) 

Besides this combined aid of " the sword of the Lord and of Gideon," 
each Mission acquired a large landed property. The original allotment 
was fifteen acres ; but they gradually extended their domains, till they 
absorbed nearly all the valuable land on the coast, amounting to not less 
than 8,000,000 acres. A Mission comprised buildings for the priests, a 
capacious church, store-houses, spacious galleries, courtyards and halls, 
and long rows of adobe (or sun-dried brick) huts for the Indian converts. 
Each was a petty principality, subject to the direction of a friar called a 
Prefect, who corresponded with the government, conducted commerce 
with foreign countries, and managed with completely irresponsible rule 
the entire secular affairs of the Mission. On the arrival of a friar, the 
people assembled, the bells were rung, and every demonstration of respect 
was shown him, provoking the jealousy of the Mexican governors, who 
required the same honours. To each came to be attached 100,000 acres, 
more or less, several thousand Indians, and from 20,000 to 60,000 horses 
and head of cattle. The Indians were unequally distributed. The total 
number connected with the Missions in 1829, was 80,000. San Luis 
Rey had a population of 3000 Indians, 60,000 head of cattle, and great 
quantities of wheat, corn, beans, peas, &c, stored in its capacious grana- 
ries. (Life in Calif, p. 24.) At San Gabriel, were made yearly from 
400 to 600 barrels of wine, and 200 of brandy, the sale of which pro- 
duced an income of $12,000. (lb. p. 33.) 

Lieut. Col. Emory visited the deserted Mission of San Luis Rey, on 
his Military Reconnoissance. He says : "The building is one, which, for 
magnitude, convenience, and durability, would do honour to any country. 
The walls are of adobe, and the roofs of well-made tile. It was built 
about sixty years since by the Indians of the country, under the guidance 
of a zealous priest. At that time the Indians were very numerous, and 
were under the absolute sway of the missionaries. These missionaries at 
one time bid fair to Christianize the Indians of California. Under grants 
from the Mexican Government, they collected them into missions, built 
immense houses, and commenced successfully to till the soil by the hands 

278 A Sketch, of the early Roman Catholic [June. 

of the Indians, for the benefit of the Indians. The habits of the priests, 
and the avarice of the military rulers of the territory, however, soon con- 
verted those missions into instruments of oppression and slavery of the 
Indian race." (Notes of a Milit. Reconn. p. 116.) 

The wealth and importance of each mission depended on the number of 
the native population gathered under its shadow. The males were trained 
to be farmers, carpenters, masons, coopers, saddlers, shoemakers, weavers, 
and tanners; while the females were employed in spinning and weaving 
blankets. They did all the labour of the large establishment, and were, 
in fact, in a condition of serfdom. 

A sergeant's guard was attached to each Mission, to keep the refractory 
or the fugitives in order. " Mass," says Mr. Robinson, " is offered daily, 
and the greater portion of the Indians attend; but it is not unusual to 
see numbers of them driven along by alcaldes, and under the whip's lash 

forced to the very doors of the sanctuary The conditiou of these 

Indians is miserable indeed ; and it is not to be wondered at that many 
attempt to escape from the severity of the religious discipline at the Mis- 
sion. They are pursued, and generally taken ; when they are flogged, 
and an iron clog is fastened to their legs, serving as additional puuish- 
ment, and a warning to others." (Life in Calif, p. 26.) This account 
was written in 1829. It must not be supposed that they always ac- 
quiesced without resistance in this subjugation. Col. Emory tells us 
that "near the junction (of the Gila and the Colorado), on the north 
side, are the remains of an old Spanish church, built near the beginning 
of the 17th century (evidently a misprint for the 18th century), by the 
renowned missionary, Father Kino. This mission was eventually sacked 
by the Indians, and the inhabitants all murdered or driven off." (Notes, 
p. 95.) 

The natives on the western side of the Rocky Mountains were, how- 
ever, much less savage and ferocious than those on the eastern side. They 
were distinguished by their gentleness, docility, and attachment to their 
padres, whose persons they regarded with a twofold veneration, that due 
to civil rulers, whose word was law, and that of spiritual directors holding 
in their hands the keys of purgatory and paradise. Compared with their 
former ignorant and degraded condition, they were much better off, as far 
as outward comfort was concerned, being fed, clothed, taught regular and 
industrious habits, accustomed to live in houses, to which they had been en- 
tirely unused before, instructed in the useful arts, and made acquainted 
with the rudiments of Christianity, The sincerity of compulsory con- 
versions may reasonably be distrusted, and any education which omitted 
the spelling-book and the Rible, must necessarily have been very humble.* 
Pictures and crucifixes, music, processions, and sacred plays, were their 
only books; and if they still in their hearts continued to "worship the 
creature more than the Creator," we must look on them as having only 
exchanged one form of BUperstition for another. In such a case they 
were very far below the standard of the Word of God, and the prac- 
tice of Protestant missionaries. Let us stretch the mantle of charity as 
far as we can, and indulge the hope thai Bome simple and Binoere souls 

may have learned sufficient to find the way to Abraham's bosom. 

* "Hnnlly any attention was paid i" the improvement of their minds, beyond the 
forms and rules of their religious belief; Bo that scarcely any i if them could read] and 
none con l«l write." (Lift va Cal. p. 238.) 

1855.] Missions in California. 279 

Education was at a low ebb in all the Spanish American settlements ; 
and within a few years past, the inhabitants of Monterey have been glad 
to send their children to the mission schools in the Sandwich Islands, to 
receive the education which they could not obtain at home. 

Such were the Roman Catholic missions, which played so important a 
part in the early history of both Old and New California, whether under 
Jesuit influences, the serge of St. Francis, or the white mantle of St. 

It is not to be supposed that establishments which had grown to such 
enormous wealth and power, would provoke no jealousy on the part of 
the civil government. Various attempts were made to put down these 
formidable rivals, but all to no purpose, so ample had been the privileges 
granted them by the early Viceroys ; so craftily had they monopolized 
the national commerce ; such a tact had they acquired in the management 
of all sorts of business; and so complete an ascendency had they acquired 
over the native population. The Padres laughed in their sleeves at every 
abortive attempt to dispossess them, and continued to preside like princes 
over their vassals ; while their granaries were filled with the produce of 
their extensive farms, their tables groaned beneath the finest fruits from 
their orchards, and vegetables from their gardens, and their sideboards 
sparkled with generous wines from their own vineyards. They derived a 
large income from the sale of hides, tallow, and grain to the ships. 
They had also plenty of money at command, being in the receipt from time 
to time of large donations from pious persons in Mexico, which was con- 
solidated into what was called, "The California Pious Fund," "Fonda 
Picadosa de California." The sums received from the Spanish govern- 
ment could not have been inconsiderable, as Picolo acknowledges 6000 
crowns a year settled on the missions by Philip V. (Trav. Jes. i. 406.) 
The stranger, we are told, was generally welcome, and hospitably enter- 
tained without charge ; and was even allowed to exchange his worn and 
wearied horse for the choicest of the caballada. " That was indeed," 
says Bayard Taylor, " their Age of Gold." 

But their hour struck at last. After the proclamation of Mexican 
Independence, a growing jealousy and opposition demanded and would be 
satisfied with nothing less than their downfall. In 1824, the Californias 
were erected into territories, sending one member to Congress, and placed 
under the control of a Commandant-G-eueral. By this procedure the power 
and authority of the friars became somewhat abridged ; but the final 
blow was given by an act of Congress in 1833, under the Presidency of 
Gomez Farias, secularizing the missions and declaring them public pro- 
perty. They were converted into parishes, of which the padres were 
recognized only as the curates, being stripped of all their fiscal and temporal 
jurisdiction. The management of the revenues wafe taken out of their 
hands, the Pious Fund confiscated, and salaries paid them of §2000 or 
$2500 at the discretion of the government. The churches and parson- 
ages were not disturbed, but the other buildings were appropriated as 
court-houses and schools, and the demesnes were disposed of like any 
other public lands. Col. Emory says that " most of the missions passed 
by fraud into the hands of private individuals, and with them the Indians 
were transferred as serfs of the land. Nothing can exceed," he 
adds, "their degraded condition." (Notes, p. 116.) 

The padres and their flocks henceforth stood in new and different rela- 

280 A Sketch of the early Roman Catholic [June. 

tions to each other. The latter were absolved from their implicit obedi- 
ence, the former from their obligation to guarantee a maintenance. To 
every head of a family was given a small lot, and they were all placed 
under the patronage of an ayuntamiento, and afterwards of a major- 
domo. The priests found their occupation gone, and themselves dis- 
obeyed and insulted by their Indian flocks ; and gradually lost their in- 
terest in the Missions. On the other hand the emancipated natives, forced 
to provide for their own necessities, like a swarm of bees stunned and dis- 
concerted by the fall of the tree in which they had hived their treasures, 
relapsed into their original indolence and stupidity. Many returned 
to a roving life among the mountains. While the change was advanta- 
geous to the white population, by promoting individual enterprise, it was 
fatal to the Indians of Alta-California. In 1845 they had dwindled 
down to 10,000, losing 20,000 in 16 years. 

In 1845, the government completed the catastrophe by selling at auction 
several of the Missions, and providing for the conditional sale of the rest. 
The remaining Missions, with the exception of one at Santa Barbara, 
assigned for the residence of the Bishop, were rented. One-third of the 
income was appropriated to the resident priest, one-third for the benefit 
of the Indians, and one-third to the " Pious Fund," for education and 
charity. From that time the Missions were deserted and fell into decay ; 
and now, the dilapidated walls and neglected fields alone remain to tell the 
tale of former grandeur and power. By the recent conquest, those Missions 
which were not already sold, viz., Santa Clara, San Jose, Santa Cruz, San 
Antonio, San Luis Ohispo, San Gabriel, and San Diego, seven in number, 
fell into the hands of the United States as public domain. Some of these 
lands are very extensive, San Antonio, for instance, covers 225 square 
leagues. Mr. Taylor states, that of the 8,000,000 acres once held by the 
Missions, not less than 3,000,000, the finest portions of the whole, 
have been made by the chances of war the property of the United States. 
Since the conquest, says the same authority, the priests have been very 
remiss in their duties, and some of them, in whose charge General Kearney 
left the property, have made unauthorized sales to speculators. 

In July, 1849, Mr. Douglas, a Protestant Missionary, visited the old 
Mission of San Jose, and preached to a few Americans whom ho found 
there, while a handful of miserable Indians looked on in stupid wonder 
at the strange service. These were the squalid remnant of 2000 who had 
once thronged the old church at matins and vespers. The site of this 
mission he described as elevated and pleasant, overlooking the bay. It 
covers a quarter of a mile square, has a church and street of adobe houses, 
still in tolerable preservation, but beginning to decay. There are two 
large enclosures, with thick adobe walls, containing the vine, the pear, the 
apple, the peach, the olive, and the fig, the whole forming a beautiful situ- 
ation, hereafter, for some snug village with a literary institution, to which 
use it will probably be put. (Home Miss, ut supr.) 

We have seen that California has been missionary ground from the 
begiuniug. It is so still. The leading evangelical denominations have 
their representatives there, and are endeavouring, not without success, to 
make the Pacific slope a counterpart to the Atlantic slope. When wo 
contemplate the rapidity with which the Great Western Eldorado has been 
settled, we are forcibly reminded of that saying of Scripture, " a nation 
shall be born in a day." It is but eight years since the first accidental 

1855.] Missions in California. 281 

washings near Sutter's mill, attracted attention, and already California, 
teeming with population, has been admitted into the Union as a sovereign 
State. It sprung into being at once, with a wise constitution, government, 
and laws; and with a manifest ability and determination to maintain good 
order and a wholesome public sentiment. 

There seems to have been a special arrangement of Providence, for some 
wise and great end, to conceal the vast mineral wealth of this region from 
all eyes till our own times. Had the discovery been made by the astute 
Jesuits, who had as we find from their correspondence, some suspicions of 
the truth, the state of things in California would have been widely differ- 
ent from what it is. But the discovery was delayed till the very moment 
when in more enterprising hands the treasures in earth's lap could be 
employed in the most useful manner. 

And what a noble and untold influence has the Western Coast yet to 
exert upon the old and effete nations of Asia directly opposite, just at a 
time too when the barriers of exclusion have been in a great measure re- 
moved ! It is surely no enthusiastic or fanatical notion, that these won- 
derful changes are destined to have an important bearing on the final 
Christianization of the Oriental world. All events conspire to make this 
great and desirable consummation more probable than it was at the opening 
of the century, and they who shall witness its close may behold occur- 
rences, changes, and revolutions still more astonishing, tending to and 
ushering in a new and happier era. 

Cardinal Wiseman, in a work published a few years ago, has chosen to 
sneer at Protestant Missions as a failure. But it really seems to us that 
the failures have rather been on the other side. There is a marked and 
striking difference between the results of Catholic and Protestant Missions. 
The Romish Missions in Paraguay, Central Africa, California, and Japan, 
have totally disappeared ; and nothing but the lowest grade of civilization 
has been found among their proselytes in China, G-oa, and the Aborigines 
of Mexico and Guatemala. One of their reports describes a certain tribe 
of Indians as " very pious, but very drunken." On the contrary Pro- 
testants may point with justifiable pride to the solid and permanent pros- 
perity of their establishments in Southern and Central India, Ceylon, the 
Sandwich Islands, and the Cherokee and Choctaw tribes. No system 
that cripples the intellect, and discourages the free and independent use 
of the faculties, can aspire to anything beyond mere tutelage. Its sub- 
jects will always remain in their nonage, and must perish the moment 
they are left to themselves. A system, on the other hand, that demands 
reflection and thought, creates by a necessity of its nature the intelli- 
gence which it calls for, as the exercise of wrestling and running 
develope the muscle and supply the strength necessary for the effort. 
Hence it is that Protestant Missions have so often proved the harbingers 
of improvement and civilization. They tend to elevate the native condi- 
tion and character ; and they give to barbarous and untutored tribes a 
position and a consideration among the nations of the earth, which with- 
out their aid would never have been attained, and which it is gratifying 
to every friend of humanity to contemplate. It. D. 

282 Revieio and Criticism. [June. 

Jhtium ani CntiriBra* 

The Great Question: Will You Consider the Subject of Personal Religion. By 
Henry A. Boardman, D.D. Published by the American Sunday School Union : 
Philadelphia. Pp. 173. 

This book is divided into six sections. " Sect. I. Will you consider 
the subject of personal religion? Sect. II. Illusive pleas examined. 
Sect. III. The pretexts for neglecting religion irrational and sordid. 
Sect. IV. Encouragements. Sect. V. Religion must and will be con- 
sidered. Sect. VI. What can I do ?" These several topics are dis- 
cussed with the author's well-known ability, and in his usual courteous 
and affectionate style. Its appeals are direct and personal, and they in- 
crease in pungency and power as the discussion advances towards its 
final issue. We earnestly recommend its perusal to all classes of readers, 
and particularly to the more intelligent and cultivated, for whose special 
benefit it seems to have been composed. 

The American Sunday School Union are performing a valuable service, 
by adding to their former publications such works as this. If our pastors 
would keep it on hand, to lend to such persons as might need a volume of 
this kind, it would be a useful auxiliary to their ministry. And private 
Christians cannot present to their unconverted friends a more appropriate 
expression of regard than to send them this attractive volume. 

Sermons of Rev. Ichabod Spencer, D.D., late Pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
Church, Brooklyn, L. I., author of a "Pastor's Sketches;" with a Sketch of his 
Life. By Rev. J. M. Sherwood. In two volumes. Published by M. W. Dodd, 
New York, and sold by William S. and Alfred Martien, Philadelphia. 

We have read a large portion of these volumes with more thau ordi- 
nary interest. Though it was never our privilege to hear Dr. Spencer 
preach, we knew him well, and were prepared to hear all which his 
biographer has said in commendation of his talents and moral worth. 
His " Pastor's Sketches," had also made us deeply sensible of his lucid, 
pungent and powerful manner in dealing with the understandings, hearts 
and consciences of those with whom he conversed, which prepared us still 
more to expect instruction and edification from these volumes. We have 
not been disappointed. His biography, which is highly interesting, occu- 
pies a part of the first volume ; and the remainder of the volume, together 
with the whole of the second, is composed of sermons, which are replete 
with sound, scriptural discussion, presented by a strong and vigorous mind. 

The sermons here published are only " specimens," selected from 
"nearly one thousand," which " he has left in manuscript fully written 
out and with great nicety, and many of them re-written and made as per- 
fect as his unwearied industry and application could make them." Of those 
now published, twenty arc practical and twenty-five doctrinal discourses. 
The latter, however, are not generally polemical in their style, but rather 
didactic and experimental. Of this character is his sermon on the 

1855.] Review and Criticism. 283 

" Atonement," which is constructed on the plan of showing its adaptation 
to the sinner's felt necessities. He first states the governmental view, 
which he admits is true, important, necessary. But this necessity relates 
to God, rather than the feelings of a sinner. What .the sinner feels his 
need of (when he feels at all on the subject) is to have God for his 
friend; and the atonement opens the way for his becoming such — nay, 
secures this result. It is personal, as well as governmental; a scheme 
which not only honours the Divine law and harmonizes the Divine attri- 
butes, but procures reconciliation between God and the believing sinner, 
and thereby meets the felt necessities of his condition. This point is 
discussed in a clear and impressive manner, and at every step the heart 
unites with the understanding, in assenting to the truth of his positions. 
We should be glad to see this sermon published in a separate tract and 
scattered, broadcast, through the land. It would serve to dissipate those 
vague notions which are so prevalent on this great and fundamental doc- 
trine. An intelligent lady who heard him preach it some fifteen or 
twenty years ago (as we are informed), was completely revolutionized in 
her views on this subject, and she has since not only been more orthodox 
but more happy, in consequence of having heard this discourse. 

The following record of his official labours will show his great diligence 
and success as a pastor : 

" To give the reader some idea of the extent and character of Dr. Spencer's 
pastoral labours, take the aggregate of them for one year, so far as figures can 
express the truth. We copy from his new-year sermon for 1852. If he had occa- 
sion to mourn and accuse himself, while passing such a year's labours in review, 
alas for the most of us ! 

" ' Looking back now upon the ministry I have exercised for another year, I 
confess that I am ashamed, and ought to be ashamed, of the feebleness of my 
ministrations, and that they have been performed with no more faith, and no 
higher spirituality. On this account I would be ashamed and abased before 
God. But I am not ashamed of the affection which I have ever borne to my 
people, of my desires for their good, nor of the amount of labour and industry 
which I have employed. In the year 1851, I preached two hundred and nine 

" ' I visited all the families of the congregation once, and in special instances 
more than once. The number of these calls was four hundred and twenty-one. 

" ' I visited sick people and dying ones in one hundred and twenty-one different 

u ' I aimed to find opportunity for conversation with those who were not mem- 
bers of the Church, that, conversing with them alone, I might, if possible, per- 
suade them to seek the Lord. And as they seldom came to me, for the most 
part I went to them. Such private conversations, and some of them protracted, 
numbered two hundred and fifty-nine. 

" ' I attended prayer-meeting forty-six times ; and other religious meetings sixty- 
two times ; and officiated at thirty-four funerals. 

" ' I did not neglect the poor : I aimed to search them out and, according to 
my ability, give them pecuniary relief. I am sorry the relief was so small, but I 
am sure it was given with good will in seventy-two instances.' Over eight hun- 
dred ' visits ' and ' conversations ' in a single year, to say nothing of all the 
other items ! 

" The following facts will convey some idea of his general labours, with their 
immediate known results in the hopeful conversion of men. He made a record 
of the number of sermons he preached each year ; the whole number being a 
fraction short otfive thousand : the largest number in any one year was two hun- 
dred and thirty-eight : or an average of nearly four a week during the entire period 
of his active ministry ! He received into the Church, in connection with his 

284 Review and Criticism. [June. 

ministry, in all, thirteen hundred and ninety-seven souls — two hundred and thirty- 
three in Northampton, and eleven hundred and sixty-four in Brooklyn. Out of 
this large number, six hundred and eighty-two were received on profession of 
their faith — two hundred and one in Northampton in a period of three and a half 
years ; and four hundred and eighty-one in Brooklyn, during an active ministry 
of twenty-two years." 

Sermon, at the Ordination of the Rev. Theron H. Hawkes, as Pastor of the First 
Congregational Church in West Springfield, Mass. By William B. Sprague, 
D.D., of Albany, N. Y. 

Dr. Sprague always writes in an easy and happy style, and his thoughts 
are worthy of his subject. The design of this discourse is " to illustrate 
the importance of maintaining the dignity of the Christian ministry," in 
the discussion of which he notices " some of the ways in which ministers 
offend against the dignity of their office, both in their individual and 
social capacity, and suggests the appropriate means of maintaining it." 
He concludes by an appropriate address to the pastor elect, and then to 
the congregation, formerly his own pastoral charge. It is a capital dis- 
course, and the author is himself an illustration of that official dignity 
which he recommends and enforces. 

' : The Past of Mount Morris," N. Y., an Historical " Discourse, by the Rev. Dar- 
win Chichester." 

This discourse was delivered at the dedication of the Presbyterian 
Church edifice in Mount Morris, and is replete with a detail of interesting 
facts connected with the early settlement and progress of that village and 
its vicinity. Why should not a thousand discourses of a similar character 
be prepared and published by our ministerial brethren in all parts of the 
country ? They would furnish invaluable materials to the future histo- 
rian, in writing a general history of the Churches in the United States. 

The Ins and Outs of Paris : Or, Paris by Day and Night. By Julie De Mar- 
guerittes. Philadelphia : Published by Win. White Smith, 195 Chestnut Street. 
Pp. 400. 

We have not had leisure to read this volume, except a single chapter 
and parts of several others on different topics, selected mainly on account 
of the particular interest we felt in them. The authoress appears to be 
familiar with the subjeet on which she writes, and her style is very 
agreeable. The design of the book is to describe whatever is interesting 
to a traveller in visiting the great and splendid metropolis of France. To 
one who contemplates such a visit, this volume will serve as a valuable 
preliminary guide to the personal observation of objects most important 
to be seen ; and to those who desire to learn without going there, the 
manners and customs, the fashion and industry, the pleasure and business 
of that famous city, it may be recommended as a book containing many 
amusing details on twenty-eight distinct subjects, forming together a 
pretty full view of the several classes and grades of Parisian society. 

1855.] The Religious World. 285 

Methodism and the Itinerancy. — The characteristics of Methodism 
are beginning to disappear. A disposition to get rid of the Itinerancy 
prevails to a considerable extent. A writer in the " Christian Advocate" 

" Some ministers are tired of the Itinerancy. They find it hard work to move, 
and therefore they would have things altered, so they may be changed as seldom 
as possible, or not move at all. 

" Some ministers, who were indebted to Methodism for all they are, who were 
as poor as the poorest, and as low as the lowest, when Methodism found them, she 
has elevated, given them influence, — they become tired of the Itinerancy, and join 
some other Church, where they will not be obliged to move. But some of them 
find the words of Bishop Hedding true : said he, at the New York Conference, as 
he was about to read the appointments, ' Brethren, you complain that we move 
you ; I tell you what it is, if we did not, the people woidd.' 

u Others who were poor enough when they entered the travelling connection, in 
consequence of itinerating round, are introduced into wealthy families, many 
rich wives, and they cannot move ; so you must alter the Discipline so that they 
can remain in one place, or there is no other alternative — 'they must locate. 7 

" Others discover they have no talents for the 'back work;' some men have 
' country talent,' talents for the ' rural districts,' for cold, rough rides, for poor 
fare ; but they possess a ' city talent,' and they are afraid everything in the 
city will 'run down,' if they do not remain ; and they wish the 'restrictive 
rule' removed, and the Discipline altered, so their talent can be saved to the 
Church, and their talent can save the Church, so that Methodism in cities will 
not become ' extinct.' It is pure disinterested benevolence for Zion. Self is 
forgotten in their love for the Church. They wish to save it, and therefore they 
are willing to 'take up the cross' and remain in 'cities,' for the Church's good." 

In the Wesleyan Church of England, the limit of a minister's stay in 
any one place is three years, instead of tvjo, as in this country, but even 
in England, some of the preachers are restless under the rule. The late 
Dr. Fisk remarked in his "Travels:" 

" On the subject of stationing the preachers I saw again how important was 
Mr. Wesley's poll deed. Make the best of an itinerant life, there is something in 
it so unpleasant to flesh and blood, that there is a constant tendency to a more 
permanent system ; and the idea was decidedly expressed by several of the leading 
preachers, that a longer stay than three years would be in some cases important : 
but the poll deed would not allow it. Thus has Mr. Wesley's forethought perpetu- 
ated a travelling ministry, u-hich otherwise, by its own friction, would sooner or 
later have run down into a dead locality." 

Whilst the " poll deed" saves the Wesleyans from " falling away" from 
Itinerancy into a "dead locality," the Presbyterian doctrine of a living 
locality agrees with the doctrine of "perseverance" as applied to an edu- 
cated ministry. 

New Albany Theological Seminary. — We have just received the circular 
of the New Albany Theological Seminary, comprising the catalogue, course of 
studies, and other interesting information in regard to the Institution. 

The following is the list of Professors from 1831 to 1855 : 

Rev. John Mathews, D.D., Professor of Theology, inducted June, 1831 ; died 

286 A Handful of Fragments. [June. 

May, 1848. Kev. George Bishop, A.M., Professor of Biblical Literature, induct- 
ed November, 1834 ; died December, 1837. Kev. James Wood, D.D., Professor 
of Biblical Literature — 1849, Hist., etc, inducted November, 1839 ; resigned 
April, 1851. Rev. E. D. McMaster, D.D., Professor of Theology, inducted Sep- 
tember, 1849; resigned April, 1853. Rev. Daniel Stewart, D.D.. Professor of 
Biblical Literature, inducted October, 1849; resigned April, 1853. Rev. Philip 
Lindsley, D.D., Professor of Biblical Archaeology and Church Polity, inducted 
January, 1851 ; resigned April, 1853. Rev. E. D. McMaster, D.D., Professor of 
Theology, re-appointed October, 1853. Rev. Thomas Ebenezer Thomas, D.D., 
Professor of Bibliology, inducted September, 1854. 

Whole number of students from 1832 to 1855, is 173. Of whom nineteen have 
deceased, and the rest are occupying fields of usefulness. 

A Glad Sight. — It was our happiness to be present last Sabbath afternoon at 
the church of Rev. Dr. Hatfield, when the fruits of the late revival were gathered 
in. The scene was one hardly witnessed in a lifetime. The house was crowded 
to overflowing. The candidates filled twenty-four pews. One hundred and 
twenty-five were received by profession, and eight by certificate. Among them 
were strong men, down whose cheeks the tears fell like rain. Fathers and 
mothers and children stood side by side. But the greater number were young 
men and women — the flower of the congregation. A number were members of 
Rutgers Institute, which is situated in that part of the city. One young wo- 
man, pale and weak, was brought from a sick room, and placed on a chair to 
hear the vows she wished to take upon her. The reading of the articles of faith 
and the covenant was listened to with hushed stillness and with deep solemnity. 
After this nearly forty were baptized, and the Lord's Supper was celebrated. 
The whole floor of the house was filled with communicants, while hundreds of 
interested spectators looked down from the galleries. It was a scene to gladden 
the heart of the faithful pastor, who thus beheld the reward of years of toil, and 
one which might send a thrill of joy through the angels in heaven. — Evangelist. 

1 Jkinitfiil of /rngnunR 



" WELL, what is the best way to do so ?'' Not to turn the usual course of 
things upside down, and shake the pillars of your domestic economy, till they arc 
ready bo fall about your ears, all because you have company. 

Not to insist upon it, that your visitors must eat some of all the innumerable 
kinds of nice things, provided expressly for them, nor to make it a point of con- 
science that they shall never lor a moment be left alone. Not to push all work 
out of sight and reach, for fear it will not be thought showing proper attention 
to your fnendfl tO have your hands employed in their presence. 

Not to torture your Drain, striving bo think of subjects of conversation, when 
there is nothing particular nor interesting that cither you or your friends wish 
to say. 

So" much for negatives — a few of them, for they might well be multiplied in- 
definitely. To make a visitor feel at ease in your house, be easy and natural in 
all you do or say. Make no unusual efforts of any kind, lor the surest way to 
make joxa frienq wish himself at home, is to let him feel that you are "putting 
yourself out" for his Bake. 

1855.] A Handful of Fragments. 287 

Give' him freely and cordially the liberty of your house. Assure him of your 
wish that he should, while with you, consider himself as one of your family, and 
that you expect him to eat, sleep, talk, or keep silence, go out, or come in, read, 
write, mingle with the family circle, or retire to his chamber, exactly as he would 
do were the house his own, and you " make your company comfortable." 

To be tormented by people's politeness is almost as bad as to be vexed by their 
incivility. True politeness has very delicate and sensitive perceptions, and will 
never be officious nor overdone. 

Said one gentleman to another, whom he had invited to pass the time of his 
sojourn in a strange city in his house, " Come, make my house your home — go 
out and come in as suits your convenience. I cannot have the pleasure of devoting 
much time to you, but my house is heartily at your service, whenever you can find 
the time to go to it. What leisure I have, I shall be pleased to spend with you — 
but whether you see much of me or no, pray make yourself comfortable and at home 
in my house, and you will gratify me." That was real, gospel politeness, such as 
makes visitors comfortable. — iV. Y. Evangelist. 


The diamond may sparkle, 

The ruby may shine, 
With light that may seem 

To their owners divine ; 
But never can diamond 

Or ruby outvie, 
In brilliance of lustre, 

The soul-lit eye. 

The eye hath a language, 

Though voiceless it be, 
That all may interpret — 

To all it is free ; 
Convincing its eloquence, 

Warm its appeals, 
And swifter than thought 

To the heart it steals. 

How awful in hatred ! 

How winning in love ! 
Now fierce as the tiger, 

Now mild as the dove ; 
All potent its glance is, 

Where love hath the sway — 
In a moment we look 

What an hour could not say ! 


The rain may teach us many a lesson. How impotent is man in the struggle 
with physical evils ! how powerless to arrest or reverse them ! What can man 
do against the drought? what relief can he find for the simple withholding of the 
rains of heaven ? A philosopher has taught that rain can be produced at any 
time by kindling fires so as to rarefy the atmosphere and draw in the clouds ; 
thus expending the timber and fuel of generations to purchase one passing shower. 
But it cannot be purchased even at so dear a rate. The vast forest fires of Maine, 
New Hampshire and Vermont, last summer, were enough surely to have drawn 
some tears of pity from the clouds. But while there was kindled accidentally the 
remedy of philosophy for drought, the people had not even the poor consolation 

288 A Handful of Fragments. [June. 

of a shower in exchange for their burning forests ; and they cried aloud for rain 
to put out the fires that threatened to destroy the little that the drought had 
spared. Philosophy, this is thy redress against calamity ! But when we see 
Him who holds the waters in the hollow of his hand again pour them forth freely, 
copiously, rejoicing the earth, then we may realize that calamity comes not by 
chance, or cruel fate, or cold philosophy, but from the hand of love that guides 
and restrains even the chastising rod. This was the old Hebrew piety. This 
was the piety of our Puritan fathers in their fast-day in the early spring. This 
should be our piety toward God as he again openeth his hand. — Independent. 


Whatever changes have passed over the laws and customs of society since 
the introduction of the Gospel, the condition of men, as subjects of God's go- 
vernment, and the dispensation of mercy through the sacrifice of his Son upon the 
cross, have been, are now, and will forever be unchangeably the same. 

Hence we are led to suppose that were " the great Teacher sent from God" to 
revisit the earth, simply as a teacher, the methods he would employ to make 
known his Father's will to the children of men would not vary essentially from 
those which are disclosed in the Gospel. He would probably " go about doing 
good ;'.' teaching from village to village ; addressing individuals or groups of 
men, women, and children, in the market-places — by the roadside — on the moun- 
tain — in the borders of the desert — on board ship — at the wells and fountains, 
and other places of common resort — as well as in the temple and synagogues. 
Indeed, it seems to have been the practice of the Founder of our religion, and of 
its early apostles and disciples, not so much to draw the people together for in- 
struction, as to carry instruction to them. Opportunities for the purpose were in 
this way greatly multiplied, and occasions seized to promulgate the Gospel under 
circumstances quite as impressive and memorable as those which occur by ap- 
pointment and in fixed localities. An exhortation at the bedside of the sick, or 
at the grave which has just received a new tenant; a sermon on the skirts of a 
lonely wilderness, or on the lofty mountain, or by the tempestuous sea ; a call to 
repentance and heavenly-mindedness in the market-place, or at the thronged gate 
of the busy city, might often make an impression not less deep and permanent 
than if addressed to the same persons under the ordinary circumstances of a 
Christian congregation. 

The assembling of the people for the public worship of Almighty God is an 
Ordinance of divine appointment, and the propriety and importance of instructing 
them, by competent and duly authorized teachers, in the doctrines and duties of 
religion, when thus assembled, none will question. But we apprehend that, in 
our country and times, much work, beyond and aside from these appointed 
forms, seasons, and places, will be found indispensable to the general promulga- 
tion of the Bible truths. A new church edifice may be erected and opened under 
favourable auspices, and filled withdevout worshippers, without any real addition 
to the numbers or the strength of the people of God. 

Are we, then} to desist from building bouses of worship, and from the raising up 

of ministers, and the sending forth of missionaries to gather Christian assemblies, 
and organize them into the churches of Christ? Bv no means. It is the too ex- 
clusive reliance on these means for the accomplishment of the great design of 
the Christian system that is to .be avoided. It is not the giving to these mora 

prominence than they deserve, but it is the not giving to less imposing, but quite 
as effective, ami sometimes more appropriate means, so much as they deserve. 
The moral disease of man and the di\ ine remedy, being the same from age to age, 
it will be well for us to look at the early methods for propagating the Gospel, and 
we shall find that, under whatever scheme of evangelization those methods have 
been most closely observed, success has been most uniform and complete. — Ameri- 
can Sunday School Union. 


'// l< / f a . ./- '■ ' 


( /, ,'/ <r f ll <_ 



JULY, 1855. 

J&Utt&imm Midi*. 


No. III. 

The second criterion by which it is proposed to judge of the 
validity of Presbyterian polity, is that of all High Churchmen, 
Romish and Protestant. 


According to this theory, a model of Church polity, which 
we are bound to copy, was exemplified by the early Christians, 
and is to be found minutely delineated in the Scriptures. It 
is required to be shown that that model was Presbyterian rather 
than Papal, Episcopal, or Congregational. 

Submitting ourselves to the criterion, without examining its 
debatable points, we have first a negative, and then a positive 


I. The primitive polity was not Papal. 

1. There is no positive statute in the New Testament enjoining 
Papacy. A vicarship of Christ, if it had been introduced, would 
have been an arbitrary institution ; had no foundation in natural 
relations; could plead no Old Testament analogies which were 
not formally and actually repudiated ; was of too grave pretensions 
to be merely hinted at; and required, therefore, to be as posi- 

VOL. V. — NO. 7. 19 

200 Validity of Presbyterian Polity. [July. 

tively enacted by Divine command as the institutions of baptism 
and the Lord's Supper, or as the whole Mosaic polity. But no 
such special legislation in its favour do we find in the New Testa- 

2. Still less is there any evidence that Christ actually instituted 
such alleged Vicarship over his followers, or, for this purpose, 
appointed an official primacy among his apostles. Protestant 
interpretation of Romish proof-texts. 

8. Still less is there any evidence that such alleged Vicarship 
was ever actually conceded by the Apostles and early Christians 
to Peter, or ever claimed and exercised by him. 

4. Still less can it be proved that the Bishop of Rome was the 
successor of Peter in his alleged capacity of Vicar or Primate, or 
indeed in any other capacity. 

5. On the contrary, the origin of the Roman See can be shown 
to have been subsequent to Apostolic times ; and its rise and pro- 
gress plainly referred to local events and moral causes, which did 
not exist in those times. 

The proof of these several propositions is familiar to all Pro- 
testants. Taken together, they establish the negative position, 
that whatever other officers may have been appointed and recog- 
nized among the primitive Christians, there was none that corre- 
sponded to the modern Pope of Rome. 

II. The primitive 'polity was not Episcopal. 

1. There is no positive statute in the New Testament enjoining 
the modern Episcopate, as there should have been (as shown above 
in reference to the Papacy) on the supposition of its primitive 

2. Still less is there any evidence that the modern Episcopate 
is identical with the Apostlcship. There are two proofs of this. 

(1.) The Apostlcship was designed to be a temporary and pro- 
visional office. " First, because the continuance of the office is 
nowhere explicitly asserted ; secondly, because the name Apostle, 
in its strict and proper sense, is not applied in the New Testa- 
ment to any who were not of the original thirteen ; thirdly, be- 
cause the qualifications for the Apostlcship, as a permanent office 
in the Church, are nowhere stated."* 

(2.) The modern Episcopate cannot revive that extinct primitive 
office. First, because the Apostolic work of revealing Christian 
doctrine and organizing Christian society is finished ; secondly, 
because the Apostolic gifts of inspiration, miracle-working, etc., 
have ceased ; and thirdly, because the Apostolic qualifications of 
a personal intimacy with Christ, and actual witnessing of his 
resurrection, are no longer practicable. The false Apostles of our 
day would pretend to do what has already been done once for all, 

* "Primitive Church Offices," F.ssiy III. 

1855.] Validity of Presbyterian Polity. 291 

and what, if still unperformed, they are neither fit nor called to 

3. Still less can it be proved that the Apostles conjoined to 
their own provisional office the modern Episcopate. 

(1.) The ordaining and governing powers claimed for the Dio- 
cesan Bishop, they exercised universally, and without any provin- 
cial restrictions. 

(2.) The same powers, together with the higher powers of ad- 
ministering the Word and sacraments, will hereafter be proved to 
have been exercised by Presbyters in common with the Apostles. 

If the incumbents of the Apostleship held any other office, that 
office was not a bishopric such as is now held by their pretended 

4. Still less is there any proof that the Apostles ever created 
the modern Episcopate, or conferred its powers upon any who 
were intermediate to themselves and Presbyters. The alleged 
cases of such ordination do not stand examination. 

(1.) The utmost that can be proved in regard to Timothy and 
Titus is, that they were Presbyters, or Evangelists, acting under 
an extraordinary commission. First, because " a large part of the 
admonitions and instructions given to them are such as might have 
been given to mere presbyters;"* and secondly, because "the 
powers of ordination and discipline are ascribed to them without 
determining in what capacity they were to exercise them."f 

(2.) The instances alleged from the official angels and false 
Apostles, spoken of in the Apocalypse, establish nothing for either 
side of the question.^ 

Either of the above positions, if maintained, would be fatal to 
the Episcopal hypothesis. Taken together they amount to demon- 
stration. Whatever other office, besides the extraordinary office 
of Apostle, there may have been among the primitive Christians, 
there was none that corresponded to the modern Diocesan Bishop. 

5. There is not only this entire want of sufficient proof, that the 
modern Episcopate originated in Apostolic times ; but its rise, like 
that of the Roman Pontificate, can be historically traced to local 
events and moral causes, operating in subsequent times. 

III. The primitive polity was not Congregational. 

1. There is no positive statute in the New Testament enjoining 
Congregationalism, as there should have been in reference to a 
form of Church order which violated all the analogies of the Syna- 
gogue and the Sanhedrim ; was entirely novel and unprecedented ; 
and so directly opposed to the social tendencies of all Christian 

2. Nor is there any evidence that the primitive congregations 
were, in fact, isolated and independent communities ; but rather 

* "Primitive Church Offices," Essay IV. \ Ibid. Essay IV. % Ibid. Essay V. 

292 Validity of Presbyterian Polity. [July. 

fall proof to the contrary, afforded by their common subjection to 
the Apostles, and by the history of the Council at Jerusalem. 

3. On the contrary, so far from being of Apostolic origin, Con- 
gregationalism can be traced to political events and influences, of 
exclusively modern growth. 

The above negative argument, if matured, would lead to the 
conclusion, that whatever may have been the organization of pri- 
mitive Christian society, it was not such as corresponded to the 
Papal, Episcopal, or Congregational bodies of our day. This 
opens the way for 


The primitive polity was Presbyterian. 

1. Presbytery is as positively enjoined in the New Testament 
as the case admits or requires. Its introduction involved no vio- 
lent process of innovation such as would have been involved in the 
introduction of either of the other systems. It was no novelty to 
the Hebrew community, out of which the first Christian converts 
were recruited. It had existed throughout their entire previous 
history. It was recognized and sanctioned by Christ. The Apos- 
tles found it made ready to their hand, as the model on which 
they would naturally be led to organize Christian society. All 
that is recorded of their acts, as the founders of the Church, is en- 
tirely consistent with the theory of a silent and peaceful transition 
of the existing Jewish Presbyterate into the Christian Presby- 
terate, but inconsistent with any other theory. That very reserve 
of Scripture, which is fatal to our opponents, becomes in our hypo- 
thesis a corroborative circumstance. If it is objected, then, that 
Presbytery is not positively enjoined and minutely prescribed in 
the New Testament, our first reply might be, that while other 
forms of Church polity required, indeed, to be thus specified, such 
specification would have been superfluous in reference to a system 
which was already in existence ; which had existed during the 
entire Old Testament history ; which was itself founded upon the 
natural relations of families ; which was intrinsically as suitable to 
Christian society as to Jewish society, which could, and did exist 
through all political changes; and which (unlike the whole ritual 
department of Judaism) was, in fact, left untouched by the work 
of the Messiah. Or if, on the other hand, it be still maintained 
that there is in the New Testament a formal enunciation of the 
principles of Church order, and in the Apostolic acts a positive, 
arbitrary institution of Church polity, then we may proceed to 
show that all that is so revealed directly corresponds to modern 

2. That Presbytcrial polity already in existence was actually 
continued and perpetuated by the founders of primitive Christian 
society. It was their uniform custom to ordain a parochial pres- 

1855.] Validity of Presbyterian Polity. 293 

bjtery in every congregation. They rested the government neither 
in the mass of the people, nor in a single individual, but in a board 
of representative officers. This was the organization of the New 
Testament churches everywhere. Vide Acts, 11 : 30; 15 : 2-22; 
16 : 4; 20 : 17 ; 1 Tim. 5 : 17, 19 ; Titus, 1 : 5, etc. 

3. The presbyters thus ordained in all the primitive Christian 
parishes, and together with the Apostles, exercising supervision 
over the entire Christian community, were invested with the 
highest ministerial powers ; with those of ordination and discipline as 
well as those of administering the Word and the sacraments. This 
is evident from the charges given to the Ephesian presbyters (Acts, 
20 : 17; 1 Tim. 5 : 17); to Timothy and Titus, and from the ac- 
count given of the Council at Jerusalem. 

4. It is conceded by all parties, that presbyters did exist in the 
primitive Church, and have continued to exist in it ever since ; the 
only disagreement being as to their functions, or relations to other 
supposed primitive officers. 

These two arguments, taken together, render the Apostolic 
origin of Presbytery unquestionable. By the negative argument 
it may be shown, that neither the modern Vicarship, Apostleship, 
nor Conventicle were of primitive origin ; by the positive argu- 
ment, that in all ages of the Church, from the beginning, its 
government has been vested in presbyters, parochial and general. 
If there be any form of Church government minutely delineated in 
the Scriptures, that form is Presbyterian, rather than Papal, Epis- 
copal, or Congregational. 

This portion of the projected outline is necessarily meagre and 
summary. It could not be properly amplified without extensive 
exegetical and historical researches. But its insertion is essential 
to the completion of the plan. Its positions, if maintained, would 
compel the conclusion, that the second, or High-Church criterion 
of Church polity, is more fully met by Presbyterianism than by 
any other modern system. C. W. S. 


Duelling, as it now exists, is comparatively of modern origin ; 
unknown to the brave and generous Greeks and Romans (in this 
respect worthy of our admiration) or to any of the civilized nations 
of antiquity. It is the offspring of savage and Gothic pride, be- 
gotten by blind and slavish superstition. It made its first ap- 
pearance among the rude and barbarous ; and though at different 
ages it has been checked, yet it has revived again and again. In 
our land, it has spread its awful ravages, and some have even 

291 Duelling. [July. 

dared to give it titles of honour. But that it deserves them not 
will appear, if we can establish the following points : 

I. The practice of duelling is irrational and foolish. 

II. It is unjust and unrighteous. 

III. It is utterly inexcusable. 

IV. It is awfully wicked. 

I. Duelling is irrational and foolish. 

A man receives an affront from another, calls him to the field, 
and exposes himself, equally with the injurer, to a new suffering. 
Now, is there any reason why he, the injured man, should thus be 
put in hazard ? Because a man has attempted to ruin his reputa- 
tion, should the defamer of his character be permitted to rob him 
of his life ? As reasonable is it that a man who has been de- 
frauded should, as an indemnification, be required to expose him- 
self to a situation, on a level with the swindler, of suffering a new 
fraud : or that one who has been openly robbed should be required 
to put himself in danger, on an equality with the highwayman, of 
being injured by another robbery. 

It is also irrational and absurd, if we look at it as a reparation 
of evil. A man receives an injury, calls to the field the one who 
has inflicted it, demands reparation, and kills his adversary. But 
is reparation thus made ? If the survivor has been charged with 
want of principle, and accused of insincerity and falsehood, does 
the blood which he has shed wipe out the stain ? Does it make 
him, in the estimation of the community, a man of truth, honesty, 
and integrity? No! it affects not in any degree his innocency or 
guilt in public opinion ; it establishes not in the least the justice 
or injustice of the charge that was alleged. In a world like this, 
the general character of a man, or particular actions, must be 
evinced by evidence ; and such a combat is no evidence either 
of the truth or falsehood of the reports that were circulated. 

It is also absurd from the reasons which usually create the con- 
test. They are generally most trivial ; mere trilling affronts, the 
exercise of a little wit, something like invective uttered in the heat 
of passion, or a look which seemed to imply contempt — all which 
a truly magnanimous man would disdain to regard. 

All this absurdity is so perfectly obvious to every one of the 
least reflection, that we shall no longer dwell upon it. If it were 
not for the sad consequences that result from it, the practice 
would be the fittest subject possible for ridicule and contempt. But 
these consequences are so truly awful ; the crime is fraught with 
so much guilt, disgrace and misery, that it must be treated only 
with seriousness and gravity. 

II. Duelling is unjust ; a most unrighteous mode of adjusting 

There is a great disproportion between the offence and the 

1855.] Duelling. 295 

punishment. A man wounds the feelings, and injures the repu- 
tation, of the duellist. Has he, therefore, committed an offence 
for which he should forfeit his life ? Is an affront to another a 
crime that deserves death ? Will no other punishment but the 
heaviest within the power of man to inflict, meet the merits of the 
case ? Is the penalty not too severe ; the doom not too terrible ? 
The fact that the opponent exposes his own life, does not relieve 
his conduct ; cannot justify him in inflicting such a sentence upon 
a fellow being: it is only like one plunging a dagger into the 
heart of an enemy, and then burying it in his own breast. 

It is unjust in another view. If the parties have equal skill, 
then innocence and crime are placed on the same level, and their 
interests are decided, as it were, by a mere game of hazard. If 
they have unequal skill, then the concerns of both are committed 
to the decision of one; of one deeply interested, perfectly selfish, 
often enraged, perhaps the offender. 

Its injustice will appear still more evident if we examine the 
character and claims of those who uphold the ■practice. " It is a 
system of rules constructed by a certain class, and calculated to 
facilitate their intercourse with each other." This class (certainly 
in our country, not invariably distinguished for family, fortune, 
education, or accomplishments) claim the character of delicate 
and peculiar honour. But what is this honour of which they 
boast ? On what is their peculiar claim founded ? Are they 
more sincere and upright, more kind and peaceable, more generous 
and libera], than other men ? Do they scorn to do an ill action ? 
Do they consider all vice as offensive, unbecoming, and beneath 
them ? Are they unwilling to commit it, because it is so mean, 
and base, and vile ? These are the ingredients of true honour. 

" Honour 's a sacred tie 

The noble mind's distinguishing perfection, 

That aids and strengthens Virtue where it meets her, 

And imitates her actions." 

That some of the advocates of this system may possess in a 
degree these qualities we are willing to admit; but are the gene- 
rality of duellists of this character ? On the contrary ; are not 
too many of them haughty, overbearing, passionate, quarrelsome, 
jealous to an extreme of what they call their rights, dangerous 
friends, turbulent neighbours, disturbers of the peace of society; 
evincing that their pretensions to peculiar honour and delicacy are 
usually mere pretensions — nothing else than a species of vanity 
which prevents those around them from enjoying quiet, unless 
everything conforms to their capricious demands. They seem to 
be far more careful to guard their reputation by their courage than 
by their morality and virtue ; and are not restrained by their 
honour from the commission of crimes which painfully wound their 
friends, and deeply affect the interests of society. They may in 

296 Duelling. [July. 

the indulgence of their passions be like the whirlwind ; in their 
conduct to their families, and all under their care, they may be 
tyrannical and ferocious : they may be gamblers, drunkards, pro- 
digals, undutiful sons, open debauchees, and yet not violate the 
laws of honour. Now is it just that other crimes should be 
punished with deserved severity, and that the duellist, with hands 
bathed in blood, should escape with impunity ? The administra- 
tion of justice should be equal : persons of every class should be 
liable to the same punishment, and, according to their desert, 
punished with equal severity ; but is this the case? The man who 
forges the note of another is punished as an unprincipled knave ; 
the judge who receives a bribe is doomed to irretrievable infamy ; 
the culprit found guilty of perjury loses all confidence forever: 
the thief has none to palliate his crime, and is imprisoned — but 
the duellist may kill his neighbour in cold blood, or with bitter 
malice, and the sword of justice sleeps in its scabbard. 

The government of every country is the source of the protec- 
tion, peace and happiness of its inhabitants ; a blessing, therefore, 
which cannot be estimated. But without obedience to its laws, no 
government can continue for a moment ; and he who violates, and 
continues to violate them, contributes wilfully to its destruction. 
The laws of our country, and of every civilized country, forbid duel- 
ling, and forbid it under severe penalties ; but the practical advo- 
cate of this system deliberately and openly attacks the law, loosens 
the ties of society, and makes an open war upon his fellow-citizens. 
He takes the decision of his controversies out of the hands of the 
public, and constitutes himself sole judge ; wrests the sword of 
justice from the magistrate, and substitutes for it the murderous 
weapon which he wields at his pleasure : thus declaring, that laws 
and trials, judges and juries, are nothing to him ; that the pistol is 
his law, and the seconds his jury. Now all have the same rights 
as he has, and if they were to claim and exercise them, what 
awful consequences would ensue ! Every controversy would be 
terminated by arms, and a war would everywhere spread, the most 
frightful that could be conceived ; a war involving friends, neigh- 
bours, fathers, sons, brothers ; a continual war, in which the 
peaceable inhabitants of our country would be changed into wild 
and furious maniacs. It is surprising, that with this view of the 
subject, those who make our laws should countenance a practice 
which, if universally adopted, would ruin every country, destroy 
all peace, and blast every hope. 

There is peculiar injustice in duelling in a free country like 
ours; for it tends directly and powerfully to the destruction of 
civil liberty. Here is a government of laws made by the people, 
for the protection of their life, property, and character. Every 
man conforming to these laws is entitled to the peaceable enjoy- 
ment of life and all its privileges; and no one has a right to inter- 
rupt this enjoyment, or to tempt another to renounce this protec- 

1855.] Duelling. 297 

tion. But this is a privilege which duellists arrogate to them- 
selves. The man who refuses a challenge is branded by them with 
infamy, and exposed to insult, for no other reason than because he 
submits to the laws of his country, and is therefore a good citizen. 
Is this liberty, or is it despotism ? 

Equal laws, so essential to civil liberty, are far from satisfying 
the claims of these men. They contemn the protection which 
they afford to them, in common with others — they must have more, 
a right to decide upon their own grievances — for them and for 
their reputation, these laws are entirely insufficient. Is this 
liberty ? No ! it is a blow at the vitals of all civil freedom. 

Many apologies, we know, are made for this practice : but they 
will all be found weak and frivolous. 

III. Duelling is utterly inexcusable. 

It has been said that " it is reputable in public opinion." But 
who is this public whose opinion is thus appealed to ? Is it the 
mass of our citizens ; those that constitute the strength, virtue, 
and glory of the nation ? No ! the generality of men in our 
country justify not the practice ; the great body of the people 
abhor and denounce it as weak, wicked, and pernicious. Are they 
the unquestionably wise and good ? An appeal to facts answers 
no ! They are that little class of duellists that by its own voice is 
magnifying itself into the splendid character of the public. They 
pronounce it reputable ; they only uphold the bloody practice ; 
and their opinion they deem of far greater consequence than the 
opinions and feelings of the great mass of the people ; they are 
the public, and their opinion is public opinion. 

But it is said : "it is dishonourable not to give a challenge zvhen 
affronted, or to refuse one when sent. A sense of shame cannot 
be endured ; to live in infamy cannot be tolerated." But only, as 
we have already observed, is it dishonourable, except among a very 
few ; a small, pugnacious class, constituting not more than one in 
a thousand of our citizens. But the suffering of which these men 
complain, and which cannot be endured, is nothing less than the 
anguish of wounded pride. Should that passion be gratified at 
the expense of murder ? 

But the infamy of refusing a challenge is greatly magnified. 
Let the man be produced, in any part of the country, who has, 
from principle, done it, and who has been pursued by public repro- 
bation. In how many instances where it has been received, has 
the acceptance been, not the theme of commendation and praise, 
but the subject of regret and censure. In how many instances 
would the refusal have elevated the man in the estimation of the 
wise and good ; and who in guarding his reputation, would covet 
more ? The esteem of such men is valuable ; and it is merited 
and gained, not by fighting a duel, but by wisdom and virtue. 

It is said again : " the practice prevents many injuries that would 
otherivise occur ; it leads men in their intercourse with each other, 

298 Duelling. [July. 

to be more circumspect in conduct, and more careful not to offend.'" 
That in some instances, and among some men, the dread of being 
thus called to account may operate as a restraint, we are free to 
acknowledge. But it must be admitted by all impartial persons, 
that very few are prevented by this practice from doing injuries. 
On the contrary, we believe that aifronts are often given merely to 
create opportunities for fighting ; and thus to acquire, what these 
men call glory. 

Besides, circumstances which are so slight as to be ordinarily 
disregarded, are frequently, by this practice, magnified into gross 
insults. Nay, imaginary and unintended injuries will, under the 
dominion of such pride and passion as duelling generates, be con- 
strued into serious abuses : and satisfaction may be demanded with 
such imperiousness as to preclude all attempt at reparation on the 
part of the innocent offender. Such instances have often occurred, 
and terminated in the destruction of life. Thus, injuries, instead 
of being lessened, are incalculably multiplied by the system. 
Look at our National Councils ! Have more disgraceful scenes 
ever been presented in that body than for a few years past, when 
duelling was openly advocated, and when the members engaged in 
it with impunity, without receiving even a withering rebuke. 

It is further said that " a duel is regarded as an exhibition of 
courage, and is an evidence of bravery." 

In nothing is the duellist more in error than when he supposes 
that the public regards his rencounter as a test of courage — it con- 
siders it a meeting of mere personal jealousy and hatred ; alto- 
gether a private quarrel, where noble sentiments yield to bitter per- 
sonalities, and where passion triumphs over reason. 

"It is an evidence of bravery.'" This is a term which implies 
virtue or the want of it, as we consider the cause in which it is 
exerted, and the end which it has in view. If it be employed in 
a cause which is rational, just, and useful ; in resolutely combating 
a real evil that should be opposed, then it is a virtue. But is this 
the cause in which the duellist is engaged ? He is a brave man — 
so is the burglar ; so is the highwayman ; so is the pirate. They 
arc all brave — they brave the laws of their country ; the opinion 
of the good ; the punishment of men ; the wrath of God. 

" He is truly valiant who can wisely suffer 
The worst that man can breathe, 

in resisting the torrent of public opinion, when it bears away with 
its violence everything good and virtuous. He is truly brave who 
nobly disdains to give or receive a challenge, because he believes 
it hostile to man's happiness — he who, when solicited, asks, "is it 
right '( is it consistent with the laws of my country? is it agreeable to 
the Divine will ? is it useful to mankind ':" and who when he receives 
an answer in the negative, stands upon the rock of his integrity, 
and undauntedly opposes the sentiment of others, because it is 

1855.] Duelling. 299 

false and ruinous. He is truly a man of courage, of stern in- 
tegrity, and real decision, who can thus act ; declaring boldly that 
public opinion alters not the nature of moral principles, or moral 

Milton has represented such a one in the character of Abdiel, 
■who firmly resolved to stand alone, rather than fall with multitudes. 

"Abdiel faithful found 
Among the faithless ; faithful only he ; 
Among innumerable false, unmoved, 
Unshaken, unseduced, unterrified. 
His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal ; 
Nor number, nor example with him wrought 
To swerve from truth, or change his constant mind 
Though single." 

There have been a few such instances with regard to duelling, 
whose characters have descended to us, encircled with glory. 
None will dispute the courage of the excellent Col. Gardiner, who 
was slain at the battle of Preston Pans, in the rebellion of 1745. 
Yet he refused a challenge, with this dignified remark : " I fear 
sinning, though I do not fear fighting." And when another illus- 
trious commander received a similar invitation, he calmly answered 
the bearer : " Go, and tell your friend, that if he is weai-y of life, 
there are other ways to death besides the point of my sword." 
By such acts they showed that they were gallant and discreet men 
who deserved a Civic Crown, such a reward as was assigned by the 
ancient Romans to those soldiers who rescued a fellow-citizen from 
impending death. Of all the medals which were struck in honour 
of Louis XIV., king of France, none gave him such true renown 
as that which commemorated his successful edicts on this subject ; 
on which was inscribed, "for abolishing the impious practice of 

But those who have not had the courage to carry their principles 
on this subject into action, are worthy of our pity. They dared 
not assert their own rights, and encounter the affected derision of 
a few unreasonable men ; they evinced a want of manly and dig- 
nified independence, and of that courage which sustains itself upon 
the righteousness of its cause, deep conviction, and individual pur- 
pose ; they exhibited a reluctant submission and slavish subjection 
to a custom which reason declares to be irrational and pernicious. 
General Hamilton, as he told the ministers of the Gospel who 
visited him after he was wounded ; as he himself tells us in the 
papers which he left, was in principle opposed to duelling ; and 
yet notwithstanding the long decisions of his understanding, the 
principles of his conscience, and the reluctance of his heart, 
accepted the challenge. With all his greatness, that was his 
weakness ; with all his virtues, that was his error ; with all his 
courage, that was his cowardice ; with all his glory, that was the 
blot which stains the laurels that encircle the soldier, the patriot, 

300 Duelling. [July. 

and the statesman. No ! it is no evidence of courage to fight a 
duel. A coward has often fought — a coward has often conquered 
— but a coward can never forgive. 

IV. Duelling is aavfully wicked. 

It is the entire renunciation of a forgiving spirit. Whatever 
these "men of honour" say, there is something noble and heroic 
in that forgiveness of an enemy which Christianity enjoins ; that 
imitation of the Divine goodness ; that highest perfection that 
human nature can attain. But this forgiving temper and all these 
humane dispositions of a kindly nature are the derision of the 
duellist ; in his mind they are associated with weakness and pusil- 
lanimity ; in his view, the man who possesses them is destitute of 
spirit, independence, and manly character. These qualities he 
entirely discards from the catalogue of virtues. 

Duelling is the exercise of revenge, cold, deliberate revenge. 
For an affront, often an offence lighter than air, the duellist, 
actuated by jealousy and pride, demands satisfaction. The spirit 
of retaliation possessed and nourished in his heart gathers strength, 
till it obtains an ascendancy over his better feelings, and incites 
him to visit the object of his displeasure with the most terrible 
evil in his power. Revenge, then, is the basis of the contest ; 
revenge for a supposed affront, for wounded pride, for disappointed 
ambition, for frustrated schemes. This goads him to the field ; 
directs the fatal aim ; and gloomily smiles over the prostrated victim. 

By the wicked exposure of his own life to destruction, the 
duellist is guilty of suicide — a crime the most unnatural and 
horrid ; which extinguishes the principle of self-preservation that 
is implanted within us; which violates the most sacred trust that 
can be committed to mortals. If he fall, he rushes before the bar 
of God, not only with the design of shedding the blood of his 
fellow-man, but stained with the guilt of self-murder. 

lie wantonly and criminally violates the duties which he owes to 
his fellow-men. His country has claims upon him, invites his 
services, and requires him to practise virtues becoming the situa- 
tion in which he moves. He deserts her, renounces her claims, 
and either seeks a voluntary departure in an ignominious grave, 
or deprives her of the life ami services of one or more of her 
citizens. Is he a husband? He has broken the pledges which he 
made to his wife at the altar of God ; when he received her from 
parents whose hearts were bound up in her happiness; when he 
VOWed to love and protect her ; to minister to her wants ; to alle- 
viate her sorrows; and never to desert her. He brutally violates 
the marriage covenant by throwing away his life, and abandoning 
her to sorrow and want; or by returning to her from the combat, 
crimsoned with blood. Is he a son ? Instead of honouring his 
father and mother, exercising towards them filial reverence, and 
giving them a rich reward for all their toil and suffering, by dutiful 
and virtuous conduct, he causes their rising hopes to bo set in 

1855.] Duelling. 301 

blood, and forces them almost to wish that he had never been born. 
All these, and other relative duties, he deliberately violates ; all 
these and other kindred he cruelly plunges into the abyss of 

More than this — the duellist is a murderer. " Murder," says 
Blackstone, " is committed when a person of sound memory and 
discretion killeth any reasonable being with malice aforethought, 
either express or implied. Express malice is when one, with a 
sedate, deliberate mind, and formed design, doth kill another. 
This takes in the case of deliberate duelling, where the parties 
meet avowedly with an intent to murder ; thinking it their duty as 
gentlemen, and claiming it as their right, to wanton with their own 
lives and those of their fellow-creatures, without any warrant or 
authority from any power, either divine or human, but in direct 
contradiction to the laws of God and man ; and therefore the law 
has justly fixed the crime and punishment of murder on them and 
on their seconds also."* 

And God has said : " If a man smite his neighbour with an instru- 
ment, so that he die, he is a murderer." The laws of our States 
have spoken on this subject, in accordance with Scripture, and 
declare that the taking away of life, in a duel, is murder, and that 
the punishment is death. 

But is it wilful murder ? Can anything be more deliberate ? 
The challenge is coolly written, sent, and accepted; the necessary 
preparation is made for days and weeks before ; and for what ? to 
kill a fellow-being. And if the duellist, in these circumstances, 
destroy his adversary, he is a murderer, by the decision of common 
sense; by the decision of the civil law; by the decision of God. 
He intentionally takes away the life of another ; does it from per- 
sonal hostility ; does it under circumstances of peculiar delibera- 
tion. Were it done in the heat of instant passion, in the sudden 
ebullition of unreflecting anger, it might assume the semblance of 
extenuation ; but it has not even this slight palliation. 

" But is he," it may be asked, "a murderer, if death be not the 
consequence of the fighting ?" The death of the victim, we know, 
is necessary to justify the infliction of the penalty in its full extent. 
But is a crime never committed until it becomes so palpable that 
the law can take hold of it? The duellist professes the principles 
of murder, and tells you that if occasion offer, and his skill be suf- 
ficient, he will murder; he goes to the field of combat for that 
purpose, and aims the deadly weapon ; and if through want of 
skill only, he fails to kill his victim, is he therefore not a mur- 
derer ? Is the assassin, because the thrust of his poniard is not 
deadly, therefore not an assassin ? 

Yes ! the duellist is a murderer, not like the wild savage and 
prowling Arab, who were never taught better ; who were born in 
blood, and educated to slaughter ; but a murderer living in a 
Christian land, bearing the name and enjoying the advantages of 

* Blackstone, IV. 199. 

302 Duelling. [July. 

Christianity ; educated in the mansion of knowledge, humanity, and 
civilized refinement ; and who, after freeing himself from all these 
restraints, rushes to the field to destroy his friend. He is a mur- 
derer, under circumstances the most aggravating. Could the grave 
speak, it would tell of horrors which no heart can endure; it would 
recount the numbers that by this sanguinary practice have been 
hurried to an untimely grave ; it would tell of youth, and genius, 
and exalted worth, which have in this manner been suddenly 
quenched forever. 

But those on whom the grave has untimely closed are not the 
only sufferers ; there are living witnesses of these brutal cruelties, 
whose very souls bleed with anguish. Enter the mansion made 
by this demon sorrowful and desolate. Yesterday, hope and hap- 
piness and joy were there — but affrighted, they have all fled. 
Approach with noiseless steps, not to speak, but silently to view 
the heart-rending scene. Yonder lies extended a ghastly corpse, 
ready to be the tenant of the grave, cut off in the bloom of life, 
amidst all the vigour of manhood. And that venerable man who 
is wrung with agony is the father who begat him — and that 
matron, whose heart is withered and desolate, is the mother 
who bore him — both tearless, and fixed in motionless sorrow. 
Yesterday that son was their delight and comfort, and the staff of 
their declining years, to whom they looked to lighten the cares of 
their old age, and to close their dying eyes. But he was cut off 
by the duellist in the flower of his youth ; in the dreadful act of 
sin ; without even a moment's space of repentance — a remem- 
brance which envenoms the little life that remains to them, and 
"brings down their gray hairs with sorrow to the grave." If not 
satisfied with such a scene of suffering, approach another habi- 
tation ; enter the door reluctantly opening to receive even the 
nearest relative ; turn thine eye upon that miserable form — it is a 
female — see her eyes rolling with frenzy, her frame quivering 
with agony, and reason almost ready to desert its throne. Yes- 
terday she was a wife; now her name is tvidoiv. Yesterday the 
husband of her youth lived to love and bless her; now no more 
remains of him but the body, pale in death, and weltering in 
blood, brought to her from the field of combat. There are others 
there — mark them — mark the helpless children that cling to her. 
Yesterday they had a father, who provided for their support and 
education ; they hung upon his knees to receive his embraces and 
enjoy his blessing — but now the sound of father is no more heard 
in the mansion. Thy hand, ! thou man of honour, thou fortu- 
nate and glorious champion, thy hand has done it all; thy hand 
has made Eer desolate, and the children fatherless; thy hand has 
robbed them of their support, their protector, their guide, their 
solace, their hope. He affronted thee, and this is the terrible ex- 
piation ; in this manner thy revenge has been satiated. 

The duellist is a murderer ; his conscience tells him so when he 
has laid his adversary prostrate in death. lie may escape the 

1855.] Young Men and the Ministry. 303 

civil law ; may not be arrested, convicted, executed ; but he cannot 
escape the torture of an agonized mind. He may not be punished 
by man ; but conscience, faithful in the performance of its duty, 
will pursue, and overtake him; plead with him face to face, up- 
braid him with murder, and cause the cry of blood to be often in 
his ears, and the mangled body of the victim of his revenge to be 
present to his view. Under these intolerable scourges, he will 
quail, and beg for mercy, and be the most arrant coward that ever 
trembled. But no mercy will be shown him. The spectre of his 
murdered companion will haunt him by day and by night ; spread 
before his eye the bloody shroud ; point him to the wailing circle 
of bereaved affection, and tell him of another meeting that shall 
take place at the bar of God. "The spirit of a man may sustain 
his infirmity, but a spirit wounded" by remorse, " who can bear it ?" 
Though duelling is the violation of every law, human and 
divine ; though it .is the violation of the law of instinct, which 
involuntarily impels every animal to seek self-preservation ; though 
it is the breach of the law of reason, which engages us to resign 
life to none but its rightful owner ; though it is the breach of the 
law of Revelation, which commands us to guard our lives as the 
image of God, and declares the unnecessary exposure of them to 
be treason against the majesty of Heaven ; though it is wilful and 
deliberate murder ; yet it is astonishing that there are so many 
apologists and half-apologists for the crime. There is a mournful 
obtuseness of public sentiment on this subject ; a lamentable con- 
nivance at a crime which, more than any other, bids defiance to 
the laws of God and man. It is a great national sin, for no coun- 
try on earth is so cursed in this respect as ours ; almost our whole 
land is defiled with blood; and not unfrequently the work of deso- 
lation is performed by men chosen to make our laws — appointed 
the guardians of our life and liberty. On the very floor of Con- 
gress, challenges are threatened and almost given ; and its mem- 
bers, even during its session, brave the laws of their country, and 
hurl with defiance the murderous weapon. The intelligence and 
virtue of our nation have been trampledon, and our boasted inde- 
pendence, morality, and religion, have been degraded and dis- 
graced in the eyes of other nations. S. K. K. 



The prophet Isaiah, as we learn from Isa. 6 : 1-8, had a re- 
markable vision of Jehovah's glory. He saw the "Lord sitting 

* Being the substance of a sermon, delivered on the 22d of Feb'y, 1855, to one of 
the churches of Western North Carolina. 

304 Young Men and the Ministry. [July. 

upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. 
Above it stood the seraphim ; each one had six wings ; with twain 
he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with 
twain he did fly. And one cried unto another and said, Holy, 
holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts ; the whole earth is full of his 
"lory." As well he might be, the prophet was greatly dismayed, 
and said : " Woe is me, for I am undone ; because I am a man of 
unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips ; 
for mine eyes have seen the king, the Lord of hosts." Imme- 
diately he was encouraged by one of the seraphim, who flew unto 
him having a live coal in his hand from off the altar, which he laid 
upon his mouth, and said : " Lo, this hath touched thy lips, and 
thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin is purged." Then adds 
the prophet, " Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom 
shall I send, and who will go for us ? Then said I, Here am I, 
send me." 

The inquiry is very natural, why was this incident of sacred 
history placed on the inspired record? It must have been, not 
only for transmission, but for instruction and direction. God still 
governs the world, accomplishes his purposes, and builds up his 
spiritual kingdom by human instrumentality ; if not by the agency 
of men endowed with the gift of prophecy, as in the days of 
Isaiah, yet by the agency of ministers of the Gospel, whom he 
denominates angels of the covenant, as well as by the agency of 
other labourers in the Gospel vineyard, whom he calls and sends 
forth as messengers to the churches and to mankind. The manner 
in which men are noio called and sent into the Gospel vineyard, is 
not by visions and voice, as in the case of Isaiah, but by both re- 
vealed and providential indications of the divine will, equally clear 
and imperative. 

An appeal may be made specially and solemnly, to all young 
men that are members of the Christian church, as having surren- 
dered and dedicated themselves to the Lord, in the two following 
particulars, viz. : 

1. God speaks to you distinctly and emphatically, and says : 
" Whom shall I send, and who will go for us ?" The form of the 
appeal is peculiarly impressive, as proceeding from each person of 
the Trinity: " Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?" It 
is more than intimated, moreover, that God sends, as labourers 
into his vineyard, none but such as arc willing to go. 

The inquiry was, indeed, addressed at first directly to Isaiah, 
with a view to his becoming a prophet. But who will say that it 
was intended exclusively for him? that it is not addressed equally 
to every pious young man, who reads the sacred page ? Why else is 
it said that, "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is 
profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in 
righteousness?" Who can doubt that many of the young men of the 
church arc pursuing or looking to wrong professions, and are under- 
valuing the Gospel ministry, or arc cherishing wrong views and 

1855.] Young Men and the Ministry. 805 

feelings in regard to it ? And when God addresses them, as He 
does in the language before quoted, and says, "Whom shall I send 
and who will go for us," does He not intend to reprove them, to 
correct them, to instruct them, and thus to bring them to right 
views, and feelings, and actions, touching their avocation for life ? 
Then, let all pious young men listen most devoutly to God, when 
He says, " Whom shall I send, and who will go for us ?" 

But there are many other passages of Scripture, the bearing of 
which is in the same direction. Notice the following, as addressed 
to all Christians : " Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel 
to every creature. Go ye therefore and teach all nations, &c. Go, 
work in my vineyard ; why stand ye here all the day idle ? To do 
good, and to communicate, forget not. Whatsoever ye do, whether 
ye eat or drink, do all to the glory of God," &c. Taking these 
passages in the true spirit, and remembering that we are most 
sacredly bound, having been bought with a price, not to live unto 
ourselves, but unto Him who died for us ; what young man, of in- 
telligent and controlling piety, can say, without misgiving, that 
God does not speak to him, when He says, " Whom shall I send, 
and who will go for us ?" 

But God often speaks to men, as distinctly and impressively by 
his providence as by revelation. And here, it may be asked with 
emphasis, was there ever such a loud call, such a pressing need, 
under the providence of God, for ministers of the Gospel, for men 
to go abroad with the messages of salvation, as at the present time ? 
The cry, the importunate cry for ministerial work, influence, talent, 
and agency; — for ministers, both to preach and to teach, to be 
missionaries foreign and domestic, to be pastors or stated supplies, 
to be chaplains, professors in theological seminaries, or presidents 
and professors in colleges, &c, &c, comes to us upon the wings of 
every breeze, and from every point of the compass. Once, and 
that not long since, millions of our race were utterly shut out from 
the Gospel. It is widely different now. Under the providence of 
God, the door of almost the entire world is thrown wide open to 
the Gospel of reconciliation. The urgent cry now is, Come over 
and help us, send us ministers, missionaries, Bible translators, 
Bible agents, colporteurs, &c. For the dark desolations of Africa, 
the numerous missionary fields of India, the hundreds of thousands 
of Asia, the millions of China ; for the Jews, the Mohammedans, 
the Armenians, the Greeks, the Romans, and the endless variety of 
infidels of the Eastern world ; a host of Christian ministers and re- 
ligious teachers are, at this moment, most piteously and pressingly 
demanded. Surely, God is saying to every young man whose 
heart beats in unison with the spirit of the Gospel, " Whom shall I 
send, and w T ho will go for us?" 

But, coming nearer home, not to speak of South America and 
New Mexico, on our borders, with the numerous islands east 
and west, that are teeming with immortal souls, which are actually 

VOL. v. — NO. 7. 20 

306 Young Men and the Ministry. [July. 

perishing for lack of the bread of life ; just glance at the new 
States and territories on our frontiers, with all their extent of do- 
main, filling up with immense crowds of both native and emigrant 
settlers; and mark not only the need, but the overwhelming de- 
mand for ministers of the Gospel and other evangelical labourers ; 
and who can be so deaf as not to hear the call of God, in His 
providence, saying : " Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?" 
And then, the fact, that in the older States, great multitudes of 
crowded cities, growing villages, wide-spread missionary fields, and 
multiplying vacant churches, are all crying most importunately for 
ministers of the Gospel, must fasten the conclusion upon every 
mind, that God, in his providence, is saying to our pious youth, 
4< Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?" 

In view, moreover, of the humiliating fact, as ascertained from 
the last statistical return, that within the bounds of our Church, 
there are not less than 700 vacant churches to be furnished with 
pastors, besides numerous locations which are not only inviting 
but imploring missionary labour, the same call of providence is 
heard, only the more affecting and thrilling by reason of the 
heavy losses which death and removals have produced, "Whom 
shall I send, and who will go for us ?" 

Before dismissing this part of the subject, every pious young 
man is most earnestly requested to give a prayerful consideration 
to the following direct questions, viz. : 

Is it not both your privilege and solemn duty to do the most 
you can to glorify God ? And may you not do this most effec- 
tually by devoting yourself, after due preparation, to direct efforts 
to build up the kingdom of Jesus Christ ? If so, then does not 
God speak to youmost pointedly and emphatically, saying, " Whom 
shall I send, and who will go for us ?" Again, when you entered 
into solemn covenant with God, in consummating your church con- 
nections, did you not unreservedly surrender and dedicate your- 
self to him and to his service? And if so, are you not specially 
called upon, in both the providence and word of God, to give an 
intelligent and a conscientious answer to the question, " Whom 
shall I send, and who will go for us?" 

2. Young men of the Christian Church — it is of immense im- 
portance that you make out your answer to the foregoing question. 
Duly consider it; let it be definite in form, and satisfactory in its 
character. Isaiah, though thought by some to have descended 
from the royal family of Judah, was doubtless a man of like pas- 
sions with other men. He was a man, moreover, of talents and 
learning, and probably of wealth and distinction. Nevertheless, 
when called to minister in divine things, or rather when the oppor- 
tunity was offered him to do so, he answered promptly and defi- 
nitely: "Mere <nn l.x,nd »u." Young men, do you give the 
same answer? Or, do you evade this momentous question, taking 
it for granted, without consideration or prayer, that you are to 
pursue your own devices, or to spend your lifo in secular nvoca- 

1855.] Young Men and the Ministry. 307 

tions ? I appeal to you, individually : What is your well-consi- 
dered answer? Do you reply, "I am not qualified to go?" 
Then, I ask, what qualifications do you lack ? Are you deficient 
in mental capacity, being unable to acquire knowledge; or in the 
powers of speech, so as to be unable to communicate what you 
know? If so truly, or if your bodily health or physical constitu- 
tion be materially impaired Or radically deficient, you cannot an- 
swer as Isaiah answered. But if you labour under no natural or 
physical disability — if the lack of knowledge and elocutionary 
training be your only disqualifications, these can be acquired. No 
doubt, Isaiah, as all other men, even Moses, the great lawgiver 
and deliverer of Israel, in some measure had to acquire them. 

Do you say, in answer to this, " I have not the means of going 
through the long and expensive course of requisite training ?" 
This is no valid reason or excuse for your not going in obedience 
to the divine call. For, the requisite means are placed within 
your reach. The Church feels that it is both her privilege and 
her duty to educate her sons for the service of her Divine and 
glorious Head. 

Again, when the question is pressed, you reply : " I would like 
to go — I would like to be a minister of the Gospel — but I am too 
unworthy to think of so elevated, so sacred, so responsible an 
office." In reply, it maybe asked, " Who is worthy? whoever 
was, or ever thought himself to be worthy?" Those vfeo'feel 
their unworthiness in the highest degree, as a general rule, are 
those whom God chooses to send. To feel otherwise than unwor- 
thy, would be proof satisfactory of utter disqualification. 

Do you say, in further excusing yourself, " My piety is of too 
low a grade ; my feelings do not incline and draw me strong 
enough to the sacred office, to justify my seeking of it?" In 
reply to this, let it be asked : Did you not, in your first love, 
feel heartily willing, yea, strongly desirous to engage in the direct 
service of God? Did you not desire and seek to be instrumental 
in the conversion of sinners ? Were you not then willing to be any- 
thing, to go anywhere, and to make any sacrifice for Christ's sake ? 
Why is it otherwise now? It may be that you have judged 
rightly — that your piety is of too low a grade — that your feelings 
have become too worldly. But is this a valid excuse, or is it an 
aggravation of your guilt ? If you have too little piety, too little 
love and zeal for Christ to obey him, so as to go wherever and 
whenever he sends or bids you, have you enough to be saved ? I 
trow not. Mark the words of Christ : " If any man come to me, 
and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and 
brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my 
disciple. And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after 
me, cannot be my disciple." Luke 14 : 26, 27. 

Besides, is not prompt obedience to God, the giving of ourselves 
up entirely to his control and guidance, the very best way to grow 

308 "Friend of God," or, the Excellency of [July. 

in piety ? Can we do so in any other way ? Indeed, is it either 
reasonable or Scriptural to expect now the grace, or the measure 
of piety, which we shall need years hence, when we shall be ac- 
tually engaged in the work of the ministry ? God nowhere pro- 
mises to give grace in advance ; but for each successive day, or 
trial, or duty, as it may be needed. His promise is, "My grace is 
sufficient for thee ; for my strength is made perfect in weakness." 
It is our duty to trust Him, and do His biddings. 

The question, however, addressed to all the young men of the 
Church, is still heard issuing from the throne of God : " Whom 
shall I send, and who will go for us?" And again it is asked, 
what is your answer ? The salvation of many souls, and the 
glory of the Divine Redeemer, it may be, are deeply involved in 
your answer to it. What is that answer? Is it, in conduct, if 
not in words : " Others may go ; as for me, I cannot go : I must 
attend to my farm, my merchandize, my medical or legal profes- 
sion, &c." If, then, the love of the world — the desire to amass its 
wealth and honours, or to live at your ease, or if the fear of 
reproach hath predominated and determined your course — "how 
dwelleth the love of God in you?" Let every young man consider 
well and pray much, before he decides in this way ; let him take 
very special care, lest, when he shall be weighed in the balances of 
the sanctuary, he be found wanting; lest, his declining to go at the 
call of his Maker, prove more disastrous than even Jonah's refusal 
to go to Nineveh. 

But, do you answer in the spirit of meekness and humility, of 
docile and prompt obedience, confiding in the wisdom and grace of 
Him who calls you, as did Isaiah, "Here, Lord, am I, send me." 
Then arc you willing to go whithersoever and whensoever Christ 
chooses to send you. 

I beseech every youth, who professes to be a follower of Jesus 
Christ, to give to him a definite answer, after solemn and prayer- 
ful consideration, to the oft-repeated and closing question, "Whom 
shall I send, and who will go for us?" D. A. P. 


Continued from pn^e 260. 

We observed in a former number that God had other friends on 
earth besides Abraham, and that their friendship was constituted 
and strengthened by the same means as his was, viz. : faith in 
Christ, succeeded by a devout and holy life. We proceed now to 
notice some of these examples of faith and friendship with God, as 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 309 

recorded in the Holy Scriptures. A long catalogue is given by 
the Apostle Paul, in the 11th chapter of Hebrews, and special 
notice is taken of those acts of faith by which their names were 
rendered illustrious. In some of those examples the faith which 
is celebrated seems to have been miraculous, which kind of faith 
was sometimes granted for special purposes, without the bestowment 
of saving grace. Thus, Paul says in another place, " Though I 
have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not 
charity, I am nothing ;" implying that this species of faith may 
exist without love to God. But most of the instances referred to 
in that chapter (as is evident from the description he gives of 
them), were men of genuine evangelical faith in Christ. It is, 
therefore, pertinent to our present discussion, to place before the 
reader such of these examples, and a few others recorded else- 
where, as show that before and after Abraham's time saving faith 
was always the same in its nature, produced the same excellent 
fruits, and was accompanied or followed by the most desirable and 
glorious rewards. 


" By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than 
Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God 
testifying of his gifts ; and by it, he being dead, yet speaketh." 
This statement indicates that the radical difference between Abel 
and Cain was, that the former possessed faith in the Messiah, and 
the latter did not, and that this difference was manifested on the 
occasion referred to, by the offering of different kinds of sacrifices. 
Animals only and their death and consumption on the altar, as a 
sin-offering, not the fruits of the ground, were appointed by God 
to prefigure the Saviour and his atoning death. But Cain had no 
faith in this atonement, and hence brought an offering of a different 
kind. In some public manner not recorded in Scripture, God ex- 
pressed his approbation of Abel and his offering, but to Cain and 
his offering he had not respect. He thus revealed to mankind, at 
that early period, that no sinner could approach him acceptably, 
without faith in the Redeemer. This lesson Paul teaches was de- 
signed to be permanent, reaching down to his own time. " By it, 
he being dead, yet speaketh;" i. e., the Divine testimony that he 
was righteous, that his gifts were accepted, spake, and it has been 
speaking from that day to this, to the effect that " we have redemp- 
tion only through Christ's blood," and that whatever else we believe, 
unless we "believe on the Lord Jesus Christ," we are under con- 


The record of Enoch's piety is brief but comprehensive. " He 
walked with God;" which, as Paul intimates, was equivalent to 

-310 "Friend of God" or, the Excellency of [July. 

saying, " He pleased God ;" and he argues from this that he pos- 
sessed faith, because " without faith it is impossible to please him." 
His faith, like Abel's, rested for its object upon Christ. This is 
implied in " believing God to be a rewardcr of them that diligently 
seek him." He can reward holy angels irrespective of a Mediator, 
but not sinful men. But though this is implied, the prominent 
idea here is, that his faith was devout. It moved him to worship 
God, to draw near to him, and to hold intimate communion with 
him. The words indicate an elevated tone of religious feeling, an 
order of piety which was peculiarly acceptable to God. And he 
accordingly bestowed upon him a glorious reward. " He was 
translated, that he should not see death." Having " walked with 
God three hundred years," he arose like the morning star, which 
disappears amidst the splendor of the rising sun. He had often 
ascended into the Divine presence on wings of faith ; he was now 
borne on angels' wings to be forever with the Lord. 


Concerning Noah the Apostle says, " By faith, Ncah being 
warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, pre- 
pared an ark, to the saving of his house ; by the which he con- 
demned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is 
by faith." The command of God that he should build an ark, 
was predicated upon his purpose to destroy the world by a deluge. 
This purpose was revealed to Noah. He believed it, and his faith 
influenced him to a prompt and cheerful obedience. " According 
to all that God commanded him, so did he." Though it required 
more than a hundred years to accomplish the work, during which 
period there were no visible signs of the approaching calamity, 
Noah's faith in the reality of the Divine threatening, and the 
means required for his preservation, exerted a practical influence 
upon his mind, both to nerve his arms in persevering and long- 
continued toil, and to open his mouth in earnest and solemn warn- 
ing to his unbelieving and ungodly neighbors. " He was a 
preacher of righteousness." Though no saving benefit appears to 
have resulted to them from his ministry, himself and family and 
also their descendants, were great gainers by the course he pur- 
sued. God not only saved him and his house and made him the 
father of the post-diluvian world, but transmitted through him to 
succeeding ages those rich spiritual blessings which were enjoyed 
by believers before the flood. With reference to this, as we under- 
stand Paul's language, he "became heir of the righteousness 
which is by faith." He was the connecting link between tho 
church in which righteous Abel and Enoch were honoured mem- 
bers, mid the same church in a more advanced state in the time of 
Abraham and the other patriarchs. 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 311 


It is remarkable that the name of Sarah should be recorded by 
Paul among those who were illustrious for their faith, because 
according to the Mosaic history she was rebuked for her unbelief 
with regard to the very promise alluded to by the Apostle, viz. : 
the birth of Isaac. The solution, however, is not difficult, and it 
affords great encouragement for weak and trembling believers to 
endeavor to obtain a victory over their doubts, and to have their 
feeble faith made strong and vigorous. When the promise was 
first made, Sarah's faith was far inferior to that of Abraham, who 
" staggered not at the promise through unbelief." She doubted, 
and manifested her doubt by a laugh, for which the angel admin- 
istered a gentle rebuke. But she soon overcame her doubts, and 
thus shared in the honour bestowed in Scripture on her venerated 
husband, " because she judged him faithful who has promised." 

Isaac has sometimes been called Sarah's laughter, because the 
name Isaac signifies laughter. He did not receive this name, 
however, as a rebuke for her laugh of incredulity when she felt 
that the blessing promised was too improbable to be believed, but 
as a commendation of one of the excellent fruits of faith, in en- 
abling her to subdue her incipient unbelief, and to exercise sub- 
sequently to this unwavering confidence in God's promise. Said 
she, " God hath made me to laugh, and all that hear will laugh 
with me." She was made happy, not merely in embracing a son, 
but a son highly honoured of God in being a progenitor of the 
Messiah. This honour was not concealed from her. The promise 
to Abraham was, " In Isaac shall thy seed be called." And as he 
through the sacrifice of Isaac as a type, "saw Christ's day and was 
glad," so it is reasonable to conclude that Sarah also enjoyed some 
pleasing anticipation of new covenant blessings, as secured to her 
descendants by the birth of Isaac. This was the reward of her 
faith, and produced the most pleasing and joyful emotions. 


Believers, in all ages, have been men of prayer. Every Bible 
reader is familiar with the prayer of Jacob, who wrestled with the 
angel of the covenant till the dawn of day, and then refused to 
let him go till he obtained a blessing ; and with the prayer of 
Moses, whose supplication to God procured victory to the army of 
Israel, when fighting against Amalek. Samuel, in like manner, 
performed the part of an intercessor for the people. On one occa- 
sion, as the Philistines drew near to battle against Israel, he cried 
unto the Lord, and a terrible storm of thunder was sent from 
heaven,' and discomfited them, a memorial of which, in the Ebenezer 
which he erected, has furnished the material for grateful praise in 

312 " Friend of God,'" or, the Excellency of [July. 

the church of God from that day to this. The prayers of those 
saints possessed several important characteristics ; but one thing 
was common to them all, and was essential to their success, viz., 
faith, "without which it is impossible to please God." 

The prayer of Elijah is particularly referred to, by the Apostle 
James, for the purpose of illustrating the prayer of faith. In 
the first part of his epistle, he says, that a man who lacks faith 
in prayer, " shall not receive anything of the Lord." Our faith, 
however, must not lie dormant in the heart, but be in earnest and 
vigorous exercise. This is what he means by saying, " The effec- 
tual, fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much." As an 
example of this, he adduces the prayer of Elijah, who first caused 
the rain to cease from the territory of the king of Israel for three 
years and six months, and at the end of that time " prayed again, 
and the heavens gave rain." Daniel offered prayers for the resto- 
ration of the captive Jews in Babylon, and while he was yet 
speaking, an angel was sent to assure him that his prayer was 
answered. In the New Testament, the leper, the centurion, and 
the woman of Canaan, to mention no others, are signal instances 
of the prayer of faith, and of the success which followed their peti- 
tions. In what did their faith consist? and how were their prayers 
answered ? 

1. They possessed that faith in Christ which made them friends 
of God. 

2. In offering their prayers, they believed either that the iden- 
tical blessing asked for would be granted, or that if God, in his 
infinite wisdom, should withhold it, he would virtually answer their 
prayers, by bestowing some equivalent of equal or greater value 
than that particular good which they had in their minds. Faith 
in prayer does not imply a knowledge to discern, in all cases, what 
is most fit for us to receive, or for God to bestow. Hence, it defers 
to the Divine will, and is satisfied with what may accord with this, 
both as to the blessing itself, and the time and manner of be- 
stowing it. This is what we understand by the prayer of faith. 

3. Accordingly God answers prayer, sometimes by granting 
immediately the very thing asked for ; at others, by granting it 
after a trial of our faith by delay ; and at others again, by be- 
stowing other favours more suited to our good than those asked for. 
In all of these ways prayer receives a real and substantial answer, 
and the faith of the suppliant is truly and beneficially rewarded. 


Few persons in public stations have been more severely tried by 
the ingratitude, instability, and pervcrsencss of the people over 
whom they were called to rule, than Moses and David. And few 
have endured these trials with more meekness and forbearance. 
To be patient under provocations is one of the fruits of faith. 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 313 

Hence faith and patience are associated together ; the former is 
the germ and support of the latter. See Heb. 6 : 12. In the lives 
of those illustrious men, frequent opportunities were afforded for 
the exercise of this grace. At the Red Sea, at Mount Sinai, and 
at various times in the wilderness, Moses was severely tried, and 
in every instance, with a single exception, he honoured himself, his 
religion, and his God, by a patient endurance of these trials. In 
the case of David, though the prophet Samuel, acting under divine 
direction, crowned him king at an early age, he forbore to ascend 
the throne until the death of Saul, and he would have no agency 
in bringing about that event, though Saul was twice brought com- 
pletely within his power, and according to common usage he would 
have been justified in taking his life. In several instances after- 
ward, the same patient reliance upon Divine Providence led him to 
adopt a similar course. He acted with great promptitude and 
energy when duty required. He was not a tardy, inefficient prince. 
But his faith in God produced a remarkable degree of moderation 
and delay, when the results he hoped for could not be attained 
without pursuing a course which his conscience did not approve. 
" After he had patiently endured, he inherited the promises." 
Closely allied to this is the power of faith to sustain and comfort 
under tribulations, which is worthy also of special notice. 


After enumerating the benefits of faith in various aspects, the 
Apostle proceeds to say, " And others were tortured, not accepting 
deliverance; that they might obtain a better resurrection; and 
others had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover 
of bonds and imprisonment : they were stoned, they were sawn 
asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword ; they wandered 
about in sheepskins and goatskins ; being destitute, afflicted, tor- 
mented (of whom the world was not worthy) ; they wandered in 
deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth." 
To this list may be added a whole army of Christian martyrs, who 
have stood up with heroic faith as witnesses for the truth, and who, 
in the midst of excruciating sufferings, were not only firm and un- 
yielding, but calm and happy, "glorying in tribulations," yea, 
"rejoicing with joy unspeakable and full of glory." Faith has a 
sustaining power because it leads the soul to lean on Christ, the 
believer's friend and Saviour, whose heavenly sympathy is extended 
to him in time of trouble, and because it secures the Holy Spirit, 
whose special office as a Comforter is to pour balm into the 
wounded hearts of God's afflicted and suffering people. Hence, 
those holy men, though cruelly persecuted, were far from being 
miserable, because they were sustained by an almighty arm, and 
comforted by Divine consolation. One step further in the same 
train of thought, will show the crowning excellence of this grace, 

314 "Friend of God," or, the Excellency of [Jul J. 

viz., a life of faith and holiness, terminating in a peaceful and 
triumphant death. 


The Apostle Paul, looking back on a life of victorious faith, and 
forward to its final victory over his last enemy, and his triumphant 
entry into the world of glory, writes thus, " I have fought a good 
fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith. Hence- 
forth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the 
Lord, the righteous Judge, *will give meat that day, and not to me 
only, but to all those that love his appearing." Death and the 
grave stood between him and that crown, but through faith he 
could say, " death ! where is thy sting ; grave, where is thy 
victory ? The sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the 
law; but thanks be to God, who giveth us the victory through our 
Lord Jesus Christ." This victory consisted, first, in removing 
from his mind the fear of death ; further, in the escape of his 
superior nature, the soul, from the power of this destroyer, the 
body alone becoming its victim ; and finally, in the assured hope 
of the glorious resurrection of his body, by which event he would 
be delivered from the last vestige of the old man of sin, and 
become a perfect mirror to reflect the image of the glorified 
humanity of his Divine Lord. And such, he added, is the privi- 
lege of " all who love Christ's appearing." The same faith which 
he had, has lighted up the path of the dying believer, thousands 
and millions of times since Paul's day, and will continue to do so, 
until the last enemy itself shall be destroyed, and "wc shall 
reign in life by one Jesus Christ." 

The proper improvement of all this is furnished by the Apostle, 
in the following words: "Seeing we also are compassed about with 
so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and 
the sin" [unbelief] " which doth so easily beset us, and let us run 
with patience the race that is set before us. Looking unto Jesus, 
the author and finisher of our faith ; who, for the joy that was 
set before him, endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set 
down at the right hand of the throne of God." In this important 
passage, wc have the true secret of holy living. It begins by 
faith in Christ, which is the instrument both of our justification and 
spiritual life. This faith must be cherished, strengthened, ma- 
tured ; and everything which stands opposed to it must be laid 
aside, and, if possible, avoided. Our faith must also be practical, 
earnest, active ; impelling us forward to the diligent performance 
of every Christian duty, like a man running a race. 

To aid and encourage us we are to look to Christ from day to 
day as "the author and finisher of our faith." He is its source 
and support, its chief model, and its final completion. Though an 
example for us to imitate, he is much more than this. Our 

1855.] Faith and a Holy Life. 815 

strength to live such a life must be sought from him. We must 
frequently seek his assistance. We must rely upon his grace. 
" The life which I live in the flesh," says Paul, "I live by the faith of 
the Son of God," i. e., by a faith which not only rested upon him, 
but was nourished and sustained by his Spirit. It did not originate 
with the Apostle, nor was it kept alive by him, except as he em- 
ployed the appropriate means for its preservation. Christ Avas the 
Alpha and Omega of his spiritual life, and of the faith by which it 
was sustained. And the same is true of every believer. Accord- 
ingly, our first duty is to direct the eye of our faith continually 
towards him. Then as an encouraging motive to animate us in 
running the Christian race, we are invited to mark his life of suf- 
ferings, and the cheerfulness with which he endured them, and also 
their glorious termination in the enjoyment of his Mediatorial 
honours. The force of this motive is derived from the fact that if 
we are partakers with him in his sufferings, we shall share with 
him in his glory. " If we suffer with him, that we may be also 
glorified together." "That the trial of your faith being much 
more precious than of gold, Avhich perisheth, though it be tried with 
fire, may be found unto praise, and honour, and glory at the ap- 
pearing of Jesus Christ." " To him that overcometh, will I grant 
to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set 
down with my Father in his throne." Such blessed prospects as 
these are an ample compensation for all the toils, self-denials, and 
persecutions which Christians are ever called to endure on earth. 
Let us be animated by them in our walk of faith, " not counting 
even our lives dear unto us, if we may finish our course with joy, 
and the ministry" (whatever it may be) " which we have received 
of the Lord;" " always abounding in the work of the Lord, foras- 
much as we know that our labour is not in vain in the Lord." 

J. w. 


Millions of tiny rain-drops 

Are falling all around ; 
They're dancing on the house-tops, 

They're hiding in the ground. 

They are fairy-like musicians, 
With anything for heysj 

Beating tunes upon the windows, 
Keeping time upon the trees. 

A light and airy treble 

They play upon the stream, 

And the melody enchants us 
Like the music of a dream. 

316 " Feed my Lambs" [July. 

A deeper bass is sounding 

Where they're dropping into caves, 

With a tenor from the zephyr, 
And an alto from the waves. 

Oh 'tis a shower of music, 

And Robin don't intrude, 
If, when the rain is weary, 

He drops an interlude. 

It seems as if the warbling 

Of the birds in all the bowers 
Had been gathered into rain drops, 

And was coming down in showers. 

The blossoms all are bathing 

In the liquid melody, 
Breathing thanks in sweetest odours, 

Looking up into the sky. 


Jknaeljolit ^jjniigjjtfl* 


So said the Saviour; and this command is binding on the 
Church and her officers, upon all Christians everywhere. The 
lambs are a part of the fold, the Church. 

" The universal Church consists of all those persons in every 
nation, together with their children, who make profession of the 
holy religion of Christ, and of submission to his laws." 

" A particular church consists of a number of professing Chris- 
tians, with their offspring, voluntarily associated together for 
divine worship and godly living, agreeably to the Holy Scriptures, 
and submitting to a certain form of government." 

Children, then, arc members of the Church ; they arc the lambs 
of the flock, and as such they are to be fed, i. e., taught and 
governed, trained up. And this their parents promise to do at 
their baptism. See Form of Government, chap. 2 ; and the Di- 
rectory for Worship, chap. 7. The Church is the mother of her 
children, the lambs, and she requires, through her officers, a promise 
from the parents when they offer their children for baptism, that 
they will train up their children aright; and then she commits 
them to their parents to be thus trained ; and the officers of the 

1855.] " Feed my Lambs." 317 

Church are to see that the parents faithfully discharge their duties. 
This promise is contained in the Directory for Worship, chap. 7, 
sec. 4, and is well M T orthy of careful study. There is much in it 
relating to personal and family instruction, reading, the principles 
of religion, its doctrines and duties, the Confession of Faith, and 
the Catechism, the Bible, prayer, family worship, a holy example, 
and "all the means of God's appointment to bring up their chil- 
dren in the nurture and admonition of the Lord." Just turn to 
the book, and read and study this promise. 

Family religion and family instruction, such as this promise con- 
templates, have been the glory of the Presbyterian Church. They 
should be still ; but there is reason to fear they are now too much 
neglected, at least in some places. Let church officers see to this, 
and thus care for and feed the lambs. 

If children are members of the Church — lambs of the flock of 
Christ — and if " all the means of God's appointment" are to be 
used in bringing them up in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord, then they should attend the meetings of the Church, especially 
should they attend the Prayer Meetings and the preparatory services 
which precede the communion. They are not to come to the com- 
munion table until they give evidence of religion, and have been 
"examined as to their knowledge and piety," (Directory for .Wor- 
ship, chap. 9, sec. 3,) but they should attend on these preparatory 
occasions, as among the "means of God's appointment" for their 
godly nurture. But how few of our children are seen at our Prepa- 
ratory Lectures ! How few of the lambs are with the sheep, when 
all should be together to be fed ! Why is this ? Does the Church 
feel no interest in her children ? Do parents feel no interest in 
them ? Feed my lambs, says the Good Shepherd. 

This is a matter demanding the attention of parents and church 
officers, and of all Christians. The children of the Church should 
attend the prayer meetings and weekly lectures, as well as the 
house of God on the Sabbath. All the baptized children — the 
children of the church — the lambs, should be present at the Pre- 
paratory Lectures ; and these services should be in a manner 
adapted to the state and wants of both parents and children. 
Great good would result from the attendance of the children on 
these occasions. It would encourage pastors ; and the exercises 
might be blest to the conversion of the young. It would get them 
into the habit of attending, and in after-life they would not seek 
an excuse to stay away, as too many church members now do. 
Besides, it would acquaint them with our ways, and make them 
intelligent adherents to the church of their fathers. Let this sub- 
ject be thought of and attended to. It is a serious and important 
matter. Parents, think of it. Ministers, Elders, Deacons, think 
of it. Let all think of it. And bring the children to the Pre- 
paratory Lectures. Yes, bring the children — all the children, 
large and small, to the Preparatory Lectures. Let them be planted 

318 A Father's Pity. [July. 

and grow up in the house of the Lord. Let them flourish in the 
courts of our God. Ps. 92 : 13, 14. Feed the lambs ; yes, " feed 
my lambs." John 21 : 15. 

W. J. M. 


As a mother loves, so does God love his children ; he will never 
forget or neglect them. Isa. 49 : 15. And like as a father pitieth 
his children, so the Lord pitieth them that fear him. Ps. 103 : 13. 

Now a father does not so pity his children as to give them every- 
thing they want. He may see that the very thing they desire 
would be an injury to them. So God may see it good for us to 
withhold what we most set our hearts upon. 

Nor does a father so pity his children as to withhold correction 
from them. He may see that their good requires the use of the 
rod. So God, in faithfulness, may correct. Ps. 119 : 75. "What 
son is he whom the father chasteneth not ? If ye be without 
chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and 
not sons. Heb. 12 : 7, 8. 

A father pities the ignorance of his children, and teaches them. 
He learns them to take care of themselves, and tries to make them 
wise. So God teaches his children — them that fear him — by his 
word and spirit, and by his servants and his providence. 

A father pities the weakness of his children, and helps them. 
They are helpless — they have no strength ; they bear on their 
father's arm, and he helps them, lifts them up, bears them along, 
and sustains them. So God's children are weak and helpless. 
Their Father in heaven gives them strength, and his grace is suffi- 
cient. 2 Cor. 12 : 9. lie pities their feebleness; for he knoweth 
our frame ; he remcmbereth that we are dust. Ps. 103 : 14. 

A father pities the sufferings of his children, and comforts them. 
He can enter into all their little trials and perplexities, and speak 
words of encouragement and comfort. So God knows our trials, 
sympathizes with them, and comforts us in all our sorrows. 

A father pities the necessities of his children, and provides for 
them. So the Lord knows our wants ; and he supplies them of 
his infinite fulness. 

A father pities the tint and infirmities of his children, and for- 
gives them. Others may censure and condemn; but he can over- 
look and forgive. So God forgives his children, and never wit